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Ketoacidosis Word Breakdown

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

Root Words – Medical Terminology Example 1: (A root word with no prefix or suffix.) The root word "plasma" means a semi-liquid form found in cells. Example 2:(A prefix and root word conjoined.) The prefix dys- means painful and root word "uria" means urine, together they form the medical term "dysuria" which mean "painful or difficult urination. Example 3: (A root word and suffix conjoined.) The root word dermat means skin, the suffix ology means the study of, together they form the medical term "dermatology" which means "to study the skin". Example 4:(A prefix, root word, and suffix conjoined.) The prefix leuko means white, the root word cyte means cell, and the suffix osis means a condition of. Together these word parts form the term "leukocytosis", which means "a condiotion of elevated white blood cells". · Root word: Acanth(o) Meaning: Spiny, thorny Example: acanthion - the tip of the anterior nasal spine · Root word: Actin(o) Meaning: Light Example: Actinotherapy - ultraviolet light therapy used in dermatology · Root word: Aer(o) Meaning: Air, gas Example: Aerosol - liquid or particulate matter dispersed in air, gas, or vapor form · Root word: Alge, algesi, algio, algo Meaning: Pain Example: Analgesic - a pain reducing agent · Root word: Amyl(o) Meaning: Starch Example: Amylolysis - hydrolysis of starch unto soluable products · Root words: Andro Meaning: Masculine Example: Androsterone - a steroid metabolite found in male urine · Root words: Athero Meaning: Plaque, fatty substance Example: Atheroembolism - cholesterol embolism originating from an atheroma · Root qord: Bacill(i) Meaning: Bacilli, bacteria Example: Bacillemia - presence of bacilli in the blood · Root word: Bacteri(o) Meaning: Bacteria Example: Bacteriocin - a protien Continue reading >>

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

The Catabolism Of Fats And Proteins For Energy

Before we get into anything, what does the word catabolism mean? When we went over catabolic and anabolic reactions, we said that catabolic reactions are the ones that break apart molecules. To remember what catabolic means, think of a CATastrophe where things are falling apart and breaking apart. You could also remember cats that tear apart your furniture. In order to make ATP for energy, the body breaks down mostly carbs, some fats and very small amounts of protein. Carbs are the go-to food, the favorite food that cells use to make ATP but now we’re going to see how our cells use fats and proteins for energy. What we’re going to find is that they are ALL going to be turned into sugars (acetyl) as this picture below shows. First let’s do a quick review of things you already know because it is assumed you learned cell respiration already and how glucose levels are regulated in your blood! Glucose can be stored as glycogen through a process known as glycogenesis. The hormone that promotes this process is insulin. Then when glycogen needs to be broken down, the hormone glucagon, promotes glycogenolysis (Glycogen-o-lysis) to break apart the glycogen and increase the blood sugar level. Glucose breaks down to form phosphoglycerate (PGAL) and then pyruvic acid. What do we call this process of splitting glucose into two pyruvic sugars? That’s glycolysis (glyco=glucose, and -lysis is to break down). When there’s not enough oxygen, pyruvic acid is converted into lactic acid. When oxygen becomes available, lactic acid is converted back to pyruvic acid. Remember that this all occurs in the cytoplasm. The pyruvates are then, aerobically, broken apart in the mitochondria into Acetyl-CoA. The acetyl sugars are put into the Krebs citric acid cycle and they are totally broken Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

Glucose Insulin And Diabetes – Acute Complications Of Diabetes – Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Glucose Insulin And Diabetes – Acute Complications Of Diabetes – Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Glucose Insulin and Diabetes Every cell in the human body needs energy to survive and do its different functions. If we’re talking about a brain cell, it needs energy to keep stimulating other brain cells and sending on signals and messages. If it’s a muscle cell, it needs energy to contract. They need energy just to do the basic functions of a cell. And the place that they get that energy from, or the primary source of that energy, is from glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar. If you were to actually taste glucose, it would taste sweet. And glucose gets delivered to cells through the bloodstream. So this right here, I’m drawing some blood that’s passing by a cell. Maybe the blood is going in that direction over there. And inside the blood, let me draw some small glucose molecules passing by. And so in an ideal situation, when a cell needs energy, glucose will enter the cell. Unfortunately, it’s not that simple for the great majority of cells in the human body. The glucose won’t enter by itself. It needs the assistance of a hormone or a molecule called insulin. So let me label all of these. This right here is the glucose, and it needs insulin. So let me draw insulin as these magenta molecules right over here. That over there, that is insulin. And the surface of the cells, they have insulin receptors on them. And I’m just drawing very simplified versions of them, kind of a place where these magenta circles can attach, can bind. And what happens is, in order for the glucose to be taken up by the cell, insulin has to attach to these receptors, which unlocks the channels for glucose. In order for the glucose to go in, insulin has to bind to the insulin receptors. And then, once that happens, then the glucose can be taken up by the cell. Now, unfortunately, thing Continue reading >>

Ads – Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Ads – Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA is an interesting topic that has briefly come up for me in my clinical orientation. I was interested in learning more about this, especially prior to my PICU rotation. During the ADS each pair of residents had critically appraised a paper and discussed it. This allowed us all to have a greater understanding of the primary literature by discussing it with one another. Pearls about DKA: DKA is defined as: Plasma glucose > 11.1 mmol/L + pH < 7.3 and/or HCO3 < 15 mmol/L + ketonuria or ketonemia + sx of diabetic complications e.g. polyuria, polydypsia, weight loss and fatigue Ketoacidosis of DKA is as a result of having increased fat usage for energy due to inability to appropriately utilize sugar sources for energy. Ketones are a breakdown product of fats, and are acidic and thus when there are too many of them it results in ketoacidosis. Causes of DKA: Undiagnosed type 1 diabetes, unmanaged type 2 diabetes, insulin omission or manipulation, inadequate insulin dosing/monitoring (inappropriate sick day management), pump misuse or infusion site disconnection. The reason we are concerned with DKA is the morbidity of DKA-related cerebral edema. This is more common in those who are younger, more “sick”, new-onset diabetes, longer duration of symptoms, inc dehydration (sunken eyes, dec skin turgor, anuria) and high degree of acidosis. Tx variables associated with DKA-related cerebral edema Too-rapid fall (>2 mmol/L/h) in corrected sodium Failure to correct or uncorrected sodium rise Too-rapid fall (>4 mOsm/kg/h) in active osmolarity Use of bicarbonate to treat acidosis Early insulin treatment of large insulin boluses Use of fluids: > 4 L/m2/24h or > 50 mL/kg in the first 4 hours Treatment guidelines: 1st step: correct dehydration Typically done wi Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

diabetes [pathology] | adult onset diabetes [sense-specific] | juvenile-onset diabetes [pathology, sense-specific] | diabetes mellitus [synonym, sense-specific] | Type I diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | insulin-dependent diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | juvenile diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | Type II diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | non-insulin-dependent diabetes [synonym, sense-specific] | ... any of several disorders characterized by increased urine production. | a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism, usually occurring in genetically ... (18 of 196 words, 5 definitions, pronunciations) Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a very serious condition in which chemicals known as ‘ketones’ are build up in the blood of a patient with diabetes. It can happen to individuals who have either type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes but it is more common in people having type 1 diabetes. In people, who have type 1 diabetes, a chemical or hormone called ‘insulin’ is either deficient or completely absent and insulin is necessary for the breakdown of sugars in the human body to get energy. Without insulin, the body starts burning fats to produce energy and as a result of that ‘ketones’ are produced and start building up in blood and can cause diabetic ketoacidosis. There are a number of reasons which can eventually lead to diabetic ketoacidosis: If a patient is not being treated for diabetes and it is possible that patient doesn’t even know that he/she has diabetes and patient’s body is burning fats to produce ketones. Patient has some serious illness, for example, blood infection The patient is not using insulin as directed by the doctor. The patient is skipping insulin doses intentionally or unintentionally. Patient’s sugar levels mostly remain higher than required. In other words, the patient has poor control of diabetes. The patient is dehydrated (decreased amount of total body water). The patient is losing more water and taking less. Patient belongs to poor family and couldn’t afford treatment for diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis is more common in young children. The patient is taking certain medications for some other ailment that could cause ketoacidosis. Patient is drinking alcohol and taking illicit drugs e.g. amphetamines The Following symptoms can be present in a patient with diabetic ketoacidosis: Patient might feel thirsty and drink lot of water The pa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition caused by a build-up of waste products called ketones in the blood. It occurs in people with diabetes mellitus when they have no, or very low levels of, insulin. DKA mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, but it can also occur in some people with type 2 diabetes and pregnant women with gestational diabetes. Causes Glucose is an essential energy source for the body's cells. When food containing carbohydrates is eaten, it is broken down into glucose that travels around the body in the blood, to be absorbed by cells that use it for energy. Insulin works to help glucose pass into cells. Without insulin, the cells cannot absorb glucose to use for energy. This leads to a series of changes in metabolism that can affect the whole body. The liver attempts to compensate for the lack of energy in the cells by producing more glucose, leading to increased levels of glucose in the blood, also known as hyperglycaemia. The body switches to burning its stores of fat instead of glucose to produce energy. This leads to a build-up of acidic waste products called ketones in the blood and urine. This is known as ketoacidosis, and it can cause heart rhythm abnormalities, breathing changes and abdominal pain. The kidneys try to remove some of the excess glucose and ketones. However, this requires taking large amounts of fluid from the body, which leads to dehydration. This can cause: Increased concentration of ketones in the blood, worsening the ketoacidosis; Loss of electrolytes such as potassium and salt that are vital for the normal function of the body's cells, and; Signs and symptoms Symptoms of DKA can develop over the course of hours. They can include: Increased thirst; Increased frequency Continue reading >>

A Glossary Of Key Diabetes Terms

A Glossary Of Key Diabetes Terms

Learning that you have diabetes can be overwhelming — with lifestyle changes, new medications, and the variety of tests needed to stay healthy. One stumbling block for anybody managing a chronic condition can be the vocabulary of medical terms. Here's a glossary of some of the most common diabetes terms you need to know. A1C: a test that reveals exactly how well your blood sugar (glucose) has been controlled over the previous three months. Beta cells: cells found in the pancreas that make insulin. Blood glucose: also known as blood sugar, glucose comes from food and is then carried through the blood to deliver energy to cells. Blood glucose meter: a small medical device used to check blood glucose levels. Blood glucose monitoring: the simple blood test used to check the amount of glucose in the blood; a tiny drop of blood, taken by pricking a finger, is placed on a test strip and inserted in the meter for reading. Diabetes: the shortened name for diabetes mellitus, the condition in which the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or your body is unable to use insulin to move glucose into cells of the body. Diabetic retinopathy: the eye disease that occurs in someone with diabetes when the small blood vessels of the retina become swollen and leak liquid into the retina, blurring vision; it can sometimes lead to blindness. Gestational diabetes: the diabetes some women develop during pregnancy; it typically subsides after the baby is delivered, but many women who have had gestational diabetes may develop type 2 diabetes later in life. Glucagon: the hormone that is injected into a person with diabetes to raise their blood glucose level when it's very low (hypoglycemia). Glucose: blood sugar that gives energy to cells. Hyperglycemia: also known as high blood glucose, th Continue reading >>

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Caution: Don’t Get Caught With Ketones

Ketoacidosis is an extremely serious diabetic complication that can lead to coma and even death. Unfortunately it is also fairly common. The good news, however, is that with proper care and an eye towards prevention, this costly and dangerous complication can be avoided. What Is Ketoacidosis? When there isn't enough insulin present for the metabolism of glucose, or when insufficient food has been eaten to satisfy energy requirements, the body burns fat for energy. Ketones are toxic, acidic byproducts of this process. Ketones are normally processed by the kidneys and excreted in the urine. But when more ketones are produced than the kidneys can handle, they can build up in the blood and lead to a dangerous condition known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Ketoacidosis raises the acidity of the body, which leads to "a cascade of problems throwing off a number a parameters in the body," says Cindy Onufer, RN, MA, CDE, the diabetes research and clinical care coordinator at Oregon Health Sciences University. Ketoacidosis rarely occurs in people with type 2 diabetes, who usually do not suffer from insufficiency of insulin, but is of great concern to those with type 1 diabetes. In fact, ketoacidosis is the number one cause of hospitalization for children with known diabetes in the United States. However, these hospitalizations are completely preventable if a urine ketone test is done and a care provider is called when indicated, says H. Peter Chase, MD, with the Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes in Denver, Colorado. Timely testing and prevention are of utmost importance as the condition can cause coma and death if proper treatment is not administered quickly. Higher ketone levels are a warning sign that your diabetes is out of control or that you may be in danger of ke Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

ketoacidosis [ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis] the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood, which results in metabolic acidosis; it is often associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. See also ketosis. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. ke·to·ac·i·do·sis (kē'tō-as'i-dō'sis), Acidosis, as in diabetes or starvation, caused by the enhanced production of ketone bodies. ketoacidosis /ke·to·ac·i·do·sis/ (ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis) acidosis accompanied by the accumulation of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids. ketoacidosis (kē′tō-ăs′ĭ-dō′sĭs) n. pl. ketoaci·doses (-dō′sēz) 1. Metabolic acidosis caused by an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and body tissues. 2. This condition occurring as a complication of untreated or improperly controlled diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes, characterized by thirst, fatigue, a fruity odor on the breath, and other symptoms, and having the potential to progress to coma or death. Also called diabetic ketoacidosis. ketoacidosis [kē′tōas′idō′sis] acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the body, resulting from extensive breakdown of fats because of faulty carbohydrate metabolism. It occurs primarily as a complication of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by a fruity odor of acetone on the breath, mental confusion, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and, if untreated, coma. Emergency treatment includes the administration of insulin and IV fluids and the evaluation and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Nasogastric intubation and bladder catheterization may be required if the patient is comatose. Continue reading >>

Complications Of Relatively Rapid Onset Include Diabetic

Complications Of Relatively Rapid Onset Include Diabetic

Popular Wikipedia articles that use the word ketoacidosis: There are two major causes of ketoacidosis: —Ketosis In early 2010, Casey died of diabetic ketoacidosis. —Woody Johnson There are some case reports of olanzapine-induced diabetic ketoacidosis. —Olanzapine In type I diabetics, ketoacidosis can be associated with sinusitis due to mucormycosis. —Sinusitis Acute complications can include diabetic ketoacidosis, nonketotic hyperosmolar coma, or death. —Diabetes mellitus Another example of increased production of acids occurs in starvation and diabetic ketoacidosis. —Acidosis The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. —Diabetes mellitus type 2 Some medical conditions, such as kidney failure and diabetic ketoacidosis, can also affect sweat odor. —Perspiration Complications of relatively rapid onset include diabetic ketoacidosis and nonketotic hyperosmolar coma. —Diabetes mellitus type 1 Classical diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) presents with abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, but without diarrhea. —Gastroenteritis Ketoacidosis can occur in individuals who chronically abuse alcohol and have a recent history of binge drinking. —Binge drinking Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. —Diabetic ketoacidosis Alcoholic ketoacidosis can occur in individuals who chronically abuse alcohol and have a recent history of binge drinking. —Alcoholism Ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a dangerous and extreme ketotic condition associated with type I diabetes. —Low-carbohydrate diet Signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis may include: Hyperglycemia can be a serious problem if not treated in time. —Hyperglyce Continue reading >>

Princeton's Wordnet(0.00 / 0 Votes)rate This Definition:

Princeton's Wordnet(0.00 / 0 Votes)rate This Definition:

acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus A severe form of ketosis, most commonly seen in diabetics, in which so much ketone is produced that acidosis occurs. Origin: From ketones + acidosis Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and β-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct byproduct of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. The numerical value of ketoacidosis in Chaldean Numerology is: 5 The numerical value of ketoacidosis in Pythagorean Numerology is: 4 Citation Use the citation below to add this definition to your bibliography: Continue reading >>

Diabetes Glossary

Diabetes Glossary

The following is a list of diabetes-related terms and their definitions. These words, listed in alphabetical order, are the most common ones you will hear when you are discussing diabetes. *Please note many of these definitions are product specific. A A1C (HbA1c) - Glycosylated hemoglobin. A1C (HbA1c) test - A 2-3 month average of blood glucose values expressed in percent. The normal range varies with different labs and is expressed in percent (such as 4 - 6%). AACE - American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. A professional organization devoted to the field of clinical endocrinology. ACE - American College of Endocrinology. *Accept - Pressing the ACT button to approve the selection or setting. *Active insulin - Bolus insulin that has been delivered to your body, but has not yet been used. ADA - American Diabetes Association®. Adult-onset diabetes - Former term for Type 2 diabetes. Adverse reaction - An unexpected, unpleasant or dangerous reaction to a sensor when it is inserted into the body. An adverse reaction may be sudden or may develop over time. *Alarm - Audible or vibrating (silent) notice that indicates the pump is in Attention mode and immediate attention is required. Alarms are prefixed in the alarm history with the letter A. *Alarm clock - Feature you can set to go off at specified times of the day. *Alarm history - Screen that displays the last 36 alarms/errors that have occurred on your pump. *Alarm icon - A solid circle that shows at the top of the screen and the pump beeps or vibrates periodically until the condition is cleared (see Attention mode). *Alert - Audible or vibrating (silent) indicator that notifies you the pump needs attention soon or that you should be reminded of something. Insulin delivery continues as programmed. *Alert icon - A Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

What you should know Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a common, serious, and preventable complication of type 1 diabetes, with a mortality of 3-5%. It can also occur in patients with other types of diabetes It can be the first presentation of diabetes. This accounts for about 6% of cases The diagnosis is not always apparent and should be considered in anyone with diabetes who is unwell Diagnosis is based on biochemical criteria. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA Immediate treatment consists of intravenous fluids, insulin, and potassium, with careful monitoring of blood glucose and potassium levels to avoid hypoglycaemia and hypokalaemia Knowledge of the type of diabetes at the time of DKA does not affect immediate treatment, and all patients with DKA should be advised to continue with insulin on discharge Subsequent management should focus on patient education and support to avoid recurrence Patients should be managed by a specialist multidisciplinary team during and after an episode of DKA What is DKA? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an extreme metabolic state caused by insulin deficiency. The breakdown of fatty acids (lipolysis) produces ketone bodies (ketogenesis), which are acidic. Acidosis occurs when ketone levels exceed the body’s buffering capacity (figure⇓).1 2 Diabetic ketoacidosis may follow absolute insulin deficiency or relative insulin deficiency. Relative insulin deficiency may occur in the presence of increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones such as glucagon, cortisol, and catecholamines. Insulin deficiency results in lipolysis and ketogenesis. Ketone bodies are acidic and may initially be buffered, but when levels are high enough, will result in acidosis How common Continue reading >>

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