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Ketoacidosis When Pregnant

How Can L Control My Blood Sugar?

How Can L Control My Blood Sugar?

When your body fails to transport sugar from blood into cells, high blood sugar occurs. And if left unchecked, it leads to diabetes. Mentioned below are some tactics that could help you lower blood sugar levels: - Regular exercise - Reduce Carbohydrate intake - Include fiber in your diet - Stay hydrated - Opt for food items with low glycemic index - Eat foods rich in magnesium (whole grains, avocados, etc) and chromium (egg yolks, nuts, green beans) Apart from the above mentioned points, make it a point to include herbal supplements in your lifestyle. As compared to modern, synthetic medicines, Herbal medicines are free of side-effects and are focused on root causes. Some of the herbals for controlling blood sugar are as follows: - Himalaya Diabecon’ - Himalaya Karela Blood Sugar - Himalaya Gymnema Blood Glucose Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetes?

What Is Diabetes?

My current understanding compels me to formulate the following brief answer: If both type 1 (an autoimmune) and type 2 (a lifestyle) diabetes are pulled together, I’d describe them with the unifying name ‘fuel partitioning disease of insulin’. Now, that’s not to say that type 1 diabetes does not have a strong lifestyle component as well… You may rightfully ask what I mean by ‘fuel partitioning disease’? Understanding the physiological role of insulin in the body leads you to this conclusion. The general role of insulin was perfectly described by George Cahill in his Banting Memorial Lecture way back in 1971: “Insulin serves as the body's signal for the fed or fasted state. High insulin levels, the “fed” signal, initiate tissue uptake and storage of fuels. Low insulin levels, the “fasted” signal, initiate mobilization of stored fuels from tissue stores, the rate being proportional to the lowness of the insulin. Certain metabolic states such as obesity or trauma alter the concentration of insulin at which no net transfer of fuel occurs, resulting in insulin resistance or hyper-sensitivity.” Our understanding has been refined to some extent since then, but the basics are well described. In fact, where our knowledge has improved the most is the mechanisms underlying the impaired action of insulin. As it seems now, as soon as (especially superficial, below the waistline) subcutaneous fat depots fail to take up and store lipids (fat) in an appropriate (insulin sensitive) way, these lipids get deposited in less appropriate places. First, in deeper subcutaneous, then visceral, epicardial, etc. adipose depots, and if those become full as well, fat starts flooding all insulin sensitive organs, such as the liver, the pancreas, and the endothelium (the inn Continue reading >>

Managing Severe Preeclampsia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Managing Severe Preeclampsia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

US Pharm. 2010;35(9):HS-2-HS-8. Pregnancy is associated with increased levels of emotional and physical stress. Women with preexisting conditions such as hypertension and diabetes require intense prenatal monitoring by health care professionals. Pharmacists in direct contact with patients can play an integral role in identifying signs and symptoms that require immediate care. Two conditions that require emergent treatment in pregnant women are severe preeclampsia and diabetic ketoacidosis. SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA Hypertensive disorders can affect 6% to 8% of women and increase the risk of morbidity and mortality in both the expectant mother and the unborn child.1,2 Hypertension in pregnancy is divided into four categories: chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, preeclampsia, and preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension. The focus in this article is on severe preeclampsia, but a brief discussion of preeclampsia is warranted. Preeclampsia, a pregnancy-specific syndrome of unknown etiology, is a multiorgan disease process characterized by the development of hypertension and proteinuria after 20 weeks' gestation.1,2 See TABLE 1 for diagnostic criteria.1,2 History of antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, chronic hypertension, chronic renal disease, elevated body-mass index, age 40 years or older, multiple gestation, nulliparity, preeclampsia in a previous pregnancy, and pregestational diabetes mellitus increase a woman's risk of preeclampsia.1 Preeclampsia is classified as mild or severe based on the degree of hypertension, the level of proteinuria, and the presence of symptoms resulting from the involvement of the kidneys, brain, liver, and cardiovascular system. The incidence of severe preeclampsia is 0.9% in the United States.3 Severe preeclampsia is associate Continue reading >>

Diabetes Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetes Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious medical and obstetrical emergency usually occurring in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Although modern management of the patient with diabetes should prevent the occurrence of DKA during pregnancy, this complication still occurs and can result in significant morbidity and mortality for mother and/or fetus. Metabolic changes occurring during pregnancy can predispose a pregnant diabetic to DKA. The diagnosis of DKA can be more challenging during pregnancy as it does not always manifest with the classic presenting symptoms or laboratory findings. In fact, although uncommon, during pregnancy, DKA may develop even in the setting of relative normoglycemia. Prompt diagnosis and management is essential in order to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes. This article will provide the reader with information regarding the pathophysiology underlying DKA complicating pregnancy and will provide practical management guidelines for the diagnosis and management of this condition. Continue reading >>

A Case Of A Woman With Late-pregnancy-onset Dka Who Had Normal Glucose Tolerance In The First Trimester

A Case Of A Woman With Late-pregnancy-onset Dka Who Had Normal Glucose Tolerance In The First Trimester

Hiromi Himuro, Takashi Sugiyama, Hidekazu Nishigori, Masatoshi Saito, Satoru Nagase, Junichi Sugawara and Nobuo Yaegashi Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1 Seiryo-machi, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574, Japan Summary Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during pregnancy is a serious complication in both mother and fetus. Most incidences occur during late pregnancy in women with type 1 diabetes mellitus. We report the rare case of a woman with type 1 diabetes mellitus who had normal glucose tolerance during the first trimester but developed DKA during late pregnancy. Although she had initially tested positive for screening of gestational diabetes mellitus during the first trimester, subsequent diagnostic 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests showed normal glucose tolerance. She developed DKA with severe general fatigue in late pregnancy. The patient's general condition improved after treatment for ketoacidosis, and she vaginally delivered a healthy infant at term. The presence of DKA caused by the onset of diabetes should be considered, even if the patient shows normal glucose tolerance during the first trimester. The presence of DKA caused by the onset of diabetes should be considered, even if the patient shows normal glucose tolerance during the first trimester. Symptoms including severe general fatigue, nausea, and weight loss are important signs to suspect DKA. Findings such as Kussmaul breathing with ketotic odor are also typical. Urinary test, atrial gas analysis, and anion gap are important. If pH shows normal value, calculation of anion gap is important. If the value of anion gap is more than 12, a practitioner should consider the presence of metabolic acidosis. Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute metabol Continue reading >>

Eating Disorders And Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Pregnant Woman With Type 1 Diabetes: A Case Report

Eating Disorders And Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Pregnant Woman With Type 1 Diabetes: A Case Report

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in a pregnant woman with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) and disordered eating behaviour treated with a continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion, and to discuss some aspects of the monitoring and management of DKA in pregnancy and whether a pump is the safest therapeutic choice in the presence of some eating disorders. CASE REPORT: This 26-year-old Caucasian woman affected by T1DM was hospitalised during the last weeks of her fourth pregnancy because of DKA due to disordered eating. She was treated with a fluid infusion, intravenous insulin, and her electrolyte imbalance was carefully corrected. An elective cesarean section was performed after the correction of DKA in the 34th week (+6 days) of gestation. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that pregnancy in T1DM women with eating disorders may not be rare. The prevention, early recognition and aggressive management of DKA can minimise the possible complications, and is mandatory for the safety of the fetus and mother. Continue reading >>

Starvation Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Starvation Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Introduction: Starvation ketosis outside pregnancy is a rare phenomenon and is unlikely to cause a severe acidosis. Pregnancy is an insulin resistant state due to placental production of hormones including glucagon and human placental lactogen. Insulin resistance increases with advancing gestation and this confers a susceptibility to ketosis, particularly in the third trimester. Starvation ketoacidosis in pregnancy has been reported and is usually precipitated by a period of severe vomiting. Ketoacidosis has been associated with intrauterine death. Case report: A 22-year-old woman in her third pregnancy presented at 32 weeks gestation with a 24 h history of severe vomiting. She had been treated for an asthma exacerbation with prednisolone and erythromycin the day prior to presentation. She was unwell, hypertensive (145/70 mmHg) with a sinus tachycardia and Kussmaul breathing. Urinalysis showed ++++ ketones, + protein and pH 5. Fingerprick glucose was 4 mmol/l and ketones were 4.0 mmol/l. Arterial blood gas showed pH 7.27, PaCO2 1.1 kPa, base excess −23, bicarbonate 8.6 mmol/l and lactate 0.6 mmol/l. The anion gap was 20. Serum ethanol, salicylates and paracetamol levels were undetectable. She was fluid resuscitated but her biochemical parameters did not improve. She was intubated and underwent emergency caesarean section. A healthy boy was delivered and her acidosis resolved over the subsequent 8 h. Discussion: We believe this case is explained by starvation ketoacidosis. There was no evidence of diabetes mellitus or other causes of a metabolic acidosis. In view of the hypertension, proteinuria and raised urate the differential diagnosis was an atypical presentation of pre-eclampsia. This case illustrates the metabolic stress imposed by the feto-placental unit. It als Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious metabolic complication of diabetes with high mortality if undetected. Its occurrence in pregnancy compromises both the fetus and the mother profoundly. Although predictably more common in patients with type 1 diabetes, it has been recognised in those with type 2 diabetes as well as gestational diabetes, especially with the use of corticosteroids for fetal lung maturity and β2-agonists for tocolysis.1–3 Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in the second and third trimesters because of increased insulin resistance, and is also seen in newly presenting type 1 diabetes patients. With increasing practice of antepartum diabetes screening and the availability of early and frequent prenatal care/surveillance, the incidence and outcomes of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy have vastly improved. However, it still remains a major clinical problem in pregnancy since it tends to occur at lower blood glucose levels and more rapidly than in non-pregnant patients often causing delay in the diagnosis. The purpose of this article is to illustrate a typical patient who may present with diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and review the literature on this relatively uncommon condition and provide an insight into the pathophysiology and management. MAGNITUDE OF THE PROBLEM In non-pregnant patients with type 1 diabetes, the incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis is about 1–5 episodes per 100 per year with mortality averaging 5%–10%.4 The incidence rates of diabetic ketoacidosis in pregnancy and the corresponding fetal mortality rates from different retrospective studies5–8 are summarised in the table 1. As is evident from the table, both the incidence and rates of fetal loss in pregnancies have fallen in recent times compared with those before. In 1963 Continue reading >>

What Are The Common Symptoms Of Diabetes?

What Are The Common Symptoms Of Diabetes?

If you have any of the following diabetes symptoms, see your doctor about getting your blood sugar tested: Urinate (pee) a lot, often at night Are very thirsty Lose weight without trying Are very hungry Have blurry vision Have numb or tingling hands or feet Feel very tired Have very dry skin Have sores that heal slowly Have more infections than usual People who have type 1 diabetes may also have nausea, vomiting, or stomach pains. Type 1 diabetes symptoms can develop in just a few weeks or months and can be severe. Type 1 diabetes usually starts when you’re a child, teen, or young adult but can happen at any age. Type 2 diabetes symptoms often develop over several years and can go on for a long time without being noticed (sometimes there aren’t any noticeable symptoms at all). Type 2 diabetes usually starts when you’re an adult, though more and more children, teens, and young adults are developing it. Because symptoms are hard to spot, it’s important to know the risk factors for type 2 diabetes and visit your doctor if you have any of them. Disclaimer: I am the co-founder of DeeveHealth. DeeveHealth is a mobile platform to prevent Type 2 diabetes. Based on the scientific behavior of human and science of prevention using data points. For more information check out our web-site Continue reading >>

Diabetes Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetes Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious medical and obstetrical emergency usually occurring in patients with type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. Although modern management of the patient with diabetes should prevent the occurrence of DKA during pregnancy, this complication still occurs and can result in significant morbidity and mortality for mother and/or fetus. Metabolic changes occurring during pregnancy can predispose a pregnant diabetic to DKA. The diagnosis of DKA can be more challenging during pregnancy as it does not always manifest with the classic presenting symptoms or laboratory findings. In fact, although uncommon, during pregnancy, DKA may develop even in the setting of relative normoglycemia. Prompt diagnosis and management is essential in order to optimize maternal and fetal outcomes. This article will provide the reader with information regarding the pathophysiology underlying DKA complicating pregnancy and will provide practical management guidelines for the diagnosis and management of this condition. Continue reading >>

Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pregnancy

Sibai, Baha M. MD; Viteri, Oscar A. MD Pregnancies complicated by diabetic ketoacidosis are associated with increased rates of perinatal morbidity and mortality. A high index of suspicion is required, because diabetic ketoacidosis onset in pregnancy can be insidious, usually at lower glucose levels, and often progresses more rapidly as compared with nonpregnancy. Morbidity and mortality can be reduced with early detection of precipitating factors (ie, infection, intractable vomiting, inadequate insulin management or inappropriate insulin cessation, β-sympathomimetic use, steroid administration for fetal lung maturation), prompt hospitalization, and targeted therapy with intensive monitoring. A multidisciplinary approach including a maternal-fetal medicine physician, medical endocrinology specialists familiar with the physiologic changes in pregnancy, an obstetric anesthesiologist, and skilled nursing is paramount. Management principles include aggressive volume replacement, initiation of intravenous insulin therapy, correction of acidosis, correction of electrolyte abnormalities and management of precipitating factors, as well as monitoring of maternal-fetal response to treatment. When diabetic ketoacidosis occurs after 24 weeks of gestation, fetal status should be continuously monitored given associated fetal hypoxemia and acidosis. The decision for delivery can be challenging and must be based on gestational age as well as maternal-fetal responses to therapy. The natural inclination is to proceed with emergent delivery for nonreassuring fetal status that is frequently present during the acute episode, but it is imperative to correct the maternal metabolic abnormalities first, because both maternal and fetal conditions will likewise improve. Prevention strategies shou Continue reading >>

Case Of Nondiabetic Ketoacidosis In Third Term Twin Pregnancy | The Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic

Case Of Nondiabetic Ketoacidosis In Third Term Twin Pregnancy | The Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism | Oxford Academic

We provided appropriate management with fluid infusion after cesarean delivery. The patient and her two daughters survived, and no disabilities were foreseen. Alcohol, methanol, and lactic acid levels were normal. No signs of renal disease or diabetes were present. Pathological examination revealed no abnormalities of the placentae. Toxicological tests revealed a salicylate level of less than 5 mg/liter, an acetaminophen level of less than 1 mg/liter, and an acetone level of 300 mg/liter (reference, 520 mg/liter). We present a case of third term twin pregnancy with high anion gap metabolic acidosis due to (mild) starvation. Starvation, obesity, third term twin pregnancy, and perhaps a gastroenteritis were the ultimate provoking factors. In the light of the erroneous suspicion of sepsis and initial fluid therapy lacking glucose, one wonders whether, under a different fluid regime, cesarean section could have been avoided. Severe ketoacidosis in the pregnant woman is associated with impaired neurodevelopment. It therefore demands early recognition and immediate intervention. A 26-yr-old patient was admitted to our hospital complaining of rapid progressive dyspnea and abdominal discomfort. She was pregnant with dichorial, diamniotic twins for 35 wk and 4 d. Medical history showed that she was heterozygous for hemochromatosis. Two years before, she had given birth to a healthy girl of 3925 g by cesarean section, and 1 yr before, she had had a spontaneous abortion. Her preadmission outpatient surveillance revealed slightly elevated blood pressure varying from 132158 mm Hg systolic and 7995 mm Hg diastolic. Glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin were tested at 24 wk and were normal at 4.6 mmol/liter and 5.4% (36 mmol/mol), respectively. Urine analysis at the outpatient obstetri Continue reading >>

[normoglycaemic Ketoacidosis In Pregnant Patients With Diabetes; Early Recognition Is Critical].

[normoglycaemic Ketoacidosis In Pregnant Patients With Diabetes; Early Recognition Is Critical].

Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) during pregnancy is a rare but very serious complication that requires early recognition and treatment to prevent severe complications. Here we present three cases in which DKA occurred during normoglycaemia, demonstrating the importance of early recognition. In pregnancy, DKA can occur at lower blood glucose levels than usual due to several pregnancy-related factors, such as altered metabolism, increased insulin resistance, lower buffering capacity related to chronic hyperventilation and hunger. Symptoms that are common during pregnancy, such as vomiting, may be missed as a first sign of DKA. In patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (especially those on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) insulin administration must never be discontinued, as this prevents lipolysis and ketone formation. Physicians and patients need to be aware of the risks and management of DKA in pregnancy. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

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