diabetestalk.net

Ketogenic Defined

Advanced Ketogenic Dieting

Advanced Ketogenic Dieting

There is a lot of confusion out there when it comes to ketogenic dieting. All around us we have hundreds of books, so many experts, endless opinions from people who have done it themselves and posted their views online. Right now the water is exceedingly muddied. The goal of this article it to not only give a clear view on the keto protocols but also lay out an sound tried and true protocol along with a systematic way to set it up. Ketogenic Dieting Defined Lets start this off talking about what ketogenic dieting means and doesn’t mean. A lot of people think that keto means eating low carbs. Some people think it means just eating protein. Ketogenic dieting is achieved by getting into ketosis, and that is a process that the body has to go through. Eating low carbs or only eating protein, etc, doesn’t mean the body will get into ketosis. Generally speaking being keto means that someone has limited their carbohydrate intake to extremely low levels until their body runs out of stored glycogen causing the body to start making ketones (fats) to run on. THAT is what the main goal of a ketogenic diet is- being in ketosis and a state of using fat for fuel. We all have glycogen (carbs) stored in our liver, and when we limit carb consumption our liver kicks out stored glycogen to fuel our activity. When that liver glycogen runs out that is when the body flips the switch and starts making ketones for us to use as energy. Ketones are fractionated fats that yield 7 cals per gram (regular fats yield 9 calories per gram when used for energy). This is very interesting because when we are eating a carb based diet, carbs give us 4 calories per carb eaten to burn for energy. Being in a ketogenic state we are burning 7 calories per ketone….meaning we are burning more energy at rest. I Continue reading >>

What Is The Ketogenic Diet?

What Is The Ketogenic Diet?

The ketogenic diet has been in existence for 90 years The ketogenic diet was designed in 1924 by Dr. Russell Wilder at the Mayo Clinic. Despite being highly effective in treating epilepsy, it fell out of fashion due to the surge in new anti-seizure medications in the 1940s. In 1994 Charlie Abraham’s family started The Charlie Foundation after his complete recovery from daily seizures despite trying all available anti-seizure medications and enduring a futile brain surgery. Charlie started the diet as a toddler and remained on it for 5 years. He is now a college student and remains seizure-free. Ketosis is the unique feature The diet is high in fat, supplies adequate protein and is low in carbohydrates. This combination changes the way energy is used in the body. Fat is converted in the liver into fatty acids and ketone bodies. Another effect of the diet is that it lowers glucose levels and improves insulin resistance. An elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood, a state known as ketosis, leads to a reduction in the occurrence of epileptic seizures. The Charlie Foundation is a global leader in promoting ketogenic therapies In 2006, The Charlie Foundation commissioned a panel comprised of neurologists and dietitians with particular expertise in using the ketogenic diet to create a consensus statement in support of the clinical management of the ketogenic diet and when it should be considered. Children are especially good candidates for the diet owing to their reliance on adults for nourishment and to the nature of a young developing brain. Comparison of diet therapies There are five levels of diet which have been published in medical literture as effective treatments for epilepsy: the classic ketogenic diet, the modified ketogenic diet, medium-chain triglyceride (MC Continue reading >>

What Is The Ketogenic Diet?

What Is The Ketogenic Diet?

The concept of ketogenic dieting is not new – it has existed in many forms and in many variations. It has many similarities to the Atkin’s Diet, and is cousins with other popular diets like South Beach and Paleo. Below, we’ve outlined exactly what the ketogenic diet is, how and why it works, and how you can get started with a ketogenic diet today. Before we dive in, however, it is important to understand that there are three types of ketogenic diets: the Standard Ketogenic Diet, the Cyclical Ketogenic Diet, and the Targeted Ketogenic Diet. All are very closely related but differ in regards to limits and timing of carbohydrate consumption. For all intents and purposes, when we refer to ketogenic diets on TheKetogenicDiet.org, we are typically referring to the Standard Ketogenic diet unless otherwise noted. Most information here is relevant regardless of what type of ketogenic diet you are practicing, however. Okay…so what is the ketogenic diet? A ketogenic diet is quite simply any diet that forces the body into a process called ketosis, whereby fats are burned instead of carbohydrates for use as energy. A proper ketogenic diet calls for the dieter to consume high amounts of fat, adequate amounts of protein, and very low amounts of carbohydrates. Our bodies are used to turning carbohydrates into glucose to send all over the body as energy. When we enter ketosis by sufficiently limiting our carbohydrate intake, our livers start breaking down fat cells into fatty acids and ketones, to be used as energy. Why does the ketogenic diet work? The ketogenic diet works much like any other diet: by limiting the amount of calories you consume, thereby creating a caloric deficit where the body burns more energy than it takes in. That is the fundamental science of weight loss, Continue reading >>

Ketosis Explained – For Weight Loss, Health Or Performance

Ketosis Explained – For Weight Loss, Health Or Performance

Get Started Ketosis is a natural state for the body, when it is almost completely fueled by fat. This is normal during fasting, or when on a strict low-carb diet. Ketosis has many potential benefits, but there are also side effects. In type 1 diabetes and certain other rare situations excessive ketosis can even become dangerous. On this page you can learn all about how to harness the benefits of ketosis, while avoiding any problems. It all starts with understanding what ketosis is. Choose a section, or keep reading below for all of them. Ketosis ExplainedKetosis Explained BenefitsBenefits How to Get Into KetosisHow to Get Into Ketosis Ketosis ExplainedSymptoms & How to Know You’re In Ketosis Side Effects, Fears & Potential DangersSide Effects, Fears & Potential Dangers How to Reach Optimal KetosisHow to Reach Optimal Ketosis ketones Ketosis Explained The “keto” in the word ketosis comes from the fact that it makes the body produce small fuel molecules called “ketones”.1 This is an alternative fuel for the body, used when blood sugar (glucose) is in short supply. Ketones are produced if you eat very few carbs (that are broken down into blood sugar) and only moderate amounts of protein (excess protein can be converted to blood sugar). Ketones are produced in the liver, from fat. They are then consumed as fuel in the body, including by the brain. This is important as the brain is a hungry organ that consumes lots of energy every day,2 and it can’t run on fat directly. It can only run on glucose… or ketones. Maximizing fat burning On a ketogenic diet your entire body switches its fuel supply to run almost entirely on fat. Insulin levels become very low and fat burning increases dramatically. It becomes easy to access your fat stores to burn them off. This is o Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet And Other Dietary Treatments For Epilepsy.

Ketogenic Diet And Other Dietary Treatments For Epilepsy.

Abstract BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD), being high in fat and low in carbohydrates, has been suggested to reduce seizure frequency. It is currently used mainly for children who continue to have seizures despite treatment with antiepileptic drugs. Recently, there has been interest in less restrictive KDs including the modified Atkins diet (MAD) and the use of these diets has extended into adult practice. OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence for efficacy and tolerability from randomised controlled trials regarding the effects of KD and similar diets. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Epilepsy Group's Specialized Register (30 March 2015), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) via the Cochrane Register of Studies Online (CRSO, 30 March 2015), MEDLINE (Ovid, 30 March 2015), ClinicalTrials.gov (30 March 2015) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP, 30 March 2015). We imposed no language restrictions. We checked the reference lists of retrieved studies for additional reports of relevant studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Studies of KDs and similar diets for people with epilepsy. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently applied pre-defined criteria to extract data and assessed study quality. MAIN RESULTS: We identified seven randomised controlled trials that generated eight publications.All trials applied an intention-to-treat analysis with varied randomisation methods. The seven studies recruited 427 children and adolescents and no adults. We could not conduct a meta-analysis due to the heterogeneity of the studies.Reported rates of seizure freedom reached as high as 55% in a 4 : 1 KD group after three months and reported rates of seizure reduction reached as high as 85% in a 4 : 1 KD group after thr Continue reading >>

Short Communication Concomitant Lamotrigine Use Is Associated With Decreased Efficacy Of The Ketogenic Diet In Childhood Refractory Epilepsy

Short Communication Concomitant Lamotrigine Use Is Associated With Decreased Efficacy Of The Ketogenic Diet In Childhood Refractory Epilepsy

Highlights • Specific AEDs may interfere with the rate of success of the KD. • Lamotrigine treatment during KD is associated with a decreased efficacy of the KD. • The percentage of children that had adequate ketosis was significantly reduced in case of lamotrigine use. • The underlying mechanisms of this lamotrigine associated reduction have to be clarified in future research. Abstract Anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) and the ketogenic diet (KD) are often used concomitantly in children with refractory epilepsy. It has been hypothesised that certain AEDs may interfere with KD. The purpose of this study was to elucidate relationships between efficacy of KD and use of specific AEDs. A retrospective study was performed in 71 children with refractory epilepsy starting the KD between 2008 and 2014 in Erasmus University Hospital Sophia Children's Hospital. Efficacy of the KD (defined as 50% seizure reduction) was evaluated after three months of treatment and related to the AEDs used. The KD was successful after three months in 61% of the children (N = 71). Efficacy was significantly reduced if children (n = 16) used lamotrigine (31%) at diet initiation or in the course of the diet, compared to other antiepileptic drugs (69%) (p = 0.006). In comparison to children using other antiepileptic drugs, the percentage of children that had adequate ketosis was significantly reduced in case of lamotrigine use (p = 0.049). Lamotrigine treatment during KD is associated with a decreased efficacy of the KD. Continue reading >>

Table Of Contents

Table Of Contents

Definition Origins Description Function Benefits Precautions Risks Resources Ketogenic diets are a group of high-fat, moderate-protein, and very low-carbohydrate diets given to treat some children and adolescents with epilepsy, and some adults with epilepsy and other diseases. The name ketogenic refers to the increased production of ketone bodies as a result of this special diet. Ketone bodies are three compounds that are formed during the metabolism of fats and are ordinarily excreted in the urine. An abnormally high level of ketone bodies is called keto-sis, and this condition is the goal of the ketogenic diet. It is thought that ketosis helps to control the frequency and severity of epileptic seizures, even though the reasons for this effect are not fully understood as of 2007. It has been known since Biblical times that some people with epilepsy were helped by prolonged periods of fasting, with good results. In earlier periods of history, children were kept on clear liquids for as long as two or three weeks until their seizures improved. This type of fasting, however, was obviously not sustainable as a long-term treatment. In 1921, a doctor at the MayoClinic named R. M. Wilder devised a diet for patients with epilepsy that was intended to mimic the biochemical changes that take place during fasting—ketosis, acidosis, and dehydration. Dr. Wilder’s ketogenic diet provided 10–15 grams of carbohydrates per day, 1 gram of protein for each kilogram of the patient’s body weight, and the remaining calories from fat. The calorie level was 75% of the normal daily allowance for the patient’s weight, and fluids were restricted to 80 percent. Wilder’s diet was almost identical to the protocol used at Johns Hopkins in 2007. Until the late 1930s, the Mayo Clinic ketoge Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

A Comprehensive Beginner's Guide

A Comprehensive Beginner's Guide

What is a Keto Diet? A keto diet is well known for being a low carb diet, where the body produces ketones in the liver to be used as energy. It’s referred to as many different names – ketogenic diet, low carb diet, low carb high fat (LCHF), etc. When you eat something high in carbs, your body will produce glucose and insulin. Glucose is the easiest molecule for your body to convert and use as energy so that it will be chosen over any other energy source. Insulin is produced to process the glucose in your bloodstream by taking it around the body. Since the glucose is being used as a primary energy, your fats are not needed and are therefore stored. Typically on a normal, higher carbohydrate diet, the body will use glucose as the main form of energy. By lowering the intake of carbs, the body is induced into a state known as ketosis. Ketosis is a natural process the body initiates to help us survive when food intake is low. During this state, we produce ketones, which are produced from the breakdown of fats in the liver. The end goal of a properly maintained keto diet is to force your body into this metabolic state. We don’t do this through starvation of calories but starvation of carbohydrates. Our bodies are incredibly adaptive to what you put into it – when you overload it with fats and take away carbohydrates, it will begin to burn ketones as the primary energy source. Optimal ketone levels offer many health, weight loss, physical and mental performance benefits. Make keto simple and easy by checking out our 30 Day Meal Plan. Get meal plans, shopping lists, and much more with our Keto Academy Program. Looking for Something Specific? There are numerous benefits that come with being on keto: from weight loss and increased energy levels to therapeutic medical appl Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis? Hint: It Can Help You Burn Fat & Suppress Your Appetite

What Is Ketosis? Hint: It Can Help You Burn Fat & Suppress Your Appetite

We’ve longed been told that calorie restriction, increasing exercise and reducing dietary fat intake are the keys to weight loss. But, if you’ve ever attempted to control your weight by subsisting on fewer calories — especially from mostly bland “diet foods”— you’re already probably aware that this typically produces minimal results and is extremely hard to stick with long-term or consistently. Considering the high rates of obesity now facing most developed nations — along with an increased risk for health conditions like diabetes or heart problems as a result — researchers have been anxiously working on how to suppress appetite and achieve weight loss in a healthy, sustainable manner. The keto diet has emerged over the past several decades as one potential answer to this large-scale weight loss problem. (1) While there are some differences in opinion, depending on who you ask, regarding the best approach to very low-carb dieting, studies consistently show that the ketogenic diet (also called the keto diet) produces not only substantial weight loss for a high percentage of people who adhere to it, but also other important health benefits such as reductions in seizures, markers of diabetes and more. The keto diet revolves around eating foods that are high in natural fats, consuming only moderate protein and severely restricting the number of carbs eaten each day. Even if you don’t have much weight to lose, entering into a state of ketosis can be helpful for other reasons — such as for improved energy levels, mental capabilities and mood stabilization. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is the result of following the ketogenic diet, which is why it’s also sometimes called “the ketosis diet.” Ketosis takes place when glucose from carbohydrate foods (like Continue reading >>

What Are Macros

What Are Macros

What Are Macros? Macronutrients are molecules that our bodies use to create energy for themselves – primarily fat, protein and carbs. They are found in all foods in varying amounts, measured in grams (g) on the nutrition labels. Fat provides 9 calories per gram Protein provides 4 calories per gram Carbohydrates provide 4 calories per gram Counting Calories vs. Counting Macros If you eat less calories than you burn, you will likely lose weight. But counting calories can only tell you so much; if you’re not careful and don’t eat the right calories, you’ll likely lose muscle too! To maintain, lose or even gain weight, many people rely on counting macros to make sure they’re eating correctly. 100 calories of avocado (fat) is a lot better than 100 calories of a doughnut (carbs). On a ketogenic (low carb, high fat) diet, it’s very important to know how many carbs you’re eating in comparison to fat and protein. Many people aim for less than 50g of carbs to maintain ketosis. When counting macros, you simply add up how many grams of fat, protein and carbs you ate that day. Let’s take an example: If you ate 10 Ritz crackers and wanted to calculate your macros for that meal, you would first determine how many servings you ate. If the serving size is 5 crackers and you ate 10, you would multiply every number on that label by 2. You would have eaten 8g of fat, 20g of carbs, and 2g of protein in that snack. In your log, you would then add all your grams of carbs, protein and fat up to a total so far. By seeing your macros visually, you can easily tell when you’re running a little high in carbs and know when to slow down. How to Calculate Your Optimal Macros Your optimal macronutrient intake depends on many different factors- your age, gender, weight, BMI and activit Continue reading >>

Ketosis – Advantaged Or Misunderstood State? (part Ii)

Ketosis – Advantaged Or Misunderstood State? (part Ii)

When I wrote part I of this post, I naively assumed this would only be a two-part series. However, so many great questions and comments emerged from the discussion that I realize it’s worth spending much more time on this important and misunderstood topic. In terms of setting expectations, I suspect this series will require at least four parts, after which I hope to get back to finishing up The Straight Dope on Cholesterol series. So, back to the topic at hand…. (You may want to read or maybe reread part I for a biochemistry refresher before diving into part II.) Is there a “metabolic advantage” to being in ketosis? Few topics in the nutrition blogosphere generate so much vitriolic rhetoric as this one, and for reasons I can’t understand. I do suspect part of the issue is that folks don’t understand the actual question. I’ve used the term “metabolic advantage” because that’s so often what folks write, but I’m not sure it has a uniform meaning, which may be part of the debate. I think what folks mean when they argue about this topic is fat partitioning, but that’s my guess. To clarify the macro question, I’ve broken the question down into more well-defined chunks. Does ketosis increase energy expenditure? I am pretty sure when the average person argues for or against ketosis having a “metabolic advantage” what they are really arguing is whether or not, calorie-for-calorie, a person in ketosis has a higher resting energy expenditure. In other words, does a person in ketosis expend more energy than a person not in ketosis because of the caloric composition of what they consume/ingest? Let me save you a lot of time and concern by offering you the answer: The question has not been addressed sufficiently in a properly controlled trial and, at bes Continue reading >>

Can A Ketogenic Diet Help Us Live 10 Years Longer?

Can A Ketogenic Diet Help Us Live 10 Years Longer?

We’ve all been programmed by the media and academia to believe that eating a high-fat diet is bad. We still have countless jokes scattered throughout pop culture about how someone eating bacon is basically the equivalent of Russian Roulette. However, what if reality were more like Woody Allen’s movie Sleeper. He wakes up in a 21st century where what they thought was health food is now bad for you. Hence, let’s explore the idea of whether eating fat is healthy and whether the ketogenic diet reduces or adds years to your life. What Is a Ketogenic Diet? To understand a ketogenic diet, it’s important to know how the body burns fuel for energy. The body-fuel sources include carbohydrates, protein, and fat. When we consume more carbohydrates, which turn to sugar (glucose or fructose) in the body, than our body can properly metabolize (or burn for energy), the liver will turn the extra sugar into fat and then secrete that fat into the bloodstream in the form of triglycerides. Triglycerides are then stored in our fat cells to be used for energy later. When our diet chronically consists of high-carb, high-sugar foods—the standard American diet today—those triglycerides go unused as more continue to be stored. More importantly, the carbs cause excessive insulin secretion which blocks natural fat burning processes. All of this causes a variety of metabolic-syndrome issues, such as weight gain (particularly with fat accumulation around the midsection), high triglycerides and blood pressure, chronic inflammation, and certain diseases. People in the high-carb, high-sugar boat are likely burning sugar as their primary fuel. This sounds like a good deal, right? Unfortunately, no. If your body’s primary source of energy is carbs and sugar, it’s missing out on its optimal Continue reading >>

Low Carb And The Ketogenic Diet: What’s The Difference?

Low Carb And The Ketogenic Diet: What’s The Difference?

Often people who claim to follow a ketogenic diet are actually following a low carb diet. This article will help clear up confusion on the differences between low carb and ketogenic diets and discuss the benefits of a well-formulated ketogenic diet as compared to a traditional low carb diet. Low Carb Defined Although the definition varies across the literature, a low-carbohydrate (low carb) diet tends to be classified as a diet containing less than 30% of calories from carbohydrates (1,2). While most low carb diets contain 50-150 grams of carbs per day, some athletes adhering to this type of diet have over 200 grams of carbs due to their higher caloric requirements. The Difference in Ketogenic Diets Unlike the typical “low-carb” diet, a well-formulated ketogenic diet follows a high-fat, moderate-protein, low-carb approach, e.g. 75% fat, 20% protein, and 5% carbohydrate. A ketogenic diet typically allows about 20-50 grams of carbohydrates per day (3). This macronutrient profile allows the body to start producing and to eventually utilize an alternative fuel source known as ketones (4). This process is analogous to changing your car’s fuel source to something longer lasting, more readily available, and more sustainable overall. The Main Problem with “Low-Carb” A common mistake with ketogenic dieting is going “low-carb” but still having a high protein and moderate fat intake. As discussed in previous articles, carbohydrate restriction is essential for a ketogenic diet. However, the high-fat, moderate-protein component is equally as important. If protein intake is too high on a low carb, low-calorie diet, your body could increase glucose production through a process known as gluconeogenesis. More research is needed in this area as it relates to ketogenic dieti Continue reading >>

New Study Favors Fat Over Carbs

New Study Favors Fat Over Carbs

Here you will find an index of the latest scientific studies on the ketogenic diet which support the therapeutic benefits of ketogenic diets, their safety long term and efficacy in treating obesity, diabetes type 2, epilepsy, lowering cholesterol and heart disease prevention among others. "High carbohydrate intake is associated with a higher risk of mortality, and high fat intake with a lower risk, researchers report. An international team of scientists studied diet and mortality in 135,335 people between 35 and 70 years old in 18 countries, following them for an average of more than seven years. Diet information depended on self-reports, and the scientists controlled for factors including age, sex, smoking, physical activity and body mass index. The study is in The Lancet. Compared with people who ate the lowest 20 percent of carbohydrates, those who ate the highest 20 percent had a 28 percent increased risk of dying earlier. But high carbohydrate intake was not associated with cardiovascular death. People with the highest 20 percent in total fat intake — an average of 35.3 percent of calories from fat — had about a 23 percent reduced risk of death compared with the lowest 20 percent (an average of 10.6 percent of calories from fat). Consuming higher saturated fat, polyunsaturated fat and monounsaturated fat were all associated with lower mortality. Higher fat diets were also associated with a lower risk of stroke." But the latest research, presented at the European Society of Cardiology Congress, in Barcelona found those with low intake of saturated fat raised chances of early death by 13 per cent compared to those eating plenty. And consuming high levels of all fats cut mortality by up to 23 per cent. The Canadian study tracked eating patterns and death rates acr Continue reading >>

More in ketosis