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Ketoacidosis Word Parts

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Ketoacidosis is an extremely serious diabetic complication that can lead to coma and even death. Unfortunately it is also fairly common. The good news, however, is that with proper care and an eye towards prevention, this costly and dangerous complication can be avoided. What Is Ketoacidosis? When there isn't enough insulin present for the metabolism of glucose, or when insufficient food has been eaten to satisfy energy requirements, the body burns fat for energy. Ketones are toxic, acidic byproducts of this process. Ketones are normally processed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. But when more ketones are produced than the kidneys can handle, they can build up in the blood and lead to a dangerous condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Ketoacidosis raises the acidity of the body, which leads to "a cascade of problems throwing off a number a parameters in the body," says Cindy Onufer, RN, MA, CDE, the diabetes research and clinical care coordinator at Oregon Health Sciences University. Ketoacidosis rarely occurs in people with type 2 diabetes, who usually do not suffer from insufficiency of insulin, but is of great concern to those with type 1 diabetes. In fact, ketoacidosis is the number one cause of hospitalization for children with known diabetes in the United States. However, these hospitalizations are completely preventable if a urine ketone test is done and a care provider is called when indicated, says H. Peter Chase, MD, with the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes in Denver, Colorado. Timely testing and prevention are of utmost importance as the condition can cause coma and death if proper treatment is not administered quickly. Higher ketone levels are a warning sign that your diabetes is out of control or that you may be in danger of ke Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition caused by a build-up of waste products called ketones in the blood. It occurs in people with diabetes mellitus when they have no, or very low levels of, insulin. DKA mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but it can also occur in some people with type 2 diabetes and pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Causes Glucose is an essential energy source for the body's cells. When food containing carbohydrates is eaten, it is broken down into glucose that travels around the body in the blood, to be absorbed by cells that use it for energy. Insulin works to help glucose pass into cells. Without insulin, the cells cannot absorb glucose to use for energy. This leads to a series of changes in metabolism that can affect the whole body. The liver attempts to compensate for the lack of energy in the cells by producing more glucose, leading to increased levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycaemia. The body switches to burning its stores of fat instead of glucose to produce energy. This leads to a build-up of acidic waste products called ketones in the blood and urine. This is known as ketoacidosis, and it can cause heart rhythm abnormalities, breathing changes and abdominal pain. The kidneys try to remove some of the excess glucose and ketones. However, this requires taking large amounts of fluid from the body, which leads to dehydration. This can cause: Increased concentration of ketones in the blood, worsening the ketoacidosis; Loss of electrolytes such as potassium and salt that are vital for the normal function of the body's cells, and; Signs and symptoms Symptoms of DKA can develop over the course of hours. They can include: Increased thirst; Increased frequency Continue reading >>

When Dka And I Met For The Firsttime

When Dka And I Met For The Firsttime

I saw a post last night that a friend shared about a young girl with Type 1 diabetes that had passed away. Her pump site apparently kinked and she went into DKA and then had brain damage, so her parents had to make the heartwrenching decision to remove her from life support. This led to a conversation with a couple of friends as I recounted my story of my first time in DKA. It will be forever ingrained in my head, so I thought Id share it here as well. I was in college 3+ hours away from home. And about 4 1/2 years post dx. I was visiting my boyfriends house and started feeling really sick. Started vomiting. To the point of not being able to get up off of the bathroom floor. I called the campus nurse and she told me to drink some Diet Sprite. Couldnt hold it down. Water? Couldnt hold it down. Anything I put in, came right back up. This is not a good combination for anyone, but especially for a diabetic. At the time I had NO idea how serious this was, but I was about to find out. After several hours of this cycle my boyfriend needed to go to work but didnt want to leave me alone. My mom was coincidentally going to be visiting me that weekend so he called the hotel to leave a message for her, not expecting her for another hour or so. (this part gives me chills.) When the hotel front desk answered and he asked to leave a message for her, the receptionist said, Oh, she is standing right here checking in. She had gotten on the road earlier than expected. He told her I was very sick and he thought she should come stay with me, because I was too sick to drive back to my dorm. She immediately heads over there (a 20 min drive that maybe took her 10 min) and saw it was bad. I was sooo soo incredibly sick. She said I needed to go to the ER, but I couldnt walk. So they had to pick Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes comes from the Greek word which means “siphon”. There are two distinct disorders that share the first name diabetes: diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. This is because both disorders cause polyuria, or excessive urine output. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of urine concentration which we will discuss in spring quarter. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of blood glucose regulation, which results from a deficiency in the action of the hormone insulin. This may be due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (type 1 diabetes mellitus) or it may result from a problem in the responsiveness of tissues to insulin, known as insulin resitance (type 2 diabetes mellitus). With either disorder, the result is hyperglycemia, or high levels of glucose in the plasma. How does hyperglycemia cause excessive urine production? To answer this, we need to understand a little bit about how the kidney works. Each kidney contains about a million functional units called nephrons (blue structure in the figure). The first step in the production of urine is a process called filtration (green arrow). In filtration, there is bulk flow of water and small molecules from the plasma into Bowman’s capsule (the first part of the nephron). Because of the nonspecific nature of filtration, useful small molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and certain ions end up in the forming urine, which flows into the kidney tubules. To prevent the loss of these useful substances from the body, the cells lining the kidney tubules use epithelial transport to transfer these substances out of the forming urine and back into the extracellular fluid. This process is known as reabsorption (purple arrows). Under normal circumstances, 100% of the glucose that is filtered is Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis : English Word Search - You Go Words!

Ketoacidosis : English Word Search - You Go Words!

Ketoacidosis is a 12 letter word , used as a noun, and has the letters acdeiikoosst (acdeikost). Starts with k , ends with s , six consonants, six vowels and five syllables. Learn how to use the easiest words finder here . Word lists are in the order of the most common words and most searched. You can use ketoacidosis as a noun in a sentence. Acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus Ketoacidosis in Pig Latin is said as "etoacidosiskay or etoacidosiskway". acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies View English words with the unique letters used in ketoacidosis. Words With The Letters Acdeikost abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues There are 9 part meronyms for the word ketoacidosis You guys and gals are all awesome. Please read the about page to learn who I am, and how this word finding tool works behind the scenes. This is a free word website, made by one dude. If you are not happy with this free website, I ask that you please send feedback or comment your thoughts below. Your constructive and kind criticism is appreciated. I will be adding a comments tool for all writers, authors, poets, decoders, puzzle players and members to interact and associate yourselves with words! All comments will be moderated by authorized English editors. Syllable counter is now available for text and documents. In The Middle / In The Center word finding. Searching "two syllable words with qu in the middle", "ab in the center",etc. will bring you to a list of words spelled with _a-z_. For "exactly center" use a search like "6 letters with qu in the middle" Word unscrambling. For fastest speed possible, you will now land on the top viewed set of characters for that set of letters. New Continue reading >>

Beta Hydroxybutyric Acidan Indicator For An Alcoholic Ketoacidosis As Cause Of Death In Deceased Alcohol Abusers

Beta Hydroxybutyric Acidan Indicator For An Alcoholic Ketoacidosis As Cause Of Death In Deceased Alcohol Abusers

We analyzed the postmortem blood of a total of 100 fatal cases for beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). In 25 cases of sudden and unexpected death of alcoholics we found pathologically increased levels of BHBA of 1260 to 47 200 (median 8000) mol/L. This led us to the diagnosis of an alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) as cause of death in these cases. The control group of 69 postmortem cases revealed that BHBA concentrations below 500 can be regarded as normal, and values up to 2500 mol/L as elevated. Our study shows that BHBA values over 2500 mol/L could lead to death, if no medical attention is sought. During storage we did not find any indication of postmortem formation or decomposition of BHBA in blood in vitro or in the corpses. In our opinion, BHBA should be considered the diagnostic marker of choice for the postmortem determination of alcoholic ketoacidosis (AKA) as the cause of death. The classical indications of such deaths are: unexpected death of a chronic alcoholic; none or only traces of ethanol in the blood; increased acetone blood concentration; and neither autopsy, histology, microbiology, nor toxicology reveal the cause of death. In six further cases a diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was diagnosed as the cause of death. Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Zurich, Zurich, Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) happens when your blood sugar is high and your insulin level is low. This imbalance in the body causes a build-up of ketones. Ketones are toxic. If DKA isn’t treated, it can lead to diabetic coma and even death. DKA mainly affects people who have type 1 diabetes. But it can also happen with other types of diabetes, including type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes (during pregnancy). DKA is a very serious condition. If you have diabetes and think you may have DKA, contact your doctor or get to a hospital right away. The first symptoms to appear are usually: frequent urination. The next stage of DKA symptoms include: vomiting (usually more than once) confusion or trouble concentrating a fruity odor on the breath. The main cause of DKA is not enough insulin. A lack of insulin means sugar can’t get into your cells. Your cells need sugar for energy. This causes your body’s glucose levels to rise. To get energy, the body starts to burn fat. This process causes ketones to build up. Ketones can poison the body. High blood glucose levels can also cause you to urinate often. This leads to a lack of fluids in the body (dehydration). DKA can be caused by missing an insulin dose, eating poorly, or feeling stressed. An infection or other illness (such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection) can also lead to DKA. If you have signs of infection (fever, cough, or sore throat), contact your doctor. You will want to make sure you are getting the right treatment. For some people, DKA may be the first sign that they have diabetes. When you are sick, you need to watch your blood sugar level very closely so that it doesn’t get too high or too low. Ask your doctor what your critical blood sugar level is. Most patients should watch their glucose levels c Continue reading >>

Diabetes Dictionary | Diabetes Canada

Diabetes Dictionary | Diabetes Canada

Look for special events, expos, programs and services close to home or a mouse-click away. To look up a word, use the "Find" feature in your browsers toolbar (or click and hold Ctrl + F) or click on one of the following letters and scroll down to see all terms which begin with that letter. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Elevated levels of fat stored around the abdomen and waist. People with abdominal obesity are at higher risk for diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), which can lead to heart attack and stroke. A skin disorder in which dark patches of skin and velvety thickening of the skin appear, especially in the neck, groin and under the arms. It may be a sign of insulin resistance and is common in children with type 2 diabetes. An autoimmune disease in which the adrenal glands (small glands located above the kidneys) do not work properly or stop working altogether. The adrenal glands produce many hormones, including cortisol, which helps the body maintain heart function, blood pressure control, and blood glucose control. Addisons disease sometimes occurs with type 1 diabetes. A hormone that is secreted in response to stress prepares the body for flight or fight. It has widespread effects on the circulation, the muscles and glucose metabolism. The former term for type 2 diabetes. Although type 2 diabetes usually occurs in people over 40, this term is no longer used because the disease is being increasingly diagnosed in younger people, even adolescents and children. Any physical activity that increases the heart rate. It strengthens the heart and lungs, increases metabolism, tones muscles, reduces blood pressure and can help with weight loss. In people with type 2 diabetes it can also help with blood glucose c Continue reading >>

Recurrent Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Inner-city Minority Patients

Recurrent Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Inner-city Minority Patients

OBJECTIVE To conduct a bedside study to determine the factors driving insulin noncompliance in inner-city patients with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed socioeconomic and psychological factors in 164 adult patients with DKA who were admitted to Grady Hospital between July 2007 and August 2010, including demographics, diabetes treatment, education, and mental illness. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Short Form-36 surveys were used to screen for depression and assess quality of life. RESULTS The average number of admissions was 4.5 ± 7 per patient. A total of 73 patients presented with first-time DKA, and 91 presented with recurrent DKA; 96% of patients were African American. Insulin discontinuation was the leading precipitating cause in 68% of patients; other causes were new-onset diabetes (10%), infection (15%), medical illness (4%), and undetermined causes (3%). Among those who stopped insulin, 32% gave no reasons for stopping, 27% reported lack of money to buy insulin, 19% felt sick, 15% were away from their supply, and 5% were stretching insulin. Compared with first-time DKA, those with recurrent episodes had longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), were a younger age at the onset of diabetes (P = 0.04), and had higher rates of depression (P = 0.04), alcohol (P = 0.047) and drug (P < 0.001) abuse, and homelessness (P = 0.005). There were no differences in quality-of-life scores, major psychiatric illnesses, or employment between groups. CONCLUSIONS Poor adherence to insulin therapy is the leading cause of recurrent DKA in inner-city patients. Several behavioral, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and educational factors contribute to poor compliance. The recognition of such factors and the institution of culturally Continue reading >>

Incidence And Mortality Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Benghazi-libya In 2007

Incidence And Mortality Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Benghazi-libya In 2007

Incidence and Mortality of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Benghazi-Libya in 2007 1Assistant Professor, Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine-Benghazi University, Libya. 2Senior House Officer, Medical Department, Al-Jamhoriya Hospital, Libya. 3Senior House Officer, Medical Department, 7th of October Hospital, Libya. 4Professor, Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine, Benghazi University, Libya. *Address correspondence and reprints request to: Rafik R. Elmehdawi, Assistant Professor, Medical Department, Faculty of Medicine-Benghazi University, Libya. E-mail: [email protected] This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis and the mortality rate at Benghazi city. A cross-sectional study of the records of all patients admitted with diabetic ketoacidosis to all Benghazi hospitals (governmental and private) between 1st of January and 31st of December 2007. The annual incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis was 41.7 episodes/100,000 populations with a mean age of 3320.1 years (2-93). Around 52% of all the episodes occurred in males and 2.6% of adult Diabetic ketoacidosis occurred in pregnant females. Type-2 diabetics were responsible for 27.7% of all episodes. The commonest precipitating factor in the whole study group was dose disruption (35%), followed by infection (20%). The most common presenting symptoms were gastrointestinal, whilst 3.5% of the patients were comatose at presentation. The overall mortality was 11.7% and there was no significant difference in mortality between males and females (11% vs. 12.6%; p=0.6); however, type-2 diabetics showed a significantly higher mortality rate (29.3% vs. 4.9%; p=0.000). Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common condition in Libya with a high mortality rate Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

As part of my Medical Nutrition Therapy (MNT) rotation, my preceptor has asked me to create a summary sheet of certain illnesses and complications associated with various disease states. One of which, is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. It develops when your body is unable to produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as an alternate fuel. This process produces a buildup of toxic acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. When cells dont get the glucose they need for energy, your body begins to burn fat for energy, which produces ketones. Ketones are acids that build up in the blood and appear in the urine when your body doesnt have enough insulin. They are a warning sign that your diabetes is out of control or that you are getting sick. High levels of ketones can poison the body. When levels get too high, you can develop DKA. DKA may happen to anyone with diabetes, though it is rare in people with type 2. Treatment for DKA usually takes place in the hospital. But you can help prevent it by learning the warning signs and checking your urine and blood regularly. DKA usually develops slowly. But when vomiting occurs, this is life-threatening and can develop in a few hours. Sugar is a main source of energy for the cells that make up your muscles and other tissues. Normally, sugar enters your cells with the help of insulin. If you dont have enough insulin in your body, your body wont be able to use sugar properly for energy. Th Continue reading >>

Diabetes Glossary

Diabetes Glossary

Antibodies Antibodies are specialized proteins that are part of the immune system. They are created when an antigen (such as a virus or bacteria) is detected in the body. The antibodies bond with the specific antigen that triggered their production, and that action neutralizes the antigen, which is a threat to the body. Antibodies are created to fight off whatever has invaded the body. See also autoantibodies. Antigens An antigen is a foreign substance (such as a virus or bacteria) that invades the body. When the body detects it, it produces specific antibodies to fight off the antigen. Autoantibodies Autoantibodies are a group of antibodies that “go bad” and mistakenly attack and damage the body’s tissues and organs. In the case of type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies attack the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Autoimmune disorder If you have an autoimmune disorder (also called an autoimmune disease), your body’s immune system turns against itself and starts to attack its own tissues. Basal secretion (basal insulin) We all should have a small amount of insulin that’s constantly present in the blood; that is the basal secretion. People with type 1 diabetes must take a form of insulin that replicates the basal secretion throughout the day; that’s basal insulin. Beta cells Beta cells are located in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. They are responsible for making insulin. Blood glucose level The blood glucose level is how much glucose is in your blood at a given time. This level is very important for people with diabetes, and they must monitor their blood glucose level throughout the day. If the blood glucose level is too high (hyperglycemia), that means that there isn’t enough insulin in the blood. If it’s too low (hypoglycemia), that mean Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentrations. The most common causes of DKA are infection and poor compliance with medication regimens. Other causes include undiagnosed diabetes, alcohol abuse, and a multitude of medical conditions such as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), complicated pregnancy, myocardial infarction, pancreatitis, and stress. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complicated pathology. Early recognition of DKA, a good understanding of the pathological processes of DKA, and aggressive treatment are the keys to successful treatment. With good care, DKA can be managed and the patient will survive. OBJECTIVES When the student has finished studying this module, he/she will be able to: 1. Identify the correct definition of DKA. 2. Identify a basic function of insulin. 3. Identify the insulin derangements of types I and II diabetes. 4. Identify the basic cause of DKA. 5. Identify two specific causes of DKA. 6. Identify the two pathogenic mechanisms that produce the signs/symptoms of DKA. 7. Identify metabolic consequences of increased hormone concentrations in DKA. 8. Identify the criteria used to diagnose DKA. 9. Identify common signs and symptoms of DKA. 10. Identify laboratory abnormalities seen in DKA. 11. Identify complications of DKA. 12. Identify the three most important therapies for treating DKA. 13. Identify the correct roles of sodium bicarbonate and phosphate in treating DKA. 14. Identify an important rule for using potassium replacement in DKA. 15. Identify an important rule for switching from IV to subcutaneous insulin. EPIDEMIOLOGY Most cases of DKA are seen in patients with type I diabete Continue reading >>

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis & Lacticacidosis

Alcoholic Ketoacidosis & Lacticacidosis

A 39 year-old female with a history of severe alcohol abuse presents to the ED with altered mental status. Her initial blood sugar is 57. A family member arrives to share that she has recently had epigastric pain and several episodes of emesis, limiting her alcohol intake. The patient is tachycardic, her blood pH is 7.4, lactate is 20, ketones are present in her serum, and she has an anion gap of 44. AT RISK: alcoholics who binge followed by several days of vomiting, decreased food intake, dehydration, and abstinence from alcohol CLINICAL EXAM FINDINGS: tachypnea, dehydration, ketonuria, serum glucose <200 mg/dL, typically normal blood pH despite ketonemia due to coexisting respiratory and metabolic alkalosis (vomiting) -the increased ketones are likely due to acute starvation in a patient who is chronically malnourished alcohol is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase using NAD+ as a cofactor to form acetaldehyde and NADH -the presence of NADH combines with pyruvate to form lactate and NAD+ -lactate cannot be metabolized in the reverse reaction without thiamine, a cofactor for pyruvate dehydrogenase Normal saline, thiamine (to metabolize the lactate), glucose, correction of electrolyte abnormalities (hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia) Clinical improvement is typically detected within hours of therapy, however these patients should be admitted for complete correction of fluid, electrolyte, and nutritional deficiencies Figure 1. The role of thiamine in aerobic metabolism. If glucose is administered without thiamine, the metabolic demand for thiamine increases, which may precipitate or worsen lactic acidosis. This may also trigger Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or wet or dry beriberi. Continue reading >>

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