Paleo, Low Carb And Keto - Which Is Best?
Filed under: athletes, athletic performance, carbohydrates, carbs, ketogenic, leaky gut, lifestyle, lifestyle advice, low carb, Paleo, research, tips Share Tweet Pin it Fancy Add Carbohydrates are a hot topic in the Paleo world. Although not strictly defined as such, the relatively low-carbohydrate nature of the Paleo diet provides a plethora of health benefits. The question of how many carbohydrates your Paleo diet should include for optimal health is often raised. The answer depends on many things including your gender, health status, stress level, activity level and your goals. Some find greater benefits from going very low-carb in order to create and maintain a state of ketosis. Ketosis can occur as a transient adaptation to a low-carb Paleo diet but to stay in this state for any length of time, both carbohydrates and protein need to be tightly controlled. So What Exactly is a Ketogenic Diet? The Ketogenic diet is by definition a low-carb, moderate protein; high fat diet that often needs to be very low carb to achieve its purpose of burning fat for energy through the creation of ketones. Protein intake is moderate in order to prevent gluconeogenesis, the process of turning non-carbohydrate substrate such as amino acids into glucose. When these conditions are met, fat rather than glucose becomes the preferred energy source and ketones are formed as a by-product. Stored fat, dietary fat and ketones are all used in this metabolic system for energy production. Paleolithic people depended on ketosis for survival in times of food scarcity. Conversely, modern humans have harnessed it for weight reduction in an era of food over-abundance. The carbohydrate threshold for ketosis varies between individuals however for most people; reducing carbohydrate consumption to below 50 Continue reading >>
What Is The Ketogenic Diet And Should You Give It A Go?
Ninety years ago, researchers developed a diet that was an effective method for helping epileptic children. Today, that same diet has become a popular weight-loss diet. That diet is the ketogenic diet, and it was the 5th most Googled diet of 2013. Since that time, its popularity has only increased as the weight loss world talks more and more about the success of high fat, low carb diets. So, what is the ketogenic diet and how is it different from low carb and Paleo diets? Most importantly, does it actually work? Is a Ketogenic Diet Effective for Weight Loss? The general idea of a ketogenic diet is to eat foods that are low in carbs, moderate in protein, and high in quality fats. Doing this helps your body go into nutritional ketosis, which allows you to burn fat and ketones (produced from the breakdown of fat) instead of glucose for energy. The exact reason why this results in weight loss is still being debated, but several studies have now concluded that a ketogenic diet is effective for weight loss. And more recent studies (like this one) are currently underway, examining the potential health benefits of a ketogenic diet for those with Type 2 diabetes. In the end, as Chris Kelly of Nourish Balance Thrive suggests, the biggest reason why a ketogenic diet is so great for weight loss is most likely easy appetite suppression. Eating low carb and high fat foods means that you’re less likely to have sugar cravings and more likely to get full faster. That means you’ll generally eat less without trying. How is a Ketogenic Diet Different than a Low Carb or Paleo Diet? Honestly, it really depends. For example, let’s say that you eat a diet that contains no dairy, no legumes, and no grains. Let’s also say that your diet ensures that you’re generally in ketosis. In that Continue reading >>
Can A Ketogenic Diet Help Us Live 10 Years Longer?
We’ve all been programmed by the media and academia to believe that eating a high-fat diet is bad. We still have countless jokes scattered throughout pop culture about how someone eating bacon is basically the equivalent of Russian Roulette. However, what if reality were more like Woody Allen’s movie Sleeper. He wakes up in a 21st century where what they thought was health food is now bad for you. Hence, let’s explore the idea of whether eating fat is healthy and whether the ketogenic diet reduces or adds years to your life. What Is a Ketogenic Diet? To understand a ketogenic diet, it’s important to know how the body burns fuel for energy. The body-fuel sources include carbohydrates, protein, and fat. When we consume more carbohydrates, which turn to sugar (glucose or fructose) in the body, than our body can properly metabolize (or burn for energy), the liver will turn the extra sugar into fat and then secrete that fat into the bloodstream in the form of triglycerides. Triglycerides are then stored in our fat cells to be used for energy later. When our diet chronically consists of high-carb, high-sugar foods—the standard American diet today—those triglycerides go unused as more continue to be stored. More importantly, the carbs cause excessive insulin secretion which blocks natural fat burning processes. All of this causes a variety of metabolic-syndrome issues, such as weight gain (particularly with fat accumulation around the midsection), high triglycerides and blood pressure, chronic inflammation, and certain diseases. People in the high-carb, high-sugar boat are likely burning sugar as their primary fuel. This sounds like a good deal, right? Unfortunately, no. If your body’s primary source of energy is carbs and sugar, it’s missing out on its optimal Continue reading >>
A Comprehensive Beginner's Guide
What is a Keto Diet? A keto diet is well known for being a low carb diet, where the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy. It’s referred to as many different names – ketogenic diet, low carb diet, low carb high fat (LCHF), etc. When you eat something high in carbs, your body will produce glucose and insulin. Glucose is the easiest molecule for your body to convert and use as energy so that it will be chosen over any other energy source. Insulin is produced to process the glucose in your bloodstream by taking it around the body. Since the glucose is being used as a primary energy, your fats are not needed and are therefore stored. Typically on a normal, higher carbohydrate diet, the body will use glucose as the main form of energy. By lowering the intake of carbs, the body is induced into a state known as ketosis. Ketosis is a natural process the body initiates to help us survive when food intake is low. During this state, we produce ketones, which are produced from the breakdown of fats in the liver. The end goal of a properly maintained keto diet is to force your body into this metabolic state. We don’t do this through starvation of calories but starvation of carbohydrates. Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it – when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. Optimal ketone levels offer many health, weight loss, physical and mental performance benefits. Make keto simple and easy by checking out our 30 Day Meal Plan. Get meal plans, shopping lists, and much more with our Keto Academy Program. Looking for Something Specific? There are numerous benefits that come with being on keto: from weight loss and increased energy levels to therapeutic medical appl Continue reading >>
New Study Favors Fat Over Carbs
Here you will find an index of the latest scientific studies on the ketogenic diet which support the therapeutic benefits of ketogenic diets, their safety long term and efficacy in treating obesity, diabetes type 2, epilepsy, lowering cholesterol and heart disease prevention among others. "High carbohydrate intake is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and high fat intake with a lower risk, researchers report. An international team of scientists studied diet and mortality in 135,335 people between 35 and 70 years old in 18 countries, following them for an average of more than seven years. Diet information depended on self-reports, and the scientists controlled for factors including age, sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. The study is in The Lancet. Compared with people who ate the lowest 20 percent of carbohydrates, those who ate the highest 20 percent had a 28 percent increased risk of dying earlier. But high carbohydrate intake was not associated with cardiovascular death. People with the highest 20 percent in total fat intake — an average of 35.3 percent of calories from fat — had about a 23 percent reduced risk of death compared with the lowest 20 percent (an average of 10.6 percent of calories from fat). Consuming higher saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat were all associated with lower mortality. Higher fat diets were also associated with a lower risk of stroke." But the latest research, presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, in Barcelona found those with low intake of saturated fat raised chances of early death by 13 per cent compared to those eating plenty. And consuming high levels of all fats cut mortality by up to 23 per cent. The Canadian study tracked eating patterns and death rates acr Continue reading >>
What Is The Ketogenic Diet?
The ketogenic diet has been in existence for 90 years The ketogenic diet was designed in 1924 by Dr. Russell Wilder at the Mayo Clinic. Despite being highly effective in treating epilepsy, it fell out of fashion due to the surge in new anti-seizure medications in the 1940s. In 1994 Charlie Abraham’s family started The Charlie Foundation after his complete recovery from daily seizures despite trying all available anti-seizure medications and enduring a futile brain surgery. Charlie started the diet as a toddler and remained on it for 5 years. He is now a college student and remains seizure-free. Ketosis is the unique feature The diet is high in fat, supplies adequate protein and is low in carbohydrates. This combination changes the way energy is used in the body. Fat is converted in the liver into fatty acids and ketone bodies. Another effect of the diet is that it lowers glucose levels and improves insulin resistance. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the occurrence of epileptic seizures. The Charlie Foundation is a global leader in promoting ketogenic therapies In 2006, The Charlie Foundation commissioned a panel comprised of neurologists and dietitians with particular expertise in using the ketogenic diet to create a consensus statement in support of the clinical management of the ketogenic diet and when it should be considered. Children are especially good candidates for the diet owing to their reliance on adults for nourishment and to the nature of a young developing brain. Comparison of diet therapies There are five levels of diet which have been published in medical literture as effective treatments for epilepsy: the classic ketogenic diet, the modified ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MC Continue reading >>
Short Communication Concomitant Lamotrigine Use Is Associated With Decreased Efficacy Of The Ketogenic Diet In Childhood Refractory Epilepsy
Highlights • Specific AEDs may interfere with the rate of success of the KD. • Lamotrigine treatment during KD is associated with a decreased efficacy of the KD. • The percentage of children that had adequate ketosis was significantly reduced in case of lamotrigine use. • The underlying mechanisms of this lamotrigine associated reduction have to be clarified in future research. Abstract Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and the ketogenic diet (KD) are often used concomitantly in children with refractory epilepsy. It has been hypothesised that certain AEDs may interfere with KD. The purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between efficacy of KD and use of specific AEDs. A retrospective study was performed in 71 children with refractory epilepsy starting the KD between 2008 and 2014 in Erasmus University Hospital Sophia Children's Hospital. Efficacy of the KD (defined as 50% seizure reduction) was evaluated after three months of treatment and related to the AEDs used. The KD was successful after three months in 61% of the children (N = 71). Efficacy was significantly reduced if children (n = 16) used lamotrigine (31%) at diet initiation or in the course of the diet, compared to other antiepileptic drugs (69%) (p = 0.006). In comparison to children using other antiepileptic drugs, the percentage of children that had adequate ketosis was significantly reduced in case of lamotrigine use (p = 0.049). Lamotrigine treatment during KD is associated with a decreased efficacy of the KD. Continue reading >>
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Low Carb And The Ketogenic Diet: What’s The Difference?
Often people who claim to follow a ketogenic diet are actually following a low carb diet. This article will help clear up confusion on the differences between low carb and ketogenic diets and discuss the benefits of a well-formulated ketogenic diet as compared to a traditional low carb diet. Low Carb Defined Although the definition varies across the literature, a low-carbohydrate (low carb) diet tends to be classified as a diet containing less than 30% of calories from carbohydrates (1,2). While most low carb diets contain 50-150 grams of carbs per day, some athletes adhering to this type of diet have over 200 grams of carbs due to their higher caloric requirements. The Difference in Ketogenic Diets Unlike the typical “low-carb” diet, a well-formulated ketogenic diet follows a high-fat, moderate-protein, low-carb approach, e.g. 75% fat, 20% protein, and 5% carbohydrate. A ketogenic diet typically allows about 20-50 grams of carbohydrates per day (3). This macronutrient profile allows the body to start producing and to eventually utilize an alternative fuel source known as ketones (4). This process is analogous to changing your car’s fuel source to something longer lasting, more readily available, and more sustainable overall. The Main Problem with “Low-Carb” A common mistake with ketogenic dieting is going “low-carb” but still having a high protein and moderate fat intake. As discussed in previous articles, carbohydrate restriction is essential for a ketogenic diet. However, the high-fat, moderate-protein component is equally as important. If protein intake is too high on a low carb, low-calorie diet, your body could increase glucose production through a process known as gluconeogenesis. More research is needed in this area as it relates to ketogenic dieti Continue reading >>
Ketosis – Advantaged Or Misunderstood State? (part Ii)
When I wrote part I of this post, I naively assumed this would only be a two-part series. However, so many great questions and comments emerged from the discussion that I realize it’s worth spending much more time on this important and misunderstood topic. In terms of setting expectations, I suspect this series will require at least four parts, after which I hope to get back to finishing up The Straight Dope on Cholesterol series. So, back to the topic at hand…. (You may want to read or maybe reread part I for a biochemistry refresher before diving into part II.) Is there a “metabolic advantage” to being in ketosis? Few topics in the nutrition blogosphere generate so much vitriolic rhetoric as this one, and for reasons I can’t understand. I do suspect part of the issue is that folks don’t understand the actual question. I’ve used the term “metabolic advantage” because that’s so often what folks write, but I’m not sure it has a uniform meaning, which may be part of the debate. I think what folks mean when they argue about this topic is fat partitioning, but that’s my guess. To clarify the macro question, I’ve broken the question down into more well-defined chunks. Does ketosis increase energy expenditure? I am pretty sure when the average person argues for or against ketosis having a “metabolic advantage” what they are really arguing is whether or not, calorie-for-calorie, a person in ketosis has a higher resting energy expenditure. In other words, does a person in ketosis expend more energy than a person not in ketosis because of the caloric composition of what they consume/ingest? Let me save you a lot of time and concern by offering you the answer: The question has not been addressed sufficiently in a properly controlled trial and, at bes Continue reading >>
What Is Ketosis?
"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>
keto- keto- THE AMERICAN HERITAGE® DICTIONARY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE, FIFTH EDITION by the Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries. Copyright © 2016, 2011 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. keto Continue reading >>
Ketosis And The Ketogenic Ratio – Q&a
Question: Do you still believe in the ketogenic ratio for getting into ketosis? I am having trouble showing ketones. Any tips? Sorry to bother you again but can drinking 2 gal of water per day dilute your urine so you don’t show ketones? Answer: Ok, let me take these on one at a time. In my first book The Ketogenic Diet, I talked about something called the ketogenic ratio (KR) which is an equation/concept used in the planning of ketogenic diets for epilepsy patients. The equation basically gives you the potential ketone producing potential of a given meal depending on the relative ketogenic or anti-ketogenic effect of the different macronutrients. So the KR of a given combination of nutrients can be estimated with the following equation: Protein turns out to be partially ketogenic (46%) and partially anti-ketogenic (58%), reflecting the fact that some amino acids can be made into ketones, while other are made into glucose). Carbohydrate is 100% anti-ketogenic and fat is mostly (90%) ketogenic (the 10% anti-ketogenic is due to the fact that the glycerol portion of triglycerides, explained in A Primer on Dietary Fats, can be converted to glucose in the liver). Quoting from that section of The Ketogenic Diet: This equation represents the relative tendency for a given macronutrient to either promote or prevent a ketogenic state (1). Recalling from the previous chapter that insulin and glucagon are the ultimate determinants of the shift to a ketotic state, this equation essentially represents the tendency for a given nutrient to raise insulin (anti-ketogenic) or glucagon (pro-ketogenic). For the treatment of epilepsy, the ratio of K to AK must be at least 1.5 for a meal to be considered ketogenic (1). Typically, this results in a diet containing 4 grams of fat for each gra Continue reading >>
Ketosis Explained – For Weight Loss, Health Or Performance
Get Started Ketosis is a natural state for the body, when it is almost completely fueled by fat. This is normal during fasting, or when on a strict low-carb diet. Ketosis has many potential benefits, but there are also side effects. In type 1 diabetes and certain other rare situations excessive ketosis can even become dangerous. On this page you can learn all about how to harness the benefits of ketosis, while avoiding any problems. It all starts with understanding what ketosis is. Choose a section, or keep reading below for all of them. Ketosis ExplainedKetosis Explained BenefitsBenefits How to Get Into KetosisHow to Get Into Ketosis Ketosis ExplainedSymptoms & How to Know You’re In Ketosis Side Effects, Fears & Potential DangersSide Effects, Fears & Potential Dangers How to Reach Optimal KetosisHow to Reach Optimal Ketosis ketones Ketosis Explained The “keto” in the word ketosis comes from the fact that it makes the body produce small fuel molecules called “ketones”.1 This is an alternative fuel for the body, used when blood sugar (glucose) is in short supply. Ketones are produced if you eat very few carbs (that are broken down into blood sugar) and only moderate amounts of protein (excess protein can be converted to blood sugar). Ketones are produced in the liver, from fat. They are then consumed as fuel in the body, including by the brain. This is important as the brain is a hungry organ that consumes lots of energy every day,2 and it can’t run on fat directly. It can only run on glucose… or ketones. Maximizing fat burning On a ketogenic diet your entire body switches its fuel supply to run almost entirely on fat. Insulin levels become very low and fat burning increases dramatically. It becomes easy to access your fat stores to burn them off. This is o Continue reading >>
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What Are Macros
What Are Macros? Macronutrients are molecules that our bodies use to create energy for themselves – primarily fat, protein and carbs. They are found in all foods in varying amounts, measured in grams (g) on the nutrition labels. Fat provides 9 calories per gram Protein provides 4 calories per gram Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram Counting Calories vs. Counting Macros If you eat less calories than you burn, you will likely lose weight. But counting calories can only tell you so much; if you’re not careful and don’t eat the right calories, you’ll likely lose muscle too! To maintain, lose or even gain weight, many people rely on counting macros to make sure they’re eating correctly. 100 calories of avocado (fat) is a lot better than 100 calories of a doughnut (carbs). On a ketogenic (low carb, high fat) diet, it’s very important to know how many carbs you’re eating in comparison to fat and protein. Many people aim for less than 50g of carbs to maintain ketosis. When counting macros, you simply add up how many grams of fat, protein and carbs you ate that day. Let’s take an example: If you ate 10 Ritz crackers and wanted to calculate your macros for that meal, you would first determine how many servings you ate. If the serving size is 5 crackers and you ate 10, you would multiply every number on that label by 2. You would have eaten 8g of fat, 20g of carbs, and 2g of protein in that snack. In your log, you would then add all your grams of carbs, protein and fat up to a total so far. By seeing your macros visually, you can easily tell when you’re running a little high in carbs and know when to slow down. How to Calculate Your Optimal Macros Your optimal macronutrient intake depends on many different factors- your age, gender, weight, BMI and activit Continue reading >>
Ketogenic Diet And Other Dietary Treatments For Epilepsy.
Abstract BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD), being high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has been suggested to reduce seizure frequency. It is currently used mainly for children who continue to have seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Recently, there has been interest in less restrictive KDs including the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the use of these diets has extended into adult practice. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence for efficacy and tolerability from randomised controlled trials regarding the effects of KD and similar diets. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialized Register (30 March 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 30 March 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid, 30 March 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 March 2015) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP, 30 March 2015). We imposed no language restrictions. We checked the reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies of KDs and similar diets for people with epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently applied pre-defined criteria to extract data and assessed study quality. MAIN RESULTS: We identified seven randomised controlled trials that generated eight publications.All trials applied an intention-to-treat analysis with varied randomisation methods. The seven studies recruited 427 children and adolescents and no adults. We could not conduct a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the studies.Reported rates of seizure freedom reached as high as 55% in a 4 : 1 KD group after three months and reported rates of seizure reduction reached as high as 85% in a 4 : 1 KD group after thr Continue reading >>
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- The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus
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