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Ketogenesis Vs Ketosis

Ketogenic Diet Does Not “beat Chemo For Almost All Cancers”

Ketogenic Diet Does Not “beat Chemo For Almost All Cancers”

One of the difficult things about science-based medicine is determining what is and isn’t quackery. While it is quite obvious that modalities such as homeopathy, acupuncture, reflexology, craniosacral therapy, Hulda Clark’s “zapper,” the Gerson therapy and Gonzalez protocol for cancer, and reiki (not to mention every other “energy healing” therapy) are the rankest quackery, there are lots of treatments that are harder to classify. Much of the time, these treatments that seemingly fall into a “gray area” are treatments that have shown promise in animals but have never been tested rigorously in humans or are based on scientific principles that sound reasonable but, again, have never been tested rigorously in humans. (Are you sensing a pattern here yet?) Often these therapies are promoted by true believers whose enthusiasm greatly outstrips the evidence base for their preferred treatment. Lately, I’ve been seeing just such a therapy being promoted around the usual social media sources, such as Facebook, Twitter, and the like. I’ve been meaning to write about it for a bit, but, as is so often the case with my Dug the Dog nature—squirrel!—other topics caught my attention. I’m referring to a diet called the ketogenic diet, and an article that’s been making the rounds since last week entitled “Ketogenic diet beats chemo for almost all cancers, says Dr. Thomas Seyfried.” Of course, when I see a claim such as that, my first reaction is, “Show me the evidence.” My second reaction is, “Who is this guy?” Well, Dr. Seyfried is a professor of biology at Boston College, who’s pretty well published. He’s also working in a field that has gained new respectability over the last five to ten years, namely cancer metabolism, mainly thanks to a red Continue reading >>

Differential Metabolic Effects Of Saturated Versus Polyunsaturated Fats In Ketogenic Diets

Differential Metabolic Effects Of Saturated Versus Polyunsaturated Fats In Ketogenic Diets

Ketogenic diets (KDs) are used for treatment of refractory epilepsy and metabolic disorders. The classic saturated fatty acid-enriched (SAT) KD has a fat:carbohydrate plus protein ratio of 4:1, in which the predominant fats are saturated. We hypothesized that a polyunsaturated fat-enriched (POLY) KD would induce a similar degree of ketosis with less detrimental effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Twenty healthy adults were randomized to two different weight-maintaining KDs for 5 d. Diets were 70% fat, 15% carbohydrate, and 15% protein. The fat contents were 60 or 15% saturated, 15 or 60% polyunsaturated, and 25% monounsaturated for SAT and POLY, respectively. Changes in serum β-hydroxybutyrate, insulin sensitivity (SI), and lipid profiles were measured. Mean circulating β-hydroxybutyrate levels increased 8.4 mg/dl in the POLY group (P = 0.0004), compared with 3.1 mg/dl in the SAT group (P = 0.07). SI increased significantly in the POLY group (P = 0.02), whereas total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol increased significantly in the SAT group (both P = 0.002). These data demonstrate that a short-term POLY KD induces a greater level of ketosis and improves SI, without adversely affecting total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, compared with a traditional SAT KD. Thus, a POLY KD may be superior to a classical SAT KD for chronic administration. It has been known for many years that serum PTH rises with age, and it has been suggested that this rise may contribute to bone loss in postmenopausal women. It has been variously attributed to declining renal function, declining calcium absorption efficiency, and declining serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels. We studied the effects of age, weight, renal function, radiocalcium absorption, serum ionized Continue reading >>

You Asked: Should I Try The Ketogenic Diet?

You Asked: Should I Try The Ketogenic Diet?

You Asked: Should I Try the Ketogenic Diet? Dont let its fancy name fool you. A ketogenic diet is, essentially, a low-carb, high-fat dietalbeit one taken to extremes. In a clinical setting, a strict ketogenic diet would involve ultra-low carb consumption, like 20 or 30 grams a day, says Dr. Eric Westman, director of the Lifestyle Medicine Clinic at Duke University. Thats about the number of carbohydrates in one small apple. Westmans research on carb-restricted diets suggests they can help reduce appetite, spur weight loss and improve markers of heart disease. His findings arent outliers. From Atkins and South Beach to Mediterranean and Zone, low-carb, high-fat dietsor LCHF plansare all the rage , and growing evidence suggests theyre a big improvement on the typical carb-heavy American diet. But the keto diet is the most carb-restrictive member of the LCHF gang. Along with slashing carbs, a ketogenic plan also calls for limiting your protein consumption. If you know your macronutrients, you recognize that cutting carbs and restricting protein means seriously upping your fat intake. And thats exactly what a true ketogenic diet entails. Youd want healthy fats to account for about 80% of your calories, and protein around 20%, Westman says. (For comparisons sake, the average American gets roughly 50% of her calories from carbs, 15% from protein, and 30% from fat, per the CDC .) Like the guidance to cut carbs, this advice to reign in protein intake dovetails with some of the latest nutrition science , which suggests limiting protein can lower risk for disease and extend life for people younger than 65. So what, exactly, does ketogenic mean? The name refers to a specific type of energy-carrying molecule, called a ketone. Most people are always in a state of glucosis, meaning Continue reading >>

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis, Ketones, And How It All Works

Ketosis is a process that the body does on an everyday basis, regardless of the number of carbs you eat. Your body adapts to what is put in it, processing different types of nutrients into the fuels that it needs. Proteins, fats, and carbs can all be processed for use. Eating a low carb, high fat diet just ramps up this process, which is a normal and safe chemical reaction. When you eat carbohydrate based foods or excess amounts of protein, your body will break this down into sugar – known as glucose. Why? Glucose is needed in the creation of ATP (an energy molecule), which is a fuel that is needed for the daily activities and maintenance inside our bodies. If you’ve ever used our keto calculator to determine your caloric needs, you will see that your body uses up quite a lot of calories. It’s true, our bodies use up much of the nutrients we intake just to maintain itself on a daily basis. If you eat enough food, there will likely be an excess of glucose that your body doesn’t need. There are two main things that happen to excess glucose if your body doesn’t need it: Glycogenesis. Excess glucose will be converted to glycogen and stored in your liver and muscles. Estimates show that only about half of your daily energy can be stored as glycogen. Lipogenesis. If there’s already enough glycogen in your muscles and liver, any extra glucose will be converted into fats and stored. So, what happens to you once your body has no more glucose or glycogen? Ketosis happens. When your body has no access to food, like when you are sleeping or when you are on a ketogenic diet, the body will burn fat and create molecules called ketones. We can thank our body’s ability to switch metabolic pathways for that. These ketones are created when the body breaks down fats, creating Continue reading >>

Adverse Reactions To Ketogenic Diets: Caution Advised

Adverse Reactions To Ketogenic Diets: Caution Advised

As the ketogenic diet gains popularity, it’s important to have a balanced discussion regarding the merits of this diet. Let me emphasize right out of the gate that this is not a diet without merits (excuse the double negative); in fact, it has significant therapeutic potential for some clinical pathologies. However, it is also a diet with inherent risk, as evidenced by the extensive list of adverse reactions reported in the scientific literature—and this has not yet been a thorough enough part of the public discussion on ketogenic diets. The AIP Lecture Series is a 6-week video-based, self-directed online course that will teach you the scientific foundation for the diet and lifestyle tenets of the Autoimmune Protocol. This is the first of a series of articles discussing various facets of a ketogenic diet with an inclination toward balancing the discussion of the pros and cons of this high-fat, low-carb, low/moderate-protein diet. My interest in this topic stems from concerns I have over its general applicability and safety, simultaneous with its growing popularity. I feel a moral and social obligation to share what I understand of these diets, from my perspective as a medical researcher. The dangers of a ketogenic diet was, in fact, the topic of my keynote presentation at Paleo F(x) this year (links to video will be provided once available). This series of articles will share the extensive research that I did in preparation for this presentation, including all of the topics covered during my talk as well as several topics that I didn’t have time to discuss (also see the free PDF Literature Review at the bottom of this post). For every anecdotal story of someone who has regained their health with a ketogenic diet, there’s a counterpoint story of someone who derai Continue reading >>

Which High-protein Diet Is Best: Atkins, Dukan, Or Ketogenic?

Which High-protein Diet Is Best: Atkins, Dukan, Or Ketogenic?

If you've been on the lookout for a new way to lose weight, you've probably noticed that low-carb, high-protein diets—like Atkins, the ketogenic diet, and the Dukan diet—have become kind of a big deal. Not only did all three make the cut on Google's annual list of most searched diets, but two (Atkins and Dukan) are also on the 2016 US News & World Report's roundup of best weight-loss diets. Each of these diets follow the same basic premise: limiting carbs means the body turns to stored fat for fuel. But is one of these plans more likely to lead to pounds-shedding success? We caught up with Edwina Clark, R.D., head of nutrition and wellness at Yummly, to find out how these three diets compare. "The ketogenic diet is a high-fat, moderate protein, low-carb diet," says Clark. Up to 75 percent of your daily calories come from fat, 5 to 10 percent from carbs, and the rest from protein. By severely limiting carbs to 50 grams or less, this diet forces your bod to burn fat for energy, a process known as ketosis. Unlike the Atkins and Dukan diets, the keto plan doesn't work in phases. Instead, you sustain the low-carb, high-fat, high-protein eating ratios until you reach your goal weight. There is no maintenance plan once you reach your goal. Unsurprisingly, limiting your carb intake this much means missing out on quite a few (delish) foods, including legumes, root vegetables, and most fruits. Starchy veggies, such as squash and sweet potatoes, are also off the table, along with refined carbs. Thanks to carb counting and food restrictions, meal prepping is paramount to following this plan. The rapid weight loss you'll experience at the start of this diet might be helpful in the motivation department, but you're not dropping fat from the get-go, says Clark. "Carbs are stored w Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet is one treatment option for children with epilepsy whose seizures are not controlled with AEDs. The diet may help to reduce the number or severity of seizures and can often have positive effects on behaviour. Up to 70% of people with epilepsy could have their seizures controlled with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). For some children who continue to have seizures, the ketogenic diet may help. However, the diet is very specialised. It should be carried out with the care, supervision and guidance of trained medical specialists. What is the ketogenic diet? The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high fat, low carbohydrate, controlled protein diet that has been used since the 1920s for the treatment of epilepsy. The diet is a medical treatment and is usually only considered when at least two suitable medications have been tried and not worked. The ketogenic diet is an established treatment option for children with hard to control epilepsy. Some adults may benefit from dietary treatments, but more data is needed about the impact and results for adults, and adult treatments are currently only available in a few UK clinics. Dietary treatments for epilepsy must only be followed with the support of an experienced epilepsy specialist and dietitian (food specialist). How does the diet work? Usually the body uses glucose (a form of sugar) from carbohydrates (found in foods like sugar, bread or pasta) for its energy source. Chemicals called ketones are made when the body uses fat for energy (this is called ‘ketosis’). The body uses ketones instead of glucose for its energy source. Research in 2015 has shown that another chemical, decanoic acid, is also produced as a result of the diet. These chemicals help to reduce seizures for some people. Who is the diet suitable for? The Continue reading >>

In Depth Look At Ketogenic Diets And Ketosis

In Depth Look At Ketogenic Diets And Ketosis

What exactly is Ketosis? The metabolic state of ketosis simply means that the quantity of ketone bodies in the blood have reached higher-than-normal levels. When the body is in a ketogenic state, this means that lipid energy metabolism is intact. The body will start breaking down your own body fat to fuel the body's normal, everyday functions. What's So Great About Being In Ketosis? Establishing this metabolic state of ketosis even for a short period of time has many outstanding benefits. Benefit 1 The main benefit of ketosis is that it increases the body's ability to utilize fats for fuel, which gets very lazy on a high-carbohydrate diet. When on high-carbohydrate diets, the body can usually expect an energy source to keep entering the body. But in the state of ketosis, the body has to become efficient at mobilizing fats as energy. Benefit 2 Ketosis has a protein-sparing effect, assuming that you are consuming adequate quantities of protein and calories—0.7 grams per pound of body weight per day—in the first place.[1] Once in ketosis, the body actually prefers ketones to glucose. Since the body has copious quantities of fat, this means there is no need to oxidize protein to generate glucose through gluconeogenesis. Benefit 3 Another benefit has to do with the low levels of insulin in the body, which causes greater lipolysis and free-glycerol release compared to a normal diet when insulin is around 80-120. Insulin has a lipolysis-blocking effect, which can inhibit the use of fatty acids as energy. Also, when insulin is brought to low levels, beneficial hormones are released in the body, such as growth hormone and other powerful growth factors. Benefit 4 Another small but very important benefit of the ketogenic diet is that when in the state of ketosis, ketones, alon Continue reading >>

Rhr: The Ketogenic Diet And Cancer

Rhr: The Ketogenic Diet And Cancer

The conventional view of cancer is that it is caused by DNA mutations in the cell nuclei. However, the metabolic theory of cancer proposes that some cancers are caused by a dysfunction of cellular respiration and that the restriction of glucose in the diet may prevent and even reverse some cancers. Today I’ll review the research supporting this theory and explore how the ketogenic diet may impact cancer tumor growth. In this episode we discuss: A disorder of energy metabolism Metabolic dysfunction may be a root cause How the ketogenic diet can help Existing research on keto and cancer Additional evidence supporting the metabolic theory Why keto alone may not be enough Chris Kresser: Hey, everybody, Chris Kresser here. Welcome to another episode of Revolution Health Radio. Today, we have a question from Kelsey. Let’s give it a listen. Kelsey: Hi, Chris, I was just wondering about your thoughts on the ketogenic diet as an approach to cancer prevention and therapy. I just read something about how cancer cells can only thrive on glucose, and in its absence we can prevent cancer potentially. So I was wondering if you could discuss this in a podcast. I think that would be great. Thank you. Chris: Okay. Thanks, Kelsey, for sending that question in. It’s a really great question, one that’s been on my mind a lot recently, actually, and I’ve been diving into the research on. Most of you probably know that cancer dogma holds that malignancies are caused by DNA mutations inside the nuclei of cells and that these mutations ultimately lead to runaway cellular proliferation, which is the hallmark feature of cancer. A disorder of energy metabolism But there are some cancer biologists out there that feel that while mutations are ubiquitous in cancer, they may not be the primar Continue reading >>

Comparing Three Popular Diet Trends: Paleo Vs Keto Vs Mediterranean

Comparing Three Popular Diet Trends: Paleo Vs Keto Vs Mediterranean

If you’re looking to be the fittest you can be you’ve undoubtedly looked into the diets that are likely to support your goals. You’re interested in being lean, maintaining muscle, peak performance and blowing away your doctor every time at your yearly physical. Unless you really are a cave dweller, you have heard of the Paleo (or similarly named) diets before. If you follow biohackers and scientific diet research, you’ve heard of the Ketogenic diet. And, if you ever watch or read the news, you most certainly have heard of the Mediterranean diet. Have you given any of them a try, maybe skimmed the surface or are considering which one might be best for you? When it comes to these three popular diets, Christopher Gardner, Ph.D. Professor of Medicine and Director of Nutrition Studies at Stanford University says, “the public health community should be open to these, and every other diet. We have an obesity epidemic that we haven’t been able to solve, and this goes hand in hand with a chronic disease epidemic that is crippling the health care system of the US.” So let’s look at these three diet trends, two of which have reliable research to back them up. They all include a moderate to high amount of protein intake which Americans love (a topic Dr. Gardener will be lecturing on this week). They can each give you great results for losing weight and improving important biomarkers. The issue, as with any diet is, can you adhere to one of these long term? Let’s start first with the newest of the trends – the Paleo diet - founded by Loren Cordain, Ph.D. and has branched off into a movement launching many other brands based on Dr. Cordain’s tenets of “eating foods you were designed to eat.” The belief is that when we switched from eating only foods we could Continue reading >>

The Difference Between Keto & Low-carb Diets

The Difference Between Keto & Low-carb Diets

By Myprotein Writer | Shaun Chapman The Ketogenic Diet or – Keto Diet – limits carbohydrate intake to around 50g per day or 5% energy intake – whereas a low-carb diet has no definition. Personal perceptions of low carb may be completely different to another person’s. In fact, on a ketogenic diet, the macronutrient content would be similar to like 5% carbs, 15% protein and 80% fat. This is according what we are currently giving people for a research study we are running at Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge. This is the key difference between going keto and low carb, as this very limited amount of carbohydrate depletes the body and brain of glucose. This is where “keto-adaption” takes place and the body shifts away from carbohydrate metabolism and towards predominantly fat metabolism both at rest and during exercise. However, the central nervous system and brain cannot do this as fatty acids cannot cross the blood-brain barrier and therefore the increase of blood ketones (b-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone) reaches concentrations of 2mmol/l or more. This is why for the first few days on the diet you may feel tired, lethargic and lacking concentration. Ketosis & Ketones Ketone bodies are a major source of energy during periods of fasting or severe carbohydrate restriction (<50g) per day and are produced mainly in the liver. Originally thought of as just a metabolite; ketones may serve an important role linked with the increase of particular enzymes regulating endurance training adaptations. In addition, ketones may even play a role in influencing food intake control by affecting specific parts of the brain that regulate this (the hypothalamus) as well as the way they interact with hunger regulating hormones such as ghrelin. A carbohydrate intake grea Continue reading >>

The Effect Of A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus A Low-glycemic Index Diet On Glycemic Control In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

The Effect Of A Low-carbohydrate, Ketogenic Diet Versus A Low-glycemic Index Diet On Glycemic Control In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Go to: Abstract Dietary carbohydrate is the major determinant of postprandial glucose levels, and several clinical studies have shown that low-carbohydrate diets improve glycemic control. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a diet lower in carbohydrate would lead to greater improvement in glycemic control over a 24-week period in patients with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Eighty-four community volunteers with obesity and type 2 diabetes were randomized to either a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet (<20 g of carbohydrate daily; LCKD) or a low-glycemic, reduced-calorie diet (500 kcal/day deficit from weight maintenance diet; LGID). Both groups received group meetings, nutritional supplementation, and an exercise recommendation. The main outcome was glycemic control, measured by hemoglobin A1c. Forty-nine (58.3%) participants completed the study. Both interventions led to improvements in hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and weight loss. The LCKD group had greater improvements in hemoglobin A1c (-1.5% vs. -0.5%, p = 0.03), body weight (-11.1 kg vs. -6.9 kg, p = 0.008), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+5.6 mg/dL vs. 0 mg/dL, p < 0.001) compared to the LGID group. Diabetes medications were reduced or eliminated in 95.2% of LCKD vs. 62% of LGID participants (p < 0.01). Dietary modification led to improvements in glycemic control and medication reduction/elimination in motivated volunteers with type 2 diabetes. The diet lower in carbohydrate led to greater improvements in glycemic control, and more frequent medication reduction/elimination than the low glycemic index diet. Lifestyle modification using low carbohydrate interventions is effective for improving and reversing type 2 diabetes. Effect of diet programs on indices of glycemic Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis During A Low-carbohydrate Diet

Ketoacidosis During A Low-carbohydrate Diet

To the Editor: It is believed that low-carbohydrate diets work best in reducing weight when producing ketosis.1 We report on a 51-year-old white woman who does not have diabetes but had ketoacidosis while consuming a “no-carbohydrate” diet. There was no family history of diabetes, and she was not currently taking any medications. While adhering to a regimen of carbohydrate restriction, she reached a stable weight of 59.1 kg, a decrease from 72.7 kg. After several months of stable weight, she was admitted to the hospital four times with vomiting but without abdominal pain. On each occasion, she reported no alcohol use. Her body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) was 26.7 before the weight loss and 21.7 afterward. Laboratory evaluation showed anion-gap acidosis, ketonuria, and elevated plasma glucose concentrations on three of the four occasions (Table 1). She had normal concentrations of plasma lactate and glycosylated hemoglobin. Screening for drugs, including ethyl alcohol and ethylene glycol, was negative. Abdominal ultrasonography showed hepatic steatosis. On each occasion, the patient recovered after administration of intravenous fluids and insulin, was prescribed insulin injections on discharge, and gradually reduced the use of insulin and then discontinued it while remaining euglycemic for six months or more between episodes. Testing for antibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase and antinuclear antibodies was negative. Values on lipid studies were as follows: serum triglycerides, 102 mg per deciliter; high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, 50 mg per deciliter; and calculated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, 189 mg per deciliter. The patient strictly adhered to a low-carbohydrate diet for four Continue reading >>

Pros & Cons Of A Ketogenic Diet—many Benefits Including Fat Loss & Better Health!

Pros & Cons Of A Ketogenic Diet—many Benefits Including Fat Loss & Better Health!

This article will give you the pros and cons and show you how to safely adjust your body to ketosis so you achieve the many benefits this lifestyle has to offer. The ketogenic diet was first designed as a therapeutic diet to treat epilepsy that mimicked the benefits of severe calorie restriction without the drawbacks of literal starvation. Based on the fact that fasting relieved epileptic symptoms by forcing the body to produce ATP (the energy source for the body) from fat instead of glucose, a doctor at the Mayo clinic designed the ketogenic diet to have a similar effect. Original recommendations for a ketogenic diet were to radically reduce carbohydrates to less than 20 grams per day, while providing a moderate protein intake of 1 g/kg/bw with the rest of the calories coming from fat. This makes fat the primary fuel source, with protein providing just enough amino acid building blocks to sustain lean tissue and produce other compounds in the body, including transmitters and enzymes. In the last 15 years, the ketogenic diet has been modernized to allow for higher carb intakes (around 50 grams a day). It has gained in popularity, with a wealth of research showing many benefits, which we’ll get into below. In order to truly appreciate the “pros” and troubleshoot the “cons” it’s important to understand how a ketogenic diet works, so let’s cover that first. On conventional high-carb diets, the body gets its energy from a steady supply of glucose in the blood (carbs are digested into glucose, which acts as the fuel source for ATP energy production). By restricting carbohydrates on ketogenic diets, blood glucose levels fall. This leads a fat-burning enzyme called hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) to increase, releasing stored triglycerides (fat) from fat cells. Tr Continue reading >>

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