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Ketoacidosis Word Parts

Our Diabetes Story: My 11 Year Old Son Went Into Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Was Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

Our Diabetes Story: My 11 Year Old Son Went Into Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Was Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

We had a really scary time this week — my 11-year-old son ended up in the Pediatric ICU at the local children’s hospital for two days due to Diabetic Ketoacidosis and we found out he has Type 1 Diabetes. I’m sharing our story because I missed obvious signs. Maybe another parent or caregiver might miss signs too. Maybe this will save a kid from going into Diabetic Ketoacidosis. While Type 1 Diabetes is not curable; maybe if I had put things together, we could have prevented a 2 day stay in the Pediatric Intensive Care unit. Our Diabetes Story: My 11 Year old Son Went Into Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Has Type 1 Diabetes According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation: “Knowing the warning signs for type 1 diabetes could help save a life! Type 1 diabetes can often go undiagnosed in its early stages because the symptoms can be mistaken for more common illnesses, like the flu. Take notice if you or your loved one experiences the following: Extreme thirst Frequent urination Drowsiness and lethargy Sugar in urine Sudden vision changes Increased appetite Sudden weight loss Fruity, sweet, or wine-like odor on breath Heavy, labored breathing Stupor or unconsciousness Call your doctor immediately if one or more of these symptoms occurs in you or your loved one. It is extremely important to receive medical attention—misdiagnosis or leaving your condition untreated can have tragic consequences, including death.” This is how we wound up at the hospital: Last Friday night B vomited (food) late at night. I didn’t think anything of it because he had eaten ice cream with his cousins and then miso soup and samosas for dinner. Crazy combination, right? He was fine all weekend after that and I was watching him closely. He seemed tired and very thirsty. (WARNING SIGNS). Ho Continue reading >>

What Is The Meaning Of The Word Polyuria?

What Is The Meaning Of The Word Polyuria?

What is the meaning of the word polyuria? This blog touches on miscellanies topics that interest its authors. All contents in this blog are based on the authors individualised thoughts, opinions and understanding about various issues which may contain errors. This blog is not intended to be used as a professional guide for any purpose. Please visit authentic websites and professionals for all sort of help including those related to health. Hi, this is Sumanta Saha, a health care professional and the author of this blog welcoming you here.I am writing into this blog since 2013.I find this as an excellent way to express the reverberation of my thoughts and perceptions on different issues that seem relevant in life.I am thoroughly enriched by the vibrant views/comments the readers share.This blog is open to the public, anyone who enjoys the content may be its reader or follower.Thank you very much for spending your valuable time reading this blog.Please visit again and enjoy reading! What is the meaning of the word polyuria? Polyuria is passing of excessive volume of urine. Generally when the amount of urine passed is more than 2.5-3 litres per day in an adult,its called polyuria. Polyuria is classically seen in diseases like diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. Continue reading >>

The Cost Of Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Uk: A National Survey Of Hospital Resource Use

The Cost Of Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Uk: A National Survey Of Hospital Resource Use

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis is a commonly encountered metabolic emergency. In 2014, a national survey was conducted looking at the management of diabetic ketoacidosis in adult patients across the UK. The survey reported the clinical management of individual patients as well as institutional factors that teams felt were important in helping to deliver that care. However, the costs of treating diabetic ketoacidosis were not reported. We used a ‘bottom up’ approach to cost analysis to determine the total expense associated with treating diabetic ketoacidosis in a mixed population sample. The data were derived from the source data from the national UK survey of 283 individual patients collected via questionnaires sent to hospitals across the country. Because the initial survey collection tool was not designed with a health economic model in mind, several assumptions were made when analysing the data. The mean and median time in hospital was 5.6 and 2.7 days respectively. Based on the individual patient data and using the Joint British Diabetes Societies Inpatient Care Group guidelines, the cost analysis shows that for this cohort, the average cost for an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis was £2064 per patient (95% confidence intervals: 1800, 2563). Despite relatively short stays in hospital, costs for managing episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis in adults were relatively high. Assumptions made in the calculations did not consider prolonged hospital stay due to comorbidities or costs incurred as a loss of productivity. Therefore, the actual costs to the healthcare system and society in general are likely to be substantially higher. What's new? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a commonly encountered metabolic emergency, but the costs of treating the condition remain unknown in t Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes comes from the Greek word which means “siphon”. There are two distinct disorders that share the first name diabetes: diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. This is because both disorders cause polyuria, or excessive urine output. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of urine concentration which we will discuss in spring quarter. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of blood glucose regulation, which results from a deficiency in the action of the hormone insulin. This may be due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (type 1 diabetes mellitus) or it may result from a problem in the responsiveness of tissues to insulin, known as insulin resitance (type 2 diabetes mellitus). With either disorder, the result is hyperglycemia, or high levels of glucose in the plasma. How does hyperglycemia cause excessive urine production? To answer this, we need to understand a little bit about how the kidney works. Each kidney contains about a million functional units called nephrons (blue structure in the figure). The first step in the production of urine is a process called filtration (green arrow). In filtration, there is bulk flow of water and small molecules from the plasma into Bowman’s capsule (the first part of the nephron). Because of the nonspecific nature of filtration, useful small molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and certain ions end up in the forming urine, which flows into the kidney tubules. To prevent the loss of these useful substances from the body, the cells lining the kidney tubules use epithelial transport to transfer these substances out of the forming urine and back into the extracellular fluid. This process is known as reabsorption (purple arrows). Under normal circumstances, 100% of the glucose that is filtered is Continue reading >>

Dka | Ditch Medics

Dka | Ditch Medics

* DKA is a problem ofinsufficient(or inefficient) insulin * Problems with DKA are characterized by dehydration, acidosis, and relative hypokalemia. * Maintaining elevated minute ventilation is critical for managing DKA patients requiring airway management or respirtory support * Treatment is focused on fixing dehydration and correcting acidosis. Aggressive fluid resuscitation is indicated. Titration of insulin administration to fix acid-base imbalance and hyperglycemia, while preventing treatment related complications is the key. I remember learning about diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in my medic schoolin. Kind of. Sort of. Ok, actually I remember hearing about DKA but not really learning much. It has something to do with high blood sugar. And they breathe really deep and fast. Ohtheir breath smells like Fruit Loops(or is it Fruity Pebbles?) Anyway, start an IV, give them some fluids and drive them to the hospital. Simple. As it turns out, DKA is an incredibly complex process. One that prehospital providers fail to understand properlyand need to understand properly. These patients are sick. Often really, really sick. DKA can be a common problem to come across in the EMS/emergency medical world. Its critical you understand pathology and treatment strategy for DKA. Lets review. DKA is a problem of insulin. It primarily effects type 1 diabetics (insulin deficient) but can present in type 2 diabetics (insulin resistant) with an associated triggering factor. Often, DKA is the first symptom of previously undiagnosed diabetes but most frequently occurs in known diabetics. The primary presentation of DKA involves a lack of insulin, in addition to a rise in glucagon, causing blood glucose level to precipitously rise. Glucose molecules are highly osmotic. So they pull fluid from e Continue reading >>

When Dka And I Met For The Firsttime

When Dka And I Met For The Firsttime

I saw a post last night that a friend shared about a young girl with Type 1 diabetes that had passed away. Her pump site apparently kinked and she went into DKA and then had brain damage, so her parents had to make the heartwrenching decision to remove her from life support. This led to a conversation with a couple of friends as I recounted my story of my first time in DKA. It will be forever ingrained in my head, so I thought Id share it here as well. I was in college 3+ hours away from home. And about 4 1/2 years post dx. I was visiting my boyfriends house and started feeling really sick. Started vomiting. To the point of not being able to get up off of the bathroom floor. I called the campus nurse and she told me to drink some Diet Sprite. Couldnt hold it down. Water? Couldnt hold it down. Anything I put in, came right back up. This is not a good combination for anyone, but especially for a diabetic. At the time I had NO idea how serious this was, but I was about to find out. After several hours of this cycle my boyfriend needed to go to work but didnt want to leave me alone. My mom was coincidentally going to be visiting me that weekend so he called the hotel to leave a message for her, not expecting her for another hour or so. (this part gives me chills.) When the hotel front desk answered and he asked to leave a message for her, the receptionist said, Oh, she is standing right here checking in. She had gotten on the road earlier than expected. He told her I was very sick and he thought she should come stay with me, because I was too sick to drive back to my dorm. She immediately heads over there (a 20 min drive that maybe took her 10 min) and saw it was bad. I was sooo soo incredibly sick. She said I needed to go to the ER, but I couldnt walk. So they had to pick Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis And The Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar State

Diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state Jean-Louis Chiasson, Nahla Aris-Jilwan, Raphal Blanger, Sylvie Bertrand, Hugues Beauregard, Jean-Marie ko, Hlne Fournier and Jana Havrankova DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS AND THE HYPERGLYCEMIC hyperosmolar state are the most serious complications of diabetic decompensation and remain associated with excess mortality. Insulin deficiency is the main underlying abnormality. Associated with elevated levels of counterregulatory hormones, insulin deficiency can trigger hepatic glucose production and reduced glucose uptake, resulting in hyperglycemia, and can also stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis, resulting in ketoacidosis. Both hyperglycemia and hyperketonemia will induce osmotic diuresis, which leads to dehydration. Clinical diagnosis is based on the finding of dehydration along with high capillary glucose levels with or without ketones in the urine or plasma. The diagnosis is confirmed by the blood pH, serum bicarbonate level and serum osmolality. Treatment consists of adequate correction of the dehydration, hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis and electrolyte deficits. Continue reading >>

Diabetic | Definition Of Diabetic In English By Oxford Dictionaries

Diabetic | Definition Of Diabetic In English By Oxford Dictionaries

Because of the projected increase in type 2 diabetes the number of diabetic patients worldwide is predicted to double within the next 15 years, to over 100 million. So far, the first approach can only cure diabetic mice, while the second one can only breed mice designed not to become diabetic if their b cells are knocked out. The same holds true for a diabetic patient with neuropathy and a foot ulcer. The commonest cause of neuropathic ulceration is diabetes, and many diabetic patients with neuropathic ulceration will also have an arterial problem that requires correction. My mother had packed a lunch in our cooler, including some cans of imported diet soda for my diabetic brother, Don. There is no need to disproportionately restrict the intake of carbohydrates in the diet of most diabetic patients. Most Indian diets are predominantly cereal based and thus higher carbohydrate intakes have become usual for people with diabetes unlike diabetic subjects in western countries. The profoundly deaf man is also diabetic and had a leg amputated after a road accident. Maybe they're diabetic or on a diet, but they still want something sweet at the end of a meal. Only five reviewers pointed out that diabetic patients with hypertension benefit more from blood pressure control than blood glucose control. Dogs may have been under suspicion in these studies, but three cases show dogs in a good light as they detect their diabetic owners' hypoglycaemia. Many diabetic patients have neuropathy, which, in combination with arterial insufficiency, puts them at increased risk of neuroischaemic tissue loss Nowadays diabetic children's diets are not very different from what other children eat. In one, Japanese researchers fed genetically diabetic mice a diet containing 20-percent whole maitake Continue reading >>

Peer Reviewers

Peer Reviewers

Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Outpatient Perspective On Evaluation and Management Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common, serious acute complication in children with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis can accompany new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus or it can occur with established type 1 diabetes mellitus during the increased demands of an acute illness or with decreased insulin delivery due to omitted doses or insulin pump failure. Additionally, diabetic ketoacidosis episodes in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus are being reported with greater frequency. Although the diagnosis is usually straightforward in a known diabetes patient with expected findings, a fair proportion of patients with new-onset diabetes present in diabetic ketoacido- sis. The initial management of children with diabetic ketoacidosis frequently occurs in an emergency department. Physicians must be aware that diabetic ketoacidosis is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of pediatric metabolic acidosis. This review will acquaint emergency medicine clinicians with the pathophysiology, treatment, and potential complications of this disorder. Author William Bonadio, MD Attending Physician, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY Arleta Rewers, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Joseph I. Wolfsdorf, MD Clinical Director, Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA CME Objectives Upon completion of this article, you should be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiology of DKA and the associated clinical signs and symptoms of this disorder. 2. Discuss management of DKA to restore metabolic hom Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition caused by a build-up of waste products called ketones in the blood. It occurs in people with diabetes mellitus when they have no, or very low levels of, insulin. DKA mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but it can also occur in some people with type 2 diabetes and pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Causes Glucose is an essential energy source for the body's cells. When food containing carbohydrates is eaten, it is broken down into glucose that travels around the body in the blood, to be absorbed by cells that use it for energy. Insulin works to help glucose pass into cells. Without insulin, the cells cannot absorb glucose to use for energy. This leads to a series of changes in metabolism that can affect the whole body. The liver attempts to compensate for the lack of energy in the cells by producing more glucose, leading to increased levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycaemia. The body switches to burning its stores of fat instead of glucose to produce energy. This leads to a build-up of acidic waste products called ketones in the blood and urine. This is known as ketoacidosis, and it can cause heart rhythm abnormalities, breathing changes and abdominal pain. The kidneys try to remove some of the excess glucose and ketones. However, this requires taking large amounts of fluid from the body, which leads to dehydration. This can cause: Increased concentration of ketones in the blood, worsening the ketoacidosis; Loss of electrolytes such as potassium and salt that are vital for the normal function of the body's cells, and; Signs and symptoms Symptoms of DKA can develop over the course of hours. They can include: Increased thirst; Increased frequency Continue reading >>

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Ketoacidosis is an extremely serious diabetic complication that can lead to coma and even death. Unfortunately it is also fairly common. The good news, however, is that with proper care and an eye towards prevention, this costly and dangerous complication can be avoided. What Is Ketoacidosis? When there isn't enough insulin present for the metabolism of glucose, or when insufficient food has been eaten to satisfy energy requirements, the body burns fat for energy. Ketones are toxic, acidic byproducts of this process. Ketones are normally processed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. But when more ketones are produced than the kidneys can handle, they can build up in the blood and lead to a dangerous condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Ketoacidosis raises the acidity of the body, which leads to "a cascade of problems throwing off a number a parameters in the body," says Cindy Onufer, RN, MA, CDE, the diabetes research and clinical care coordinator at Oregon Health Sciences University. Ketoacidosis rarely occurs in people with type 2 diabetes, who usually do not suffer from insufficiency of insulin, but is of great concern to those with type 1 diabetes. In fact, ketoacidosis is the number one cause of hospitalization for children with known diabetes in the United States. However, these hospitalizations are completely preventable if a urine ketone test is done and a care provider is called when indicated, says H. Peter Chase, MD, with the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes in Denver, Colorado. Timely testing and prevention are of utmost importance as the condition can cause coma and death if proper treatment is not administered quickly. Higher ketone levels are a warning sign that your diabetes is out of control or that you may be in danger of ke Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Glossary Of Terms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Glossary Of Terms

Hypoglycemia: Low blood sugar (glucose). Hypoglycemia may be associated with symptoms such... See the entire definition of Hypoglycemia Infection: The invasion and multiplication of microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, an... Injury: Harm or hurt. To harm, hurt, or wound. The word injure may be in physical or emot... Insulin: A natural hormone made by the pancreas that controls the level of the sugar gluco... Juvenile: Between infantile and adult. Used in medicine to indicate onset in childhood, as... Ketoacidosis: A feature of uncontrolled diabetes mellitus characterized by a combination o... See the entire definition of Ketoacidosis Ketone: A chemical substances that the body makes when it does not have enough insulin in ... Kidney: One of a pair of organs located in the right and left side of the abdomen. The kid... Laboratory: A place for doing tests and research procedures, and for preparing chemicals a... Liver: The largest solid organ in the body, situated in the upper part of the abdomen on t... Low blood pressure: Any blood pressure that is below the normal expected for an individua... Metabolism: The whole range of biochemical processes that occur within a living organism. ... Mouth: 1. The upper opening of the digestive tract, beginning with the lips and con... Muscle: Muscle is the tissue of the body which primarily functions as a source of power. T... Organic: 1. A chemical compound that contains carbon. Pain: An unpleasant sensation that can range from mild, localized discomfort to agony. Pa... Potassium: The major positive ion (cation) found inside cells. The chemical notation for p... Prognosis: The forecast of the probable outcome or course of a disease; the patient's chan... Regimen: A plan or a regulated course, such as a diet, exercise, or treat Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis At Diabetes Onset Is Still Frequent In Children And Adolescents

Ketoacidosis At Diabetes Onset Is Still Frequent In Children And Adolescents

A multicenter analysis of 14,664 patients from 106 institutions Abstract OBJECTIVE We aimed at analyzing the frequency, clinical characteristics, and trends associated with the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the onset of type 1 diabetes on the basis of long-term follow-up data. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 106 pediatric diabetes centers in Germany and Austria participated in this study. Data from14,664 patients with type 1 diabetes collected between 1995 and 2007 were suitable for evaluation. DKA was defined and classified according to the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes consensus guidelines. RESULTS DKA was observed in 21.1% of patients. The frequency of DKA, including the severe form, remained unchanged throughout the 13-year observation period. The frequency of DKA was particularly striking among children <5 years of age (26.5%). CONCLUSIONS Ketoacidosis occurring at diabetes onset continues to be a difficult problem. Our data show no significant change in the frequency and magnitude of DKA over the last 13 years. Given that the incidence of type 1 diabetes is rising, and awareness of the disease is thus broadening, it is probably reasonable to expect a drop in the occurrence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at the onset of diabetes. By means of a computerized follow-up program for diabetic children called the Diabetes Prospective Documentation Initiative or Diabetes Patienten Verlaufsdokumenation (DPV), we analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of DKA occurring at the time of diabetes onset in order to ascertain whether a change in the frequency of DKA at diabetes onset was discernible over the last 13 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data collection Data was collected from 106 pediatric diabetes cente Continue reading >>

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

Before we get into anything, what does the word catabolism mean? When we went over catabolic and anabolic reactions, we said that catabolic reactions are the ones that break apart molecules. To remember what catabolic means, think of a CATastrophe where things are falling apart and breaking apart. You could also remember cats that tear apart your furniture. In order to make ATP for energy, the body breaks down mostly carbs, some fats and very small amounts of protein. Carbs are the go-to food, the favorite food that cells use to make ATP but now we’re going to see how our cells use fats and proteins for energy. What we’re going to find is that they are ALL going to be turned into sugars (acetyl) as this picture below shows. First let’s do a quick review of things you already know because it is assumed you learned cell respiration already and how glucose levels are regulated in your blood! Glucose can be stored as glycogen through a process known as glycogenesis. The hormone that promotes this process is insulin. Then when glycogen needs to be broken down, the hormone glucagon, promotes glycogenolysis (Glycogen-o-lysis) to break apart the glycogen and increase the blood sugar level. Glucose breaks down to form phosphoglycerate (PGAL) and then pyruvic acid. What do we call this process of splitting glucose into two pyruvic sugars? That’s glycolysis (glyco=glucose, and -lysis is to break down). When there’s not enough oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid. When oxygen becomes available, lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid. Remember that this all occurs in the cytoplasm. The pyruvates are then, aerobically, broken apart in the mitochondria into Acetyl-CoA. The acetyl sugars are put into the Krebs citric acid cycle and they are totally broken Continue reading >>

What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide

What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide

Ketoacidosis is lethal. It is responsible for over 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the US with a mortality rate of around 5%. In other words, ketoacidosis is to blame for about 5,000 deaths per year. The cause? A deadly combination of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone body levels in the blood (more on this deadly combination later). Luckily, this lethal triad rarely affects individuals who don’t have diabetes. However, the majority (80%) of cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with a known history of diabetes mellitus (any form of diabetes). Ketoacidosis vs. Diabetic Ketoacidosis — What’s The Difference? At this point, you may have noticed that I used ketoacidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis interchangeably. This is because it is difficult for the body to get into a state of ketoacidosis without the blood sugar control issues that are common in people with diabetes. Hence, the term diabetic ketoacidosis. (However, there is another form of ketoacidosis called alcoholic ketoacidosis. This occurs in alcoholics who had a recent alcohol binge during a period of time when they didn’t eat enough.) Ketoacidosis tends to occur the most in people who have type 1 diabetes. Somewhere between 5 and 8 of every 1,000 people with type 1 diabetes develops diabetic ketoacidosis each year. Type 2 diabetics also run the risk of ketoacidosis under stressful situations, but it is much rarer because type 2 diabetics have some remaining insulin production (type 1 diabetics do not). If you are not part of the 422 million people worldwide that have diabetes, your risk of getting ketoacidosis is negligible. You would have to put yourself through years of stress, inactivity, and unhealthy eating habits before you experience ketoacidosis. ( Continue reading >>

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