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Ketoacidosis Symptoms Anorexia

How To Identify Ketosis

How To Identify Ketosis

Expert Reviewed Ketosis is a normal metabolic process by which your body breaks down stored fat for energy, which can also result in a dangerous buildup of ketones in the body called ketoacidosis.[1] Ketosis is often the product of a low-carbohydrate diet that people use to lose weight and gain muscle or it can also be a product of malnutrition. Although the long-term risks of ketosis are not clear, there is some evidence that it can increase your risk of heart disease and certain cancers.[2] By recognizing the signs of ketosis, you can help minimize your risk for developing ketoacidosis.[3] Continue reading >>

Do You Know The Side Effects Of Respirdal?

Do You Know The Side Effects Of Respirdal?

Risperdal is available as a generic drug. Common side effects of Risperdal include: extrapyramidal effects (sudden, often jerky, involuntary motions of the head, neck, arms, body, or eyes), tiredness, drowsiness, feeling hot or cold, restlessness, stomach pain, runny or stuffy nose, Tell your doctor if you experience serious side effects of Risperdal including difficulty swallowing, muscle spasms, shaking (tremor), mental/mood changes, or signs of infection (such as fever, persistent sore throat). Risperdal dose ranges from 0.5 mg to 8mg/day. Risperdal may interact with other medicines that make you sleepy (such as cold or allergy medicine, narcotic pain medicine, sleeping pills, muscle relaxers, and medicine for seizures, depression, or anxiety), carbamazepine, cimetidine, ranitidine, clozapine, fluoxetine, paroxetine, phenytoin, valproic acid, phenobarbital, rifampin, or medicines used to treat Parkinson's Disease. Tell your doctor all medications and supplements you use. There are no adequate studies of risperidone in pregnant women so it should not be used unless the benefits outweigh the potential unknown risks. Risperidone is excreted in human breast milk and women receiving risperidone should not breastfeed. Our Risperdal Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. articles. This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. Risperdal in Detail - Patient Information: Side Effects Get emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Clinical Presentation

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Clinical Presentation

History Insidious increased thirst (ie, polydipsia) and urination (ie, polyuria) are the most common early symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Malaise, generalized weakness, and fatigability also can present as symptoms of DKA. Nausea and vomiting usually occur and may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia. A history of rapid weight loss is a symptom in patients who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Patients may present with a history of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons. Decreased perspiration is another possible symptom of DKA. Altered consciousness in the form of mild disorientation or confusion can occur. Although frank coma is uncommon, it may occur when the condition is neglected or if dehydration or acidosis is severe. Among the symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are fever, dysuria, coughing, malaise, chills, chest pain, shortness of breath, and arthralgia. Acute chest pain or palpitation may occur in association with myocardial infarction. Painless infarction is not uncommon in patients with diabetes and should always be suspected in elderly patients. A study by Crossen et al indicated that in children with type 1 diabetes, those who have had a recent emergency department visit and have undergone a long period without visiting an endocrinologist are more likely to develop DKA. The study included 5263 pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. [15] Continue reading >>

Symptoms And Symptom Management

Symptoms And Symptom Management

Many physical and psychological symptoms accompany the end of life. In one study, 1,000 cancer patients had a median of eleven symptoms during the terminal phase of illness, many of which affect the patient's quality of life. Assessment and management of common symptoms are thus integral to a balanced approach to end-of-life care. Because of the multidimensional nature of many symptoms, an interdisciplinary team approach to assessment and management is essential. Such an interdisciplinary team calls for the expertise of nurses, physicians, social workers, nursing assistants, spiritual care providers, and expressive therapists. Prevalence and Relevance of Symptoms Pharmacological and nonpharmacological efforts to alleviate the symptoms seek to accommodate the patient's desires. For example, if a patient has requested to be as alert as possible until death, and if the same patient needs an antiemetic agent to control nausea and vomiting, the common side effect of sedation represents an unacceptable tradeoff to the patient. If, on the other hand, the patient desires total control of the nausea and vomiting, even at the expense of alertness, such medication would be appropriate. The goal of symptom management is quality of life. Fatigue. Fatigue is the most prevalent end-of-life symptom, second only to pain. In a study by Conill, fatigue was present in 80 percent of 176 palliative care patients. There is not a universal definition of fatigue. Patients often speak of weakness, easy tiring, or inability to perform the activities of daily living. According to death experts Linda Tyler and Arthur Lipman, fatigue is a multifaceted symptom. Tyler and Lipman identify the following causes of fatigue: anemia, pain, depression, insomnia, dehydration, metabolic disease process, and si Continue reading >>

Causes Of Loss Of Appetite And Excessive Thirst

Causes Of Loss Of Appetite And Excessive Thirst

Several conditions can cause decreased appetite and increased thirst. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, or UMMC, increased thirst, also known as polydipsia, is a fairly common symptom. However, increased thirst coupled with decreased hunger may signal a serious underlying condition that needs medical attention and intervention. A person experiencing loss of appetite and increased thirst should consult a qualified health care professional for a heath evaluation or assessment. Video of the Day Anorexia nervosa may cause a loss of appetite and excessive thirst. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder associated with an unreasonable fear of gaining weight and an obsession with food. A person with anorexia nervosa attempts to maintain a weight that is at least 15 percent below normal for her age and height. Anorexia nervosa is most common among adolescent girls, although adolescent boys and even adults of all genders can develop this condition. Common signs and symptoms associated with anorexia nervosa include loss of appetite, increased thirst, extreme weight loss, fatigue, insomnia, brittle nails, thinning hair, absence of menstrual periods, constipation, cold intolerance, irregular heart rhythms and decreased blood pressure. MayoClinic.com states that certain risk factors may increase the likelihood of developing anorexia nervosa, including youth, female gender, genetics and participation in certain work, sports or artistic activities. Diabetes insipidus can cause decreased appetite and increased thirst. Diabetes insipidus is a condition in which a person's kidneys are incapable of conserving water as they filter blood. The volume of water conserved by the kidneys is controlled by antidiuretic hormone, or ADH. ADH, also known as vasopressin, governs t Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Eating Disorders

Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are a significant health problem for many people with Type 1 diabetes, especially among adolescents. In Type 1 diabetes, the pancreas cannot produce insulin because the cells that manufacture insulin have been destroyed by the body’s own immune system. This insulin must be replaced in order for the body to absorb glucose from food, therefore people with Type 1 diabetes need to administer insulin daily. Managing Type 1 diabetes is a complex balancing act between different pharmacological insulin regimes and support from a diabetes health care team. A healthy eating plan is a central part of managing Type 1 diabetes, alongside insulin injections or a pump, and a program of physical activity. This means that a person with diabetes will have to focus on their food intake over a long period of time, which can sometimes lead to a problematic relationship with food and eating. Who is at risk? Anyone living with diabetes can be at risk of developing an eating disorder, however research suggests that adolescent and young adult women are most at risk. This may be due to the particular challenges that come with this period in their lives. For example, during adolescence, factors such as school, peer pressure and body image concerns can lead to significant stress. In addition, developmental and hormonal changes can have an impact on blood sugar control, leading to difficulties in diabetes management. Young adulthood is a similarly challenging time. Schedules often become busier, there are increasing work pressures, new friendships and serious relationships are formed. This is also a time that people begin to create their own identity. Factors that may increase the risk of developing an eating disorder As well as individual, family and social stresses that can con Continue reading >>

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes Complications In Dogs And Cats: Diabetes Ketoacidosis (dka)

Unfortunately, we veterinarians are seeing an increased prevalence of diabetes mellitus in dogs and cats. This is likely due to the growing prevalence of obesity (secondary to inactive lifestyle, a high carbohydrate diet, lack of exercise, etc.). So, if you just had a dog or cat diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, what do you do? First, we encourage you to take a look at these articles for an explanation of the disease: Diabetes Mellitus (Sugar Diabetes) in Dogs Once you have a basic understanding of diabetes mellitus (or if you already had one), this article will teach you about life-threatening complications that can occur as a result of the disease; specifically, I discuss a life-threatening condition called diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) so that you know how to help prevent it! What is DKA? When diabetes goes undiagnosed, or when it is difficult to control or regulate, the complication of DKA can occur. DKA develops because the body is so lacking in insulin that the sugar can’t get into the cells -- resulting in cell starvation. Cell starvation causes the body to start breaking down fat in an attempt to provide energy (or a fuel source) to the body. Unfortunately, these fat breakdown products, called “ketones,” are also poisonous to the body. Symptoms of DKA Clinical signs of DKA include the following: Weakness Not moving (in cats, hanging out by the water bowl) Not eating to complete anorexia Large urinary clumps in the litter box (my guideline? If it’s bigger than a tennis ball, it’s abnormal) Weight loss (most commonly over the back), despite an overweight body condition Excessively dry or oily skin coat Abnormal breath (typically a sweet “ketotic” odor) In severe cases DKA can also result in more significant signs: Abnormal breathing pattern Jaundice Ab Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis Caused By Anorexia Nervosa

Ketoacidosis Caused By Anorexia Nervosa

Please log in to add your comment. Transcript of Ketoacidosis caused by Anorexia Nervosa Ketoacidosis caused by Anorexia Nervosa Resources Symptoms Weakness, Tiredness Nasuea Shortness of Breath Vomiting High Blood Sugar, Rapid Pulse Low Blood Pressure Extreme Thirst Frequent Urination Leg Cramps Treatment Take in lots of Fluids Take in lots of Electrolytes Insulin treatment to lower high blood sugar levels How It Relates To Other Body Systems Ketoacidosis keeps blood sugar high, leading to nerve, blood vessel and kidney damage, as well as worsening pancreatic damage which in turn makes the condition more severe. What Further Tests are Needed Electrolyte test: Potassium, sodium, blood urea, serum, Ketone levels and kidney function markers along with an arterial blood gas sample are the electrolyte tests for ketoacidosis. • Other tests may be used to check underlying conditions , based on the history and physical examination findings. These may include chest x-ray, urine analysis and possible scan of brain Urinalysis and Connection to results Ketones are detected in the blood using urinalysis Ketones build up when the body needs to break down fats and fatty acids to use as fuel. This is most likely to occur when the body does not get enough sugar or carbohydrates, because of Anorexia Nervosa. Full transcript Continue reading >>

Eating Disorders In Type 1 Diabetes: Risks And Recommendations

Eating Disorders In Type 1 Diabetes: Risks And Recommendations

Girls and women with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) are almost 2.5 times as likely to develop an eating disorder as those without diabetes(1). In order to understand why this might be, one must first understand the complexity of T1DM and the unique symptom of insulin restriction. Recently, this phenomenon has been referred to as “diabulimia” in both the popular press and by those who are struggling themselves. I have a love-hate relationship with the term. My love comes from the knowledge that having a name has given women who struggle an actual voice. They have something to call it and something to describe. Also, if something has a name, then they can’t be the only ones with the problem. This awareness is a huge step forward as it brings with it the possibility of decreasing shame and possible secrecy. My hate, which is too strong a word, comes from several angles. First, the “bulimia” part of the word runs the risk of implying that only people who binge have this problem. What I’ve seen in my practice is that eating disorders of all kinds occur in the context of T1DM. I think of them as falling on a continuum—people can exclusively restrict food and calories, they can restrict both food and insulin, they can eat normally and restrict insulin, they can binge and restrict insulin, they can use other means of purging, or they can binge without purging. This leads to my second problem with the term, which is that it seems to oversimplify the problem taking all these nuances and fitting them into one entity. The reality is that all eating disorders in the context of T1DM are complex, tormenting, and dangerous and all deserve access to appropriate treatment. With that said, the remainder of this article will focus on the problem of insulin restriction, since up to 30 Continue reading >>

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know

Despite the similarity in name, ketosis and ketoacidosis are two different things. Ketoacidosis refers to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is a complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It’s a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and blood sugar. This combination makes your blood too acidic, which can change the normal functioning of internal organs like your liver and kidneys. It’s critical that you get prompt treatment. DKA can occur very quickly. It may develop in less than 24 hours. It mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies do not produce any insulin. Several things can lead to DKA, including illness, improper diet, or not taking an adequate dose of insulin. DKA can also occur in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have little or no insulin production. Ketosis is the presence of ketones. It’s not harmful. You can be in ketosis if you’re on a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting, or if you’ve consumed too much alcohol. If you have ketosis, you have a higher than usual level of ketones in your blood or urine, but not high enough to cause acidosis. Ketones are a chemical your body produces when it burns stored fat. Some people choose a low-carb diet to help with weight loss. While there is some controversy over their safety, low-carb diets are generally fine. Talk to your doctor before beginning any extreme diet plan. DKA is the leading cause of death in people under 24 years old who have diabetes. The overall death rate for ketoacidosis is 2 to 5 percent. People under the age of 30 make up 36 percent of DKA cases. Twenty-seven percent of people with DKA are between the ages of 30 and 50, 23 percent are between the ages of 51 and 70, and 14 percent are over the age of 70. Ketosis may cause bad breath. Ket Continue reading >>

Chapter 24: Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Coma

Chapter 24: Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Coma

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) are acute complications of diabetes mellitus (DM). DKA is seen primarily in individuals with type 1 DM and HHS in individuals with type 2 DM. Both disorders are associated with absolute or relative insulin deficiency, volume depletion, and altered mental status. The metabolic similarities and differences in DKA and HHS are summarized in Table 24-1. DKA results from insulin deficiency with a relative or absolute increase in glucagon and may be caused by inadequate insulin administration, infection (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, gastroenteritis, sepsis), infarction (cerebral, coronary, mesenteric, peripheral), surgery, trauma, drugs (cocaine), or pregnancy. A common precipitating scenario is the pt with type 1 DM who erroneously stops administering insulin because of anorexia/lack of food intake caused by a minor illness, followed by lipolysis and progressive ketosis leading to DKA. The initial symptoms of DKA include anorexia, nausea, vomiting, polyuria, and thirst. Abdominal pain, altered mental function, or frank coma may ensue. Classic signs of DKA include Kussmaul respirations and an acetone odor on the pt's breath. Volume depletion can lead to dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, and hypotension. Fever and abdominal tenderness may also be present. Laboratory evaluation reveals hyperglycemia, ketosis (β-hydroxybutyrate > acetoacetate), and metabolic acidosis (arterial pH 6.8–7.3) with an increased anion gap (Table 24-1). The fluid deficit is often 3–5 L and can be greater. Despite a total-body potassium deficit, the serum potassium at presentation may be normal or mildly high as a result of acidosis. Similarly, phosphate may be normal at presentation despite total body phosphate depletion Continue reading >>

Clinical Signs Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs And Cats

Clinical Signs Of Diabetes Mellitus In Dogs And Cats

Clinical signs are useful in the diagnosis and monitoring of canine and feline diabetes. Other laboratory tests are also necessary for diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and the monitoring of treated diabetic pets. There are three distinct clinical pictures in diabetes mellitus: Uncomplicated diabetes mellitus The classical signs are Polyuria, Polydipsia, Polyphagia, Cachexia and increased susceptibility to infections (e.g. urinary tract infections). In long term diabetes, effects due to protein glycosylation can be seen: cataracts (mainly in dogs) and peripheral neuropathy (mainly in cats). Diabeties complicated by ketoacidosis DKA develops due to long standing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetics and impaired insulin action and/or resistance, caused by obesity, concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two thirds of cases of DKA. Due to the lack of insulin, glucose cannot be used as an energy source. Fats are broken down to provide energy. During lipolysis, high levels of ketones are produced. Ketosis and acidosis develop and are accompanied by electrolyte imbalances. Ketosis causes anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Diagnosis The diagnosis of DKA is based on the presence of ketonuria along with signs of systemic illness. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. The goals of treatment are to correct fluid deficits, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance, lower blood glucose and ketone concentrations and recognize and correct underlying and precipitating factors. Therapy includes intravenous fluid therapy with isotonic fluids, e.g. 0.9% saline, and intravenous administration of rapid-acting insulin. If possible the electrolyte concentrations and acid-base balance should be mea Continue reading >>

Cough & Poor Appetite Are Symptoms Of Which Disease?

Cough & Poor Appetite Are Symptoms Of Which Disease?

Cough, Decreased appetite, Fatigue and Weight loss (unintentional) There are 143 conditions associated with cough, decreased appetite, fatigue and weight loss (unintentional). The links below will provide you with more detailed information on these medical conditions from the WebMD Symptom Checker and help provide a better understanding of causes and treatment of these related conditions. Continue reading >>

Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Combination With Starvation And Anorexia Nervosa At Onset Of Type 1 Diabetes: A Case Report

Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Combination With Starvation And Anorexia Nervosa At Onset Of Type 1 Diabetes: A Case Report

Go to: A 53-year-old woman with a history of AN since adolescence was admitted to the psychiatric clinic at the Uppsala University Hospital due to psychotic behaviour and inability to take care of herself. There were reports of paranoid schizophrenia and personality disorders, but her contacts with the psychiatric clinic were sparse, and she used no medications. According to her relatives she had isolated herself the last two weeks, and over the last two months she had barely been eating at all. Twenty-four hours after admission to the psychiatric clinic she was admitted to the clinic of internal medicine and presented at the emergency room (ER) in a cachectic state with hypothermia (32.6°C). Her mental status was altered (reaction level scale 2), and she barely responded to questions, being close to stupor. There were clinical signs of severe dehydration and muscle atrophy. Her breathing was shallow with 30 bpm, whereas blood pressure and pulse rate were normal, 110/60 mmHg and 77 bpm (see Table I for a summary of the initial physical examination). She denied alcohol and any substance abuse. An initial arterial blood gas analysis displayed pH 6.895, pCO2 0.93 kPa, pO2 22 kPa, and P-glucose 40.6 mmol/L. There were no signs of infection, and electrolytes were normal (see Table II for a summary of laboratory screening). She was immediately admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), where rehydration was initiated with warm fluid combined with re-warming with heated blankets. Bicarbonate (100 mL) was administered i.v. in order to reverse acidosis; pH increased to 7.1, and blood glucose decreased to 35 mmol/L. Six hours after ICU admission insulin infusion was started with initially 0.5 IU/h (0.0128 IU/kg) combined with 5 mmol potassium/h. The patient's pH was normalized 1 Continue reading >>

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