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Ketoacidosis Word Parts

Our Diabetes Story: My 11 Year Old Son Went Into Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Was Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

Our Diabetes Story: My 11 Year Old Son Went Into Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Was Diagnosed With Type 1 Diabetes

We had a really scary time this week — my 11-year-old son ended up in the Pediatric ICU at the local children’s hospital for two days due to Diabetic Ketoacidosis and we found out he has Type 1 Diabetes. I’m sharing our story because I missed obvious signs. Maybe another parent or caregiver might miss signs too. Maybe this will save a kid from going into Diabetic Ketoacidosis. While Type 1 Diabetes is not curable; maybe if I had put things together, we could have prevented a 2 day stay in the Pediatric Intensive Care unit. Our Diabetes Story: My 11 Year old Son Went Into Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Has Type 1 Diabetes According to the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation: “Knowing the warning signs for type 1 diabetes could help save a life! Type 1 diabetes can often go undiagnosed in its early stages because the symptoms can be mistaken for more common illnesses, like the flu. Take notice if you or your loved one experiences the following: Extreme thirst Frequent urination Drowsiness and lethargy Sugar in urine Sudden vision changes Increased appetite Sudden weight loss Fruity, sweet, or wine-like odor on breath Heavy, labored breathing Stupor or unconsciousness Call your doctor immediately if one or more of these symptoms occurs in you or your loved one. It is extremely important to receive medical attention—misdiagnosis or leaving your condition untreated can have tragic consequences, including death.” This is how we wound up at the hospital: Last Friday night B vomited (food) late at night. I didn’t think anything of it because he had eaten ice cream with his cousins and then miso soup and samosas for dinner. Crazy combination, right? He was fine all weekend after that and I was watching him closely. He seemed tired and very thirsty. (WARNING SIGNS). Ho Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis At Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children In Northern Finland

Ketoacidosis At Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes In Children In Northern Finland

Ketoacidosis at Diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes in Children in Northern Finland 1Department of Pediatrics, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Oulu, Finland 2Hospital for Children and Adolescents, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland 3Department of Pediatrics, Tampere University Hospital, Tampere, Finland Address correspondence and reprint requests to Riitta Veijola, University of Oulu, Oulu University Hospital, Department of Pediatrics P.O. Box 5000, 90014 Oulu, Finland. E-mail: riitta.veijola{at}oulu.fi Diabetes Care 2007 Apr; 30(4): 861-866. OBJECTIVETo study the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) over a 20-year period among children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes in northern Finland. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSThe study population comprised 585 patients (328 boys) diagnosed with type 1 diabetes aged <15 years in the Department of Pediatrics, Oulu University Hospital, between 1 January 1982 and 31 December 2001. The data for clinical characteristics were collected retrospectively from the patients case records. The earlier 10-year period (19821991) was compared with the later 10-year period (19922001). Two definitions for DKA were used: DKA(i) pH <7.30 or DKA(ii) pH <7.30 and/or bicarbonate <15 mmol/l. RESULTSDuring the later 10-year period, children less often had DKA at diagnosis [DKA(i) 15.2 vs. 22.4%, P = 0.028, and DKA(ii) 18.9 vs. 29.5%, P = 0.003]. The proportion of young children aged <5 years at diagnosis increased over time, but the frequency of DKA also was lower in this age-group during 19922001 compared with the earlier 10-year period [DKA(i) 17.7 vs. 32.1%, P = 0.052, and DKA(ii) 20.3 vs. 42.6%, P = 0.005]. In children aged <2 years at diagnosis, the frequency of DKA remained high during 19922001 [DKA(i) 39.1% and DKA(ii) 47.8%]. CONC Continue reading >>

Diabetes Dictionary | Diabetes Canada

Diabetes Dictionary | Diabetes Canada

Look for special events, expos, programs and services close to home or a mouse-click away. To look up a word, use the "Find" feature in your browsers toolbar (or click and hold Ctrl + F) or click on one of the following letters and scroll down to see all terms which begin with that letter. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Elevated levels of fat stored around the abdomen and waist. People with abdominal obesity are at higher risk for diseases such as diabetes and atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), which can lead to heart attack and stroke. A skin disorder in which dark patches of skin and velvety thickening of the skin appear, especially in the neck, groin and under the arms. It may be a sign of insulin resistance and is common in children with type 2 diabetes. An autoimmune disease in which the adrenal glands (small glands located above the kidneys) do not work properly or stop working altogether. The adrenal glands produce many hormones, including cortisol, which helps the body maintain heart function, blood pressure control, and blood glucose control. Addisons disease sometimes occurs with type 1 diabetes. A hormone that is secreted in response to stress prepares the body for flight or fight. It has widespread effects on the circulation, the muscles and glucose metabolism. The former term for type 2 diabetes. Although type 2 diabetes usually occurs in people over 40, this term is no longer used because the disease is being increasingly diagnosed in younger people, even adolescents and children. Any physical activity that increases the heart rate. It strengthens the heart and lungs, increases metabolism, tones muscles, reduces blood pressure and can help with weight loss. In people with type 2 diabetes it can also help with blood glucose c Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Peer Reviewers

Peer Reviewers

Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Outpatient Perspective On Evaluation and Management Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common, serious acute complication in children with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis can accompany new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus or it can occur with established type 1 diabetes mellitus during the increased demands of an acute illness or with decreased insulin delivery due to omitted doses or insulin pump failure. Additionally, diabetic ketoacidosis episodes in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus are being reported with greater frequency. Although the diagnosis is usually straightforward in a known diabetes patient with expected findings, a fair proportion of patients with new-onset diabetes present in diabetic ketoacido- sis. The initial management of children with diabetic ketoacidosis frequently occurs in an emergency department. Physicians must be aware that diabetic ketoacidosis is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of pediatric metabolic acidosis. This review will acquaint emergency medicine clinicians with the pathophysiology, treatment, and potential complications of this disorder. Author William Bonadio, MD Attending Physician, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY Arleta Rewers, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Joseph I. Wolfsdorf, MD Clinical Director, Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA CME Objectives Upon completion of this article, you should be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiology of DKA and the associated clinical signs and symptoms of this disorder. 2. Discuss management of DKA to restore metabolic hom Continue reading >>

When Dka And I Met For The Firsttime

When Dka And I Met For The Firsttime

I saw a post last night that a friend shared about a young girl with Type 1 diabetes that had passed away. Her pump site apparently kinked and she went into DKA and then had brain damage, so her parents had to make the heartwrenching decision to remove her from life support. This led to a conversation with a couple of friends as I recounted my story of my first time in DKA. It will be forever ingrained in my head, so I thought Id share it here as well. I was in college 3+ hours away from home. And about 4 1/2 years post dx. I was visiting my boyfriends house and started feeling really sick. Started vomiting. To the point of not being able to get up off of the bathroom floor. I called the campus nurse and she told me to drink some Diet Sprite. Couldnt hold it down. Water? Couldnt hold it down. Anything I put in, came right back up. This is not a good combination for anyone, but especially for a diabetic. At the time I had NO idea how serious this was, but I was about to find out. After several hours of this cycle my boyfriend needed to go to work but didnt want to leave me alone. My mom was coincidentally going to be visiting me that weekend so he called the hotel to leave a message for her, not expecting her for another hour or so. (this part gives me chills.) When the hotel front desk answered and he asked to leave a message for her, the receptionist said, Oh, she is standing right here checking in. She had gotten on the road earlier than expected. He told her I was very sick and he thought she should come stay with me, because I was too sick to drive back to my dorm. She immediately heads over there (a 20 min drive that maybe took her 10 min) and saw it was bad. I was sooo soo incredibly sick. She said I needed to go to the ER, but I couldnt walk. So they had to pick Continue reading >>

Obesity Is Now A Bad Word! - Crossfit Discussion Board

Obesity Is Now A Bad Word! - Crossfit Discussion Board

Community Catch all category for CrossFit community discussion. I don't often have time to talk to much to my patients in the ER. Once in a while I will take or have the time to talk to them about what they are dealing with. The other day I had a mid 40's white male in DKA. He seems reasonable enough. He was dealing with new onset of diabetes, so it was understandable how he was in DKA. It's really hard to find what works and what does not when it's all new to you. As I was placing his IV doing an doing his EKG and blood sugar I started to talk to him. He was asking me some questions. I told him not to over simplify but diet and excise need to be your best friends. I explained that in the diabetic community that they struggle with Obesity and low activity levels. I never said he was obese! I used the term as a medical term. I went on with my little Infomercial. Telling him that I was once part of a study at WVU where we had diabetics do two 15 minuet sessions of walking and other exercises twice a day for 4 months. That at the end of the four months most of there BP's had decreased and that most of them were using less insulin daily. But that after the study all of them stopped there exercise program....how frustrating! Ok, just for the record I never said he was obese.( but he is!) Later I walked passed the room and overheard him saying to his wife. "She really should not use that word Obesity or any form of it." Then he went on to say he was going to write a complaint about me. Well ****, there I go caring again. I should have just called him what he was and left it at that! (Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication in patients with untreated diabetes mellitus (chronic high blood sugar or hyperglycemia). Near complete deficiency of insulin and e Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis : English Word Search - You Go Words!

Ketoacidosis : English Word Search - You Go Words!

Ketoacidosis is a 12 letter word , used as a noun, and has the letters acdeiikoosst (acdeikost). Starts with k , ends with s , six consonants, six vowels and five syllables. Learn how to use the easiest words finder here . Word lists are in the order of the most common words and most searched. You can use ketoacidosis as a noun in a sentence. Acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus Ketoacidosis in Pig Latin is said as "etoacidosiskay or etoacidosiskway". acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies View English words with the unique letters used in ketoacidosis. Words With The Letters Acdeikost abnormally high acidity (excess hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues There are 9 part meronyms for the word ketoacidosis You guys and gals are all awesome. Please read the about page to learn who I am, and how this word finding tool works behind the scenes. This is a free word website, made by one dude. If you are not happy with this free website, I ask that you please send feedback or comment your thoughts below. Your constructive and kind criticism is appreciated. I will be adding a comments tool for all writers, authors, poets, decoders, puzzle players and members to interact and associate yourselves with words! All comments will be moderated by authorized English editors. Syllable counter is now available for text and documents. In The Middle / In The Center word finding. Searching "two syllable words with qu in the middle", "ab in the center",etc. will bring you to a list of words spelled with _a-z_. For "exactly center" use a search like "6 letters with qu in the middle" Word unscrambling. For fastest speed possible, you will now land on the top viewed set of characters for that set of letters. New Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition caused by a build-up of waste products called ketones in the blood. It occurs in people with diabetes mellitus when they have no, or very low levels of, insulin. DKA mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but it can also occur in some people with type 2 diabetes and pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Causes Glucose is an essential energy source for the body's cells. When food containing carbohydrates is eaten, it is broken down into glucose that travels around the body in the blood, to be absorbed by cells that use it for energy. Insulin works to help glucose pass into cells. Without insulin, the cells cannot absorb glucose to use for energy. This leads to a series of changes in metabolism that can affect the whole body. The liver attempts to compensate for the lack of energy in the cells by producing more glucose, leading to increased levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycaemia. The body switches to burning its stores of fat instead of glucose to produce energy. This leads to a build-up of acidic waste products called ketones in the blood and urine. This is known as ketoacidosis, and it can cause heart rhythm abnormalities, breathing changes and abdominal pain. The kidneys try to remove some of the excess glucose and ketones. However, this requires taking large amounts of fluid from the body, which leads to dehydration. This can cause: Increased concentration of ketones in the blood, worsening the ketoacidosis; Loss of electrolytes such as potassium and salt that are vital for the normal function of the body's cells, and; Signs and symptoms Symptoms of DKA can develop over the course of hours. They can include: Increased thirst; Increased frequency Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a very serious complication of diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder that is characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased body ketone concentrations. The most common causes of DKA are infection and poor compliance with medication regimens. Other causes include undiagnosed diabetes, alcohol abuse, and a multitude of medical conditions such as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), complicated pregnancy, myocardial infarction, pancreatitis, and stress. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complicated pathology. Early recognition of DKA, a good understanding of the pathological processes of DKA, and aggressive treatment are the keys to successful treatment. With good care, DKA can be managed and the patient will survive. OBJECTIVES When the student has finished studying this module, he/she will be able to: 1. Identify the correct definition of DKA. 2. Identify a basic function of insulin. 3. Identify the insulin derangements of types I and II diabetes. 4. Identify the basic cause of DKA. 5. Identify two specific causes of DKA. 6. Identify the two pathogenic mechanisms that produce the signs/symptoms of DKA. 7. Identify metabolic consequences of increased hormone concentrations in DKA. 8. Identify the criteria used to diagnose DKA. 9. Identify common signs and symptoms of DKA. 10. Identify laboratory abnormalities seen in DKA. 11. Identify complications of DKA. 12. Identify the three most important therapies for treating DKA. 13. Identify the correct roles of sodium bicarbonate and phosphate in treating DKA. 14. Identify an important rule for using potassium replacement in DKA. 15. Identify an important rule for switching from IV to subcutaneous insulin. EPIDEMIOLOGY Most cases of DKA are seen in patients with type I diabete Continue reading >>

What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide

What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide

Ketoacidosis is lethal. It is responsible for over 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the US with a mortality rate of around 5%. In other words, ketoacidosis is to blame for about 5,000 deaths per year. The cause? A deadly combination of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone body levels in the blood (more on this deadly combination later). Luckily, this lethal triad rarely affects individuals who don’t have diabetes. However, the majority (80%) of cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with a known history of diabetes mellitus (any form of diabetes). Ketoacidosis vs. Diabetic Ketoacidosis — What’s The Difference? At this point, you may have noticed that I used ketoacidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis interchangeably. This is because it is difficult for the body to get into a state of ketoacidosis without the blood sugar control issues that are common in people with diabetes. Hence, the term diabetic ketoacidosis. (However, there is another form of ketoacidosis called alcoholic ketoacidosis. This occurs in alcoholics who had a recent alcohol binge during a period of time when they didn’t eat enough.) Ketoacidosis tends to occur the most in people who have type 1 diabetes. Somewhere between 5 and 8 of every 1,000 people with type 1 diabetes develops diabetic ketoacidosis each year. Type 2 diabetics also run the risk of ketoacidosis under stressful situations, but it is much rarer because type 2 diabetics have some remaining insulin production (type 1 diabetics do not). If you are not part of the 422 million people worldwide that have diabetes, your risk of getting ketoacidosis is negligible. You would have to put yourself through years of stress, inactivity, and unhealthy eating habits before you experience ketoacidosis. ( Continue reading >>

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Ketoacidosis is an extremely serious diabetic complication that can lead to coma and even death. Unfortunately it is also fairly common. The good news, however, is that with proper care and an eye towards prevention, this costly and dangerous complication can be avoided. What Is Ketoacidosis? When there isn't enough insulin present for the metabolism of glucose, or when insufficient food has been eaten to satisfy energy requirements, the body burns fat for energy. Ketones are toxic, acidic byproducts of this process. Ketones are normally processed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. But when more ketones are produced than the kidneys can handle, they can build up in the blood and lead to a dangerous condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Ketoacidosis raises the acidity of the body, which leads to "a cascade of problems throwing off a number a parameters in the body," says Cindy Onufer, RN, MA, CDE, the diabetes research and clinical care coordinator at Oregon Health Sciences University. Ketoacidosis rarely occurs in people with type 2 diabetes, who usually do not suffer from insufficiency of insulin, but is of great concern to those with type 1 diabetes. In fact, ketoacidosis is the number one cause of hospitalization for children with known diabetes in the United States. However, these hospitalizations are completely preventable if a urine ketone test is done and a care provider is called when indicated, says H. Peter Chase, MD, with the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes in Denver, Colorado. Timely testing and prevention are of utmost importance as the condition can cause coma and death if proper treatment is not administered quickly. Higher ketone levels are a warning sign that your diabetes is out of control or that you may be in danger of ke Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

Root Words – Medical Terminology Example 1: (A root word with no prefix or suffix.) The root word "plasma" means a semi-liquid form found in cells. Example 2:(A prefix and root word conjoined.) The prefix dys- means painful and root word "uria" means urine, together they form the medical term "dysuria" which mean "painful or difficult urination. Example 3: (A root word and suffix conjoined.) The root word dermat means skin, the suffix ology means the study of, together they form the medical term "dermatology" which means "to study the skin". Example 4:(A prefix, root word, and suffix conjoined.) The prefix leuko means white, the root word cyte means cell, and the suffix osis means a condition of. Together these word parts form the term "leukocytosis", which means "a condiotion of elevated white blood cells". · Root word: Acanth(o) Meaning: Spiny, thorny Example: acanthion - the tip of the anterior nasal spine · Root word: Actin(o) Meaning: Light Example: Actinotherapy - ultraviolet light therapy used in dermatology · Root word: Aer(o) Meaning: Air, gas Example: Aerosol - liquid or particulate matter dispersed in air, gas, or vapor form · Root word: Alge, algesi, algio, algo Meaning: Pain Example: Analgesic - a pain reducing agent · Root word: Amyl(o) Meaning: Starch Example: Amylolysis - hydrolysis of starch unto soluable products · Root words: Andro Meaning: Masculine Example: Androsterone - a steroid metabolite found in male urine · Root words: Athero Meaning: Plaque, fatty substance Example: Atheroembolism - cholesterol embolism originating from an atheroma · Root qord: Bacill(i) Meaning: Bacilli, bacteria Example: Bacillemia - presence of bacilli in the blood · Root word: Bacteri(o) Meaning: Bacteria Example: Bacteriocin - a protien Continue reading >>

Recurrent Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Inner-city Minority Patients

Recurrent Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Inner-city Minority Patients

OBJECTIVE To conduct a bedside study to determine the factors driving insulin noncompliance in inner-city patients with recurrent diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed socioeconomic and psychological factors in 164 adult patients with DKA who were admitted to Grady Hospital between July 2007 and August 2010, including demographics, diabetes treatment, education, and mental illness. The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 and the Short Form-36 surveys were used to screen for depression and assess quality of life. RESULTS The average number of admissions was 4.5 ± 7 per patient. A total of 73 patients presented with first-time DKA, and 91 presented with recurrent DKA; 96% of patients were African American. Insulin discontinuation was the leading precipitating cause in 68% of patients; other causes were new-onset diabetes (10%), infection (15%), medical illness (4%), and undetermined causes (3%). Among those who stopped insulin, 32% gave no reasons for stopping, 27% reported lack of money to buy insulin, 19% felt sick, 15% were away from their supply, and 5% were stretching insulin. Compared with first-time DKA, those with recurrent episodes had longer duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), were a younger age at the onset of diabetes (P = 0.04), and had higher rates of depression (P = 0.04), alcohol (P = 0.047) and drug (P < 0.001) abuse, and homelessness (P = 0.005). There were no differences in quality-of-life scores, major psychiatric illnesses, or employment between groups. CONCLUSIONS Poor adherence to insulin therapy is the leading cause of recurrent DKA in inner-city patients. Several behavioral, socioeconomic, psychosocial, and educational factors contribute to poor compliance. The recognition of such factors and the institution of culturally Continue reading >>

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