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Ketogenic Substances

Potentiation Of Liver And Kidney Injury By Ketones And Ketogenic Substances

Potentiation Of Liver And Kidney Injury By Ketones And Ketogenic Substances

KEYWORDS Liver injury, kidney injury, chemical potentiation, ketones, haloalkanes, chlordecone, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride. ABSTRACT Various facets of the potentiation of haloalkane-induced liver and kidney injury by ketones or ketogenic chemicals have been pursued in mice and rats. Chlordecone pretreatment produces a lateral shift in the dose-response curve for CHCl3 hepatotoxicity. With acetone, a threshold dosage for potentiation is observed. The peak blood concentration values of acetone correlate well with the degree of potentiation, whereas area-under-curve values are less satisfactory. Increasing the chain-length of a series of ketones (3 to 7 carbons) results in enhanced potentiation. The time interval between pretreatment and haloalkane challenge during which potentiation occurs is lengthened with the following compounds: acetone < methyl ethyl ketone < methyl n-butyl ketone < 2,5-hexanedione. Chlordecone and acetone potentiate the liver injury induced by some brominated methane derivatives. Cholestatic, as well as necrogenic, liver injury can be potentiated. Acetone, methyl n-butyl ketone, 2,5-hexanedione, n-hexane and chlordecone can potentiate the nephrotoxic effect of CHCl3. Increasing the chain-length of a series of ketones (3 to 7 carbons) results in enhanced potentiation. 14CHCl3 binding data in liver indicate that increased bioactivation plays an important role in the potentiation due to chlordecone, but other mechanisms may be involved. Continue reading >>

Special Diets For Epilepsy

Special Diets For Epilepsy

When the body burns (metabolizes) fat, it creates substances called ketones. The ketogenic diet tries to force the body to use more fat for energy instead of sugar (glucose) by increasing fat and restricting carbohydrates. The ketogenic diet can be used to prevent seizures in an adult or a child who has any type of epilepsy. It is not yet clear how or why the ketogenic diet prevents or reduces seizures. One version of the ketogenic diet provides 4 grams of fat for every 1 gram of protein and carbohydrate together. People on a ketogenic diet have to eat mostly fatty foods, such as butter, cream, and peanut butter. Foods such as bread, pasta, fruits, and vegetables have to be severely limited. And the person's total calories are also restricted. At every meal, the food has to be measured carefully so that the right amounts of each food are given. Even a slight departure from the diet can cancel its effect. The ketogenic diet is very strict and can be hard for some people and families to follow. Other special diets for epilepsy that are less strict may also be tried. A person usually has to fast the day and night before starting the diet. The diet is gradually introduced over several days, so that the body can get used to the dramatic change. The person may feel tired and lack energy during the first few days. Children are usually admitted to a hospital or epilepsy center when they start the diet. There, the child can be watched and parents and caregivers can get training on how to do the diet at home. The ketogenic diet should always be given under the supervision of a doctor and a dietitian. When it works, the ketogenic diet works quickly to reduce seizures. People usually start having fewer seizures in 2 to 3 weeks. In 2 to 3 months you will be able to tell how well it Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet is one of the oldest treatments for epilepsy, especially in children with difficult-to-control seizures. It’s a special high-fat, low carbohydrate diet recommended for children whose seizures have not responded to treatment with traditional anticonvulsant medications alone. A high level of carbohydrate intake can be correlated to the lack of seizure control and dietary modifications to reduce the intake of high carbohydrate substances is a cornerstone of the ketogenic diet. In addition to dietary changes and monitoring nutritional intake, compounded medications that conform to the ketogenic diet can be taken to increase the diet’s effectiveness in controlling seizures. They are an excellent alternative to commercially manufactured medications because they contain no sugar or sorbitol and are carb free. Contemporary pharmacy compounding is the process of preparing customized medications for individual patients. We formulate compound medications that fit the dietary and nutritional requirements of a ketogenic diet by using the raw chemical, rather than the commercially available drug. Commercially available tablet and liquid forms of medication may contain lactose and other carbs which reduce the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in controlling seizures. We recommend liquid medications rather than crushing tablets and dissolving them in a liquid. Particles of the crushed tablet may not dissolve completely and there is a risk of clogging a feeding tube. Many commercially available liquids do not clog the feeding tube, but are not sugar or carb free. The ingredients used in specially compounded liquid medicines comply with the guidelines of the ketogenic diet. A compounding pharmacist, working closely with your child’s pediatrician can prescribe m Continue reading >>

Substance

Substance

(redirected from ketogenic substance) Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia. Substance Essence; the material or necessary component of something. A matter of substance, as distinguished from a matter of form, with respect to pleadings, affidavits, indictments, and other legal instruments, entails the essential sufficiency, validity, or merits of the instrument, as opposed to its method or style. substance (Essential nature), noun actuality, basis, body, content, core, drift, essence, essential part, force, gist, heart, hypostasis, idea, import, marrow, material, meaning, pith, principle, purport, reality, res, sense, significance, signification, soul, sum, tenor, vital part substance (Material possessions), noun assets, command of money, corpus, estate, fortune, income, means, money, ownership, property, resources, revenue, riches, treasure, wealth, wherewithalSee also: amount, article, body, bulk, capsule, center, composition, connotation, consequence, construction, content, contents, contour, cornerstone, corpus, element, essence, gist, gravamen, import, importance, main point, materiality, meaning, money, object, point, possessions, property, purpose, quantity, reality, shape, significance, signification, spirit, structure, sum, value SUBSTANCE, evidence. That which is essential; it is used in opposition to form. 2. It is a general rule, that on any issue it is sufficient to prove the substance of the issue. For example, in a case where the defendant pleaded payment of the principal sum and all interest due, and it appeared in evidence that a gross sum was paid, not amounting to the full interest, but accepted by the plaintiff as full payment, the proof was held to be sufficient. 2 Str. 690; 1 Phil. Ev. 161. Continue reading >>

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keto All you need to know about the keto diet The ketogenic diet has grown to become extremely popular over the last few years. It's ideal for those of you that are looking to lose a considerable amount of weight. This diet is basically a very low carb, high fat diet. It has very many similarities to the Atkins diet whereby, when on this diet, your body mostly gets it's calories from proteins and fat and not from carbohydrates. What makes the this diet so special is that it changes how your body feels and most importantly how your body uses energy placing you into a state known as ketosis. This is actually where all the magic begins to happen. In this state your body starts to utilize substances known as ketone bodies which are produced by the breakdown of your body fats. Your body loves glucose and if it has that on hand it's going to use that first for energy. In this diet the amount of carbohydrates goes down which in turn will lead to less production of glucose. High levels of glucose production is generally what makes you fat. Without it the body will begin to start breaking down your body fat and this is when you start to get leaner. The way that the keto diet gets your body to lose weight is by keeping insulin levels low. Insulin is a fat storage hormone that is released to help shuttle energy from the food you eat into your cells. This diet is known to be one of the best ways, besides fasting of course, to drop your insulin levels lower and low insulin is what is usually associated with fat loss. However, there is a misconception out there that your insulin will only go up with carbs. Protein can also spike your insulin levels and if you eat enough fats in one sitting, especially the wrong type of fats like trans fats, then that can spike your insulin levels as Continue reading >>

Clinical Aspects Of The Ketogenic Diet.

Clinical Aspects Of The Ketogenic Diet.

Abstract The ketogenic diet remains a valuable therapeutic option for patients with intractable epilepsy. Clinical aspects of the diet's success may provide insights into epileptogenesis and anticonvulsant action. The diet's efficacy has been established primarily through large case series. The diet has been used successfully in patients with many different epilepsy syndromes in countries around the world. Potential adverse effects can be avoided with careful attention during the diet's initiation and maintenance phases. In the last decade, variations to the classical ketogenic diet have been utilized. Ketogenic diets now are being used for diseases other than epilepsy. This critical analysis of the diet should provide the impetus for further clinical and basic research into the diet's application and mechanisms of action. Continue reading >>

Special Diets For Epilepsy

Special Diets For Epilepsy

Treatment Overview When the body burns (metabolizes) fat, it creates substances called ketones. The ketogenic diet tries to force the body to use more fat for energy instead of sugar (glucose) by increasing fat and restricting carbohydrates. The ketogenic diet can be used to prevent seizures in an adult or a child who has any type of epilepsy. It is not yet clear how or why the ketogenic diet prevents or reduces seizures. One version of the ketogenic diet provides 4 grams of fat for every 1 gram of protein and carbohydrate together. People on a ketogenic diet have to eat mostly fatty foods, such as butter, cream, and peanut butter. Foods such as bread, pasta, fruits, and vegetables have to be severely limited. And the person's total calories are also restricted. At every meal, the food has to be measured carefully so that the right amounts of each food are given. Even a slight departure from the diet can cancel its effect. If you are thinking about the ketogenic diet, keep in mind: For the diet to prevent seizures, your child has to follow it exactly. The amounts and types of foods eaten have to be measured precisely. And preparing meals can take a lot of time. The diet does not work for some children, no matter how closely they follow it. The ketogenic diet is very strict and can be hard for some people and families to follow. Other special diets for epilepsy that are less strict may also be tried. The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet. People on this diet take an oil supplement instead of relying on food for the fat in the diet. This can make the diet easier, because less total fat is needed from food and the person can eat more protein and carbohydrates. The modified Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. The modified Atkin Continue reading >>

Preventing Seizures With The Ketogenic Diet

Preventing Seizures With The Ketogenic Diet

Since the 1920s, doctors have known that a special diet may help control epilepsy seizures in children who don't respond to drug treatments. It’s called a ketogenic diet because it produces substances known as ketones in the urine, a sign that the body is burning fat. In fact, many of the metabolic changes associated with this epilepsy diet are similar to those that occur during starvation. No one knows why a diet like this controls seizures, but numerous studies have documented its effectiveness. Treating Seizures With the Ketogenic Diet Today, experts may recommend the ketogenic diet for children who have tried at least two kinds of medication without success, have had intolerable medication side effects, or have seizures that are very frequent or severe. For children who do not respond to other epilepsy treatments, “it’s worthwhile to try,” says Jacqueline French, MD, a professor of neurology at New York University School of Medicine in New York City. About two-thirds of those who try the ketogenic diet improve noticeably or even become seizure-free. Children who start the diet while taking medication usually must stay on the drugs, at least initially, although there is the possibility that they can reduce the dosage once the diet starts to have an effect. Eventually, some children can discontinue their epilepsy medication completely. Ketogenic Diet Specifics Basically, 80 to 90 percent of the calories in the diet come from high-fat foods, with protein making up most of the remaining calories, and a very small amount from carbohydrates. Total calories are restricted to about 75 percent of the recommended daily allowance for the patient’s age group. Before starting the ketogenic diet, the child fasts for 24 hours in the hospital under medical supervision. Th Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

Ketosis Fundamentals

Ketosis Fundamentals

What is ketosis? Ketosis is the physiological state where the concentration of ketone bodies in the blood is higher than normal. This is generally agreed to be at beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations greater than 0.5 mM. How to achieve ketosis? Ketosis occurs either as a result of increased fat oxidation, whilst fasting or following a strict ketosis diet plan (ENDOGENOUS ketosis), or after consuming a ketone supplement (EXOGENOUS ketosis). When in a state of ketosis the body can use ketones to provide a fuel for cellular respiration instead of its usual substrates: carbohydrate, fat or protein. Why does ketosis exist? Normally, the body breaks down carbohydrates, fat, and (sometimes) proteins to provide energy. When carbohydrate is consumed in the diet, some is used immediately to maintain blood glucose levels, and the rest is stored. The hormone that signals to cells to store carbohydrate is insulin. The liver stores carbohydrate as glycogen, this is broken down and released between meals to keep blood glucose levels constant. Muscles also store glycogen, when broken down this provides fuel for exercise. Most cells in the body can switch readily between using carbohydrates and fat as fuel. Fuel used depends on substrate availability, on the energy demands of the cell and other neural and hormonal signals. The brain is different as it is dependent on carbohydrates as a fuel source. This is because fats cannot easily cross the blood-brain barrier. The inability to make use of energy within fat poses a problem during periods where there is limited carbohydrate in the diet. If blood glucose levels fall to low, brain function declines. Relatively little energy is stored as carbohydrate (2,000 kCal) compared to fat (150,000 kCal). The body's store of carbohydrates runs Continue reading >>

Special Diets For Epilepsy

Special Diets For Epilepsy

Treatment Overview When the body burns (metabolizes) fat, it creates substances called ketones. The ketogenic diet tries to force the body to use more fat for energy instead of sugar (glucose) by increasing fat and restricting carbohydrates. The ketogenic diet can be used to prevent seizures in an adult or a child who has any type of epilepsy. It is not yet clear how or why the ketogenic diet prevents or reduces seizures. One version of the ketogenic diet provides 4 grams of fat for every 1 gram of protein and carbohydrate together. People on a ketogenic diet have to eat mostly fatty foods, such as butter, cream, and peanut butter. Foods such as bread, pasta, fruits, and vegetables have to be severely limited. And the person's total calories are also restricted. At every meal, the food has to be measured carefully so that the right amounts of each food are given. Even a slight departure from the diet can cancel its effect. If you are thinking about the ketogenic diet, keep in mind: For the diet to prevent seizures, your child has to follow it exactly. The amounts and types of foods eaten have to be measured precisely. And preparing meals can take a lot of time. The diet does not work for some children, no matter how closely they follow it. The ketogenic diet is very strict and can be hard for some people and families to follow. Other special diets for epilepsy that are less strict may also be tried. The medium chain triglyceride (MCT) diet. People on this diet take an oil supplement instead of relying on food for the fat in the diet. This can make the diet easier, because less total fat is needed from food and the person can eat more protein and carbohydrates. The modified Atkins diet. The Atkins diet is known as a high-protein, low-carbohydrate diet. The modified Atkin Continue reading >>

Worldwide Use Of The Ketogenic Diet.

Worldwide Use Of The Ketogenic Diet.

Abstract PURPOSE: Over the past decade, the use of the ketogenic diet internationally has increased dramatically. The purpose of this survey was to evaluate the use of the diet worldwide. METHODS: With the use of the Internet, e-mail requests for information about international ketogenic diet centers (outside the United States) were made over a 9-month period. Assistance also was obtained from the Child Neurology Society and International League Against Epilepsy. Questions included patient enrollment (total and annually), year the diet was first offered, unique cultural and religious issues in the country, community opinion, and research interests. RESULTS: Successful communication was made with 73 academic centers in 41 countries outside the United States. Sixteen (39%) countries provided information from multiple centers. The median duration offering the diet was 8 years (range, 1-45 years). The average number of patients enrolled to date was 71.6 per country, with 5.4 new patients annually. Common difficulties included avoiding rice intake, tolerating higher fat-to-protein and carbohydrate ratios (e.g., 4:1), finding specific nutritional labels on foods, and handling the growing interest from large populations with limited resources. Nevertheless, cultural and religious issues were generally not limiting; physician and patient acceptance of the diet as an option is high; and most meals were similar among countries. Centers often had great pride in their programs, and international collaborative groups are forming rapidly. A website is now available with updated center information at CONCLUSIONS: Despite occasional difficulties, the ketogenic diet is being used worldwide. Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet (keto Diet): Pros And Cons Of Following This Diet

Ketogenic Diet (keto Diet): Pros And Cons Of Following This Diet

Fad diets have now become a trend, thanks to their quick weight loss theories that have made them popular. One of the most talked about fad diets is thd Ketogenic diet which focuses on a high fat, low carb and moderate protein intake that puts your body in a state of ketosis. Basically, when your diet is lacking in carbs but is high in fat, your liver creates ketones that are substances made when the body breaks down fat for energy. This process of ketosis then metabolizes fat to provide energy, which means that you are burning fat, as opposed to carbs; resulting in some amount of weight loss as your body is in the fat burning process. Ketogenic diet may be the newest diet trend doing rounds, but it has its own impact on a person following the diet- be it good or bad. Here are some pros and cons of following the Keto diet that you must know about. Potential Advantages of the Keto Diet 1. Blood sugar balance According to an animal based study, ketogenic diet may help boost cognitive performance for animals; however, more studies are being done in order to get a clearer outcome. 2. Supports gut health Many who suffer from digestive issues may have an added advantage by following the keto diet. Increased fat intake can sometimes boost bowel movement. 3. Healthy response to inflammation Ketosis may actually help in reducing inflammation in the body and make the process smoother and further helps in soothing discomfort. 4. Stabilizes energy levels Fats are a readily available source of energy; so once someone is fat-adapted and in ketosis, they can stay full for longer and still have pumped up energy levels. Potential Disadvantages of the Keto Diet The transition from a normal to a keto diet may not be as smooth as expected and may result in unsettling side effects. When you Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

This article is about a dietary therapy for epilepsy. For information on ketogenic diets as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss, see Low-carbohydrate diet and No-carbohydrate diet. The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, adequate-protein, low-carbohydrate diet that in medicine is used primarily to treat difficult-to-control (refractory) epilepsy in children. The diet forces the body to burn fats rather than carbohydrates. Normally, the carbohydrates contained in food are converted into glucose, which is then transported around the body and is particularly important in fueling brain-function. However, if there is very little carbohydrate in the diet, the liver converts fat into fatty acids and ketone bodies. The ketone bodies pass into the brain and replace glucose as an energy source. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the frequency of epileptic seizures.[1] Almost half of children, and young people, with epilepsy who have tried some form of this diet saw the number of seizures drop by at least half, and the effect persists even after discontinuing the diet.[2] There is some evidence that adults with epilepsy may benefit from the diet, and that a less strict regimen, such as a modified Atkins diet, is similarly effective.[1] The most common adverse effect is constipation, affecting about 30% of patients—this was due to fluid restriction, which was once a feature of the diet, but this led to increased risk of kidney stones, and is no longer considered beneficial.[2][3] The original therapeutic diet for paediatric epilepsy provides just enough protein for body growth and repair, and sufficient calories[Note 1] to maintain the correct weight for age and height. The classic therapeutic ketogenic diet was develope Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

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