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Hypomagnesemia - Wikipedia

Hypomagnesemia - Wikipedia

This article is about the blood condition. For the general condition, see Magnesium deficiency (medicine) . For the condition in plants, see Magnesium deficiency (plants) . Hypomagnesemia, also spelled hypomagnesaemia, is an electrolyte disturbance in which there is a low level of magnesium in the blood. [1] Normal magnesium levels are between 1.462.68mg/dL (0.6-1.1 mmol/L) with levels less than 1.46mg/dL (0.6mmol/L) defining hypomagnesemia. [2] Symptoms include tremor, nystagmus , seizures , and cardiac arrest including torsade de pointes . [2] Causes include alcoholism , starvation , diarrhea , increased urinary loss, and poor absorption from the intestines . [2] Hypomagnesemia is not necessarily magnesium deficiency . Specific electrocardiogram (ECG) changes may be seen. [2] For those with severe disease intravenous magnesium sulfate may be used. [2] The prefix hypo- means under (contrast with hyper-, meaning over). The root 'magnes' refers to magnesium. The suffix of the word, -emia, means 'in the blood'. Deficiency of magnesium can cause tiredness, generalized weakness, muscle cramps, abnormal heart rhythms , increased irritability of the nervous system with tremors , paresthesias , palpitations , hypokalemia , hypoparathyroidism which might result in hypocalcemia , chondrocalcinosis , spasticity and tetany , epileptic seizures , basal ganglia calcifications and in extreme and prolonged cases coma , intellectual disability or death. [3] Other symptoms that have been suggested to be associated with hypomagnesemia are athetosis , jerking, nystagmus , and an extensor plantar reflex , confusion, disorientation, hallucinations , depression , hypertension and fast heart rate .[ citation needed ] People being treated on an intensive care unit who have a low magnesium lev Continue reading >>

Metabolic Disease - Major Classes Of Metabolic Disorders

Metabolic Disease - Major Classes Of Metabolic Disorders

Tweet Cells are constructed from four major types of molecules: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids. The metabolic pathways involving each are Disease Defective Enzyme or System Symptoms Treatment Disorders of Amino Acid Metabolism Phenylketonuria (PKU) phenylalanine hydroxylase severe mental retardation screening; dietary modification Malignant PKU biopterin cofactor neurological disorder — Type 1 tyrosinemia fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase nerve damage, pain, liver failure liver transplantation; preceding enzyme inhibitor plus dietary modification Type 2 tyrosinemia tyrosine aminotransferase irritation to the corneas of the eyes diet with reduced phenylalanine and tyrosine content Alkaptonuria disorder of tyrosine breakdown progressive arthritis and bone disease; dark urine — Homocystinuria and Hyperhomocysteinemia cystathionine-β-synthase or methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase or various deficiencies in formation of the methylcobalamin form of vitamin B12 hypercoagulability of the blood; vascular eposides; dislocation of the lens of the eye, elongation and thinning of the bones, and often mental retardation or psychiatric abnormalities vitamin B12, folic acid, betaine, a diet limited in cysteine and methionine Maple Syrup Urine disease branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase complex elevations of branched-chain amino acids, characteristic odor of the urine, episodes of ketoacidosis, death thiamine; careful regulation of dietary intake of the essential branched-chain amino acids Disorders of Organic Acid Metabolism Propionic Acidemia propionyl-CoA carboxylase generalized metabolic dysfunction; ketoacidosis; death diet with limited amounts of the amino acids which are precursors to propionyl-CoA Multiple Carboxylase deficiency pyruvate carboxylase and 3-m Continue reading >>

Sglt2 Inhibitors (gliflozins)

Sglt2 Inhibitors (gliflozins)

SGLT2 inhibitors help the kidneys lower blood glucose levels Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are a new group of oral medications used for treating type 2 diabetes . The drugs work by helping the kidneys to lower blood glucose levels . SGLT2 inhibitors have been approved for use as a treatment for diabetes since 2013. They are taken once a day with or without food. SGLT2 inhibitors work by preventing the kidneys from reabsorbing glucose back into the blood. This allows the kidneys to lower blood glucose levels and the excess glucose in the blood is removed from the body via urine. The kidneys work by filtering glucose out of the blood and then reabsorbing glucose back into the blood. The proteins that reabsorb glucose are called sodium-glucose transport proteins. SGLT2 inhibitors block these proteins which means less glucose gets reabsorbed back into the blood and gets passed out of the body via the urine. SGLT2 inhibitors may be suitable for people with type 2 diabetes that have high blood glucose levels despite being on a medication regimen such as metformin and insulin. SGLT2 inhibitors are not recommended for prescribing to people with kidney disease (nephropathy) as kidney disease prevents the drug from working sufficiently well. What are the benefits of SGLT2 inhibitors? SGLT2 inhibitors help to remove glucose from the blood and therefore help to lower blood glucose levels. By removing glucose from the body, SGLT2 inhibitors can also have benefits for weight loss . As the drugs cause more glucose to be excreted in the urine, there is a higher chance of getting genital and urinary tract infections . These side effects are more common in women than in men. Taking SGLT2 inhibitors with insulin, sulphonylureas or glinides may increase the risk of hy Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Return to The Medical Biochemistry Page Diabetes is any disorder characterized by excessive urine excretion. The most common form of diabetes is diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder in which there is an inability to oxidize carbohydrate due to disturbances in insulin function. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated glucose in the plasma and episodic ketoacidosis. Additional symptoms of diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst, glucosuria, polyuria, lipemia and hunger. If left untreated the disease can lead to fatal ketoacidosis. Other forms of diabetes include diabetes insipidus and brittle diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is the result of a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also referred to as vasopressin or arginine vasopressin, AVP). The major symptom of diabetes insipidus (excessive output of dilute urine) results from an inability of the kidneys to resorb water. Brittle diabetes is a form that is very difficult to control. It is characterized by unexplained oscillations between hypoglycemia and acidosis. Criteria, which clinically establish an individual as suffering from diabetes mellitus, include: 1. having a fasting plasma glucose level in excess of 126mg/dL (7mmol/L). Normal levels should be less than 100mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) or: 2. having plasma glucose levels in excess of 200mg/dL (11mmol/L) at two times points during an oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT, one of which must be within 2 hrs of ingestion of glucose. Different clinical labs may use different units for the measurement of serum glucose concentrations, either in mmol/L or mg/dL. One can easily interconvert these values using the following formulas: mg/dL x 0.0555 = mmol/L (or simply divide mg/dL by 18) mmol/L x 18.0182 = mg/dL (or simply multiply mmol/L by 18) The earlier a person is dia Continue reading >>

Acidosis

Acidosis

The kidneys and lungs maintain the balance (proper pH level) of chemicals called acids and bases in the body. Acidosis occurs when acid builds up or when bicarbonate (a base) is lost. Acidosis is classified as either respiratory or metabolic acidosis. Respiratory acidosis develops when there is too much carbon dioxide (an acid) in the body. This type of acidosis is usually caused when the body is unable to remove enough carbon dioxide through breathing. Other names for respiratory acidosis are hypercapnic acidosis and carbon dioxide acidosis. Causes of respiratory acidosis include: Chest deformities, such as kyphosis Chest injuries Chest muscle weakness Chronic lung disease Overuse of sedative drugs Metabolic acidosis develops when too much acid is produced in the body. It can also occur when the kidneys cannot remove enough acid from the body. There are several types of metabolic acidosis: Diabetic acidosis (also called diabetic ketoacidosis and DKA) develops when substances called ketone bodies (which are acidic) build up during uncontrolled diabetes. Hyperchloremic acidosis is caused by the loss of too much sodium bicarbonate from the body, which can happen with severe diarrhea. Poisoning by aspirin, ethylene glycol (found in antifreeze), or methanol Lactic acidosis is a buildup of lactic acid. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red blood cells. It forms when the body breaks down carbohydrates to use for energy when oxygen levels are low. This can be caused by: Cancer Drinking too much alcohol Exercising vigorously for a very long time Liver failure Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Medications, such as salicylates MELAS (a very rare genetic mitochondrial disorder that affects energy production) Prolonged lack of oxygen from shock, heart failure, or seve Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

ketoacidosis [ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis] the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood, which results in metabolic acidosis; it is often associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. See also ketosis. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. ke·to·ac·i·do·sis (kē'tō-as'i-dō'sis), Acidosis, as in diabetes or starvation, caused by the enhanced production of ketone bodies. ketoacidosis /ke·to·ac·i·do·sis/ (ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis) acidosis accompanied by the accumulation of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids. ketoacidosis (kē′tō-ăs′ĭ-dō′sĭs) n. pl. ketoaci·doses (-dō′sēz) 1. Metabolic acidosis caused by an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and body tissues. 2. This condition occurring as a complication of untreated or improperly controlled diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes, characterized by thirst, fatigue, a fruity odor on the breath, and other symptoms, and having the potential to progress to coma or death. Also called diabetic ketoacidosis. ketoacidosis [kē′tōas′idō′sis] acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the body, resulting from extensive breakdown of fats because of faulty carbohydrate metabolism. It occurs primarily as a complication of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by a fruity odor of acetone on the breath, mental confusion, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and, if untreated, coma. Emergency treatment includes the administration of insulin and IV fluids and the evaluation and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Nasogastric intubation and bladder catheterization may be required if the patient is comatose. Continue reading >>

Antidiabetic Drugs Flashcards

Antidiabetic Drugs Flashcards

no fixed doses, is individualized by effect and tolerance and max recommended acarbose and miglitol 3Xday with first bite of meal, bc food increases absorp; some start lower dose then increase to minimize GI distress like flatulence and diarrhea hiazolidinediones no regard to food, but if taken, must eat or may become hypoglycemic Managing Hypoglycemia rt antidiabetic admin MUST IMMEDIATELY STOP A HYPOGLYCEMIC REACTION and notify PCP bc may need different dose If hypoglycemic with an alpha glucosidase inhibitor, give glucose, and not sucrose (sugar) bc these drugs block absorption of sugar (sucrose) Prep for admin aseptic technique, how to hold, withdraw insulin, measure, mix, expel bubble, etc Admin rotate sites, angle of admin, when to admin. Site rotationto prevent injury to skin and fatty tissue Use upper/outer arms, stomach, except 2 inches around umbilical, just below waist, back, right and left sides, upper thighs, front and side From last site, place side of thumb and measure about an inch to select next site Use same area for about 10-15 injections, then go to another site Pt edu re: self care with insulin dependent diabetes Insulin needs may change with illness, esp. with vomiting and fever. Also during stress, surgery, etc. Contact PCP when these things occur. Know s/s of hypo/hyper-glycemia; must tell PCP immediately Moderate exercise and follow recommended diet Blood test to monitor average blood glucose over 3-4 month period When glucose high, attaches to hemoglobin of RBCs, and This lasts life of RBC which is about 4 months When well controlled, HbA1c should be normal or slightly elevated; when poorly controlled, levels of HbA1c are high Normal bt 2.5% and 6% indicate good control 10% or higher are poor control (for last 4 month) Usually taken 10 minutes Continue reading >>

Kussmaul Breathing, Cheyne-stokes Respiration & Biot's Respiration Terms

Kussmaul Breathing, Cheyne-stokes Respiration & Biot's Respiration Terms

Technical Terms for Respiration There are several weird-sounding terms related to respiration that seem harder to understand than they really are. Actually, their definitions may vary just a bit depending on setting: academic or practical. These are Kussmaul's respiration, Cheyne-Stokes respiration, and Biot's (or Bee-oh's) respiration. It all sounds kind of technical and a bit out there, but, by the end of this lesson, you'll be a pro at explaining what these are. Kussmaul's Respiration There are different medical conditions that can affect the acid/base balance in your body, meaning your body can become more acidic or basic. When a person is acidotic, that is to say they are undergoing a pathological process (known as acidosis) that leads to acidemia, an abnormally low pH of the blood, they may experience Kussmaul's respiration. Kussmaul's respiration, as German physician Adolph Kussmaul himself described, is technically deep, slow, and labored breathing, which we now know is in response to severe acidemia stemming from metabolic acidosis. However, nowadays, it is sometimes used to describe rapid and shallow breathing patterns in cases of less severe acidemia as well. Why does this type of breathing pattern occur? Well, what do you breathe in? Oxygen, right? What do you breathe out? Carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is acidic. It lowers the pH of the blood. By breathing rapidly and/or deeply, the body tries to blow off excess CO2 to increase pH back to normal, like an old train engine tries to blow off steam to cool itself off. Such respiration can be seen in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis or renal (that is to say, kidney) failure among other problems. Cheyne-Stokes Respiration The next form of respiration I want to get to is a bit more difficult to understand, but Continue reading >>

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Principles Of Biochemistry/glucose, Glycogen And Diabetes

Glucose (C6H12O6, also known as D-glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) and an important carbohydrate in biology. Cells use it as a source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and starts cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted D-glucose. D-glucose is often referred to as dextrose. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose. Solutions of dextrose rotate polarized light to the right (in Latin: dexter = "right"). Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of D-glucose. The other stereoisomer, called L-glucose, is hardly found in nature. The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar. The name "dextrose" and the 'D-' prefix come from Latin dexter ("right"), referring to the handedness of the molecules. Glucose is a monosaccharide with formula C6H12O6 or H-(C=O)-(CHOH)5-H, whose five hydroxyl (OH) groups are arranged in a specific way along its six-carbon backbone.[1] In its fleeting open-chain form, the glucose molecule has an open (as opposed to cyclic) and unbranched backbone of six carbon atoms, C-1 through C-6; where C-1 is part of an aldehyde group H(C=O)-, and each of the other five carbons bears one hydroxyl group -OH. The remaining bonds of the backbone carbons are satisfied by hydrogen atoms -H. Therefore glucose is an hexose and an aldose, or an aldohexose. Each of the four carbons C-2 through C-5 is chiral, meaning that its four bonds conne Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis: Associated Words Filter By Noun/verb/adjective/adverb, Position, Positive/negative, Common/rare, Syllables & More. Words Described By Ketoacidosis & Words Describing Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis: Associated Words Filter By Noun/verb/adjective/adverb, Position, Positive/negative, Common/rare, Syllables & More. Words Described By Ketoacidosis & Words Describing Ketoacidosis

Words are expressive, emotive, nuanced, subtle, erudite and discerning! Unfortunately words are sometimes also elusive, deceptive, fleeting in memory. Through months of bittersweet labor, we finally have assembled words together by context. A novel way to search for new and elusive words. Hope they help you! Are we in the right direction? Are your needs fulfilled? If so how? Is there anything we can do or do better? Please let us know in the feedback form! Collocation words for "ketoacidosis" are words related to "ketoacidosis" by occurring either before (prefix words) or after "ketoacidosis" (suffix words) in common language usage across multiple media. The words assembled above can be filtered by parts of speech (i.e) nouns, verbs, describing adjectives and adverbs, or by their positive or negative vibes, frequency in usage, whether they are prefix words or suffix words for "ketoacidosis" or by the count of syllables each word has. Continue reading >>

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

Root Words – Medical Terminology Example 1: (A root word with no prefix or suffix.) The root word "plasma" means a semi-liquid form found in cells. Example 2:(A prefix and root word conjoined.) The prefix dys- means painful and root word "uria" means urine, together they form the medical term "dysuria" which mean "painful or difficult urination. Example 3: (A root word and suffix conjoined.) The root word dermat means skin, the suffix ology means the study of, together they form the medical term "dermatology" which means "to study the skin". Example 4:(A prefix, root word, and suffix conjoined.) The prefix leuko means white, the root word cyte means cell, and the suffix osis means a condition of. Together these word parts form the term "leukocytosis", which means "a condiotion of elevated white blood cells". · Root word: Acanth(o) Meaning: Spiny, thorny Example: acanthion - the tip of the anterior nasal spine · Root word: Actin(o) Meaning: Light Example: Actinotherapy - ultraviolet light therapy used in dermatology · Root word: Aer(o) Meaning: Air, gas Example: Aerosol - liquid or particulate matter dispersed in air, gas, or vapor form · Root word: Alge, algesi, algio, algo Meaning: Pain Example: Analgesic - a pain reducing agent · Root word: Amyl(o) Meaning: Starch Example: Amylolysis - hydrolysis of starch unto soluable products · Root words: Andro Meaning: Masculine Example: Androsterone - a steroid metabolite found in male urine · Root words: Athero Meaning: Plaque, fatty substance Example: Atheroembolism - cholesterol embolism originating from an atheroma · Root qord: Bacill(i) Meaning: Bacilli, bacteria Example: Bacillemia - presence of bacilli in the blood · Root word: Bacteri(o) Meaning: Bacteria Example: Bacteriocin - a protien Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes Mellitus And Polyuria

Diabetes comes from the Greek word which means “siphon”. There are two distinct disorders that share the first name diabetes: diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. This is because both disorders cause polyuria, or excessive urine output. Diabetes insipidus is a disorder of urine concentration which we will discuss in spring quarter. Diabetes mellitus is a disorder of blood glucose regulation, which results from a deficiency in the action of the hormone insulin. This may be due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas (type 1 diabetes mellitus) or it may result from a problem in the responsiveness of tissues to insulin, known as insulin resitance (type 2 diabetes mellitus). With either disorder, the result is hyperglycemia, or high levels of glucose in the plasma. How does hyperglycemia cause excessive urine production? To answer this, we need to understand a little bit about how the kidney works. Each kidney contains about a million functional units called nephrons (blue structure in the figure). The first step in the production of urine is a process called filtration (green arrow). In filtration, there is bulk flow of water and small molecules from the plasma into Bowman’s capsule (the first part of the nephron). Because of the nonspecific nature of filtration, useful small molecules such as glucose, amino acids, and certain ions end up in the forming urine, which flows into the kidney tubules. To prevent the loss of these useful substances from the body, the cells lining the kidney tubules use epithelial transport to transfer these substances out of the forming urine and back into the extracellular fluid. This process is known as reabsorption (purple arrows). Under normal circumstances, 100% of the glucose that is filtered is Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. Chronic levels exceeding 7 mmol/l (125 mg/dl) can produce organ damage.[1] Etymology The origin of the term is Greek: prefix ὑπέρ- hyper- "over-", γλυκός glycos "sweet wine, must", αἷμα haima "blood", -ία, -εια -ia suffix for abstract nouns of feminine gender. Definition It is critical for patients who monitor glucose levels at home to be aware of which units of measurement their testing kit uses. Glucose levels are measured in either: Millimoles per liter (mmol/l) is the SI standard unit used in most countries around the world. Milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl) is used in some countries such as the United States, Japan, France, Egypt and Colombia. Scientific journals are moving towards using mmol/l; some journals now use mmol/l as the primary unit but quote mg/dl in parentheses.[2] Glucose levels vary before and after meals, and at various times of day; the definition of "normal" varies among medical professionals. In general, the normal range for most people (fasting adults) is about 4 to 6 mmol/l or 80 to 110 mg/dl. (where 4 mmol/l or 80 mg/dl is "optimal".) A subject with a consistent range above 7 mmol/l or 126 mg/dl is generally held to have hyperglycemia, whereas a consiste Continue reading >>

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