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Ketoacidosis Medical Terminology Definition

Diabetes Glossary

Diabetes Glossary

Antibodies Antibodies are specialized proteins that are part of the immune system. They are created when an antigen (such as a virus or bacteria) is detected in the body. The antibodies bond with the specific antigen that triggered their production, and that action neutralizes the antigen, which is a threat to the body. Antibodies are created to fight off whatever has invaded the body. See also autoantibodies. Antigens An antigen is a foreign substance (such as a virus or bacteria) that invades the body. When the body detects it, it produces specific antibodies to fight off the antigen. Autoantibodies Autoantibodies are a group of antibodies that “go bad” and mistakenly attack and damage the body’s tissues and organs. In the case of type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies attack the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Autoimmune disorder If you have an autoimmune disorder (also called an autoimmune disease), your body’s immune system turns against itself and starts to attack its own tissues. Basal secretion (basal insulin) We all should have a small amount of insulin that’s constantly present in the blood; that is the basal secretion. People with type 1 diabetes must take a form of insulin that replicates the basal secretion throughout the day; that’s basal insulin. Beta cells Beta cells are located in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. They are responsible for making insulin. Blood glucose level The blood glucose level is how much glucose is in your blood at a given time. This level is very important for people with diabetes, and they must monitor their blood glucose level throughout the day. If the blood glucose level is too high (hyperglycemia), that means that there isn’t enough insulin in the blood. If it’s too low (hypoglycemia), that mean Continue reading >>

Terms & Definitions

Terms & Definitions

Definitions for words found on our website that may not be familiar. A1C A test that measures a person's average blood sugar level over the past 2 to 3 months. Antibody Proteins made by the body to protect itself from invasion of "foreign" substances, such as bacteria or viruses. People get type 1 diabetes when their bodies make antibodies that mistakenly attack healthy insulin-making beta cells. Antigen Any substance that causes a person’s immune system to produce autoantibodies (attack healthy cells). Autoantibody A protein produced by the body’s immune system that attacks one or more of its healthy proteins. Autoimmunity The body’s systematic immune response against its own healthy cells and tissues. Autoimmune disease A disorder of the body's immune system where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys body tissue it believes to be foreign. Beta cells The cells in the body that makes insulin. Beta cells are located in the islets of the pancreas. Blood sugar (also called blood glucose) The main sugar found in the blood, and the body's main source of energy. Blood sugar level (also called blood glucose level) The amount of sugar in a given amount of blood. It is noted in milligrams. Blood glucose meter A small, portable machine used by people with diabetes to check their blood glucose (sugar) levels. After pricking the skin, a drop of blood is placed on a test strip. The test strip in placed in a machine, which displays the blood glucose level as a number on the digital display. Blood glucose monitoring Checking blood glucose level on a regular basis in order to manage diabetes. Certified diabetes educator (CDE) A health care professional specializing in diabetes education who has met eligibility requirements and successfully completed a certification e Continue reading >>

Medical Dictionary Of Health Terms: D-i

Medical Dictionary Of Health Terms: D-i

Browse dictionary by letter: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z D D2 receptor: A type of dopamine receptor (see neurotransmitter receptors) that seems to be particularly important in addiction. daidzein: A substance found in soybeans. daily value: A guide to the amount of nutrients in a given food; Daily values are given in percentages based on a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet. dandruff: A mild and common condition that is characterized by an itchy, flaky scalp and that may extend to the ears, face, and chest. Also known as seborrheic dermatitis. de Quervain's tendonitis: Painful swelling of the tendons at the wrist that move the thumb. debility: Weakness or a loss of physical strength. decibel: A unit of measurement for the loudness of a sound. The highest decibels indicate the loudest sounds. declarative memory: Memory for facts or events (episodic memory); also called explicit memory. decoction: An herbal product or tea made by boiling a plant in water. decongestant: Type of medication used to relieve nasal congestion. deep sleep: Stage of sleep where the brain is less responsive to outside stimuli. deep venous thrombosis: A dangerous condition in which blood clots form in veins deep in the body, usually the legs. They may break off and block blood flow in the lungs, seriously damaging organs or causing death. defenses: Coping strategies a person adopts to make it easier to operate in the world. defibrillation: The delivery of an electric shock to the heart to stop an abnormal rhythm and restore a normal heartbeat. defibrillator: A device that delivers an electric shock to the heart to restore normal rhythm. Used to treat cardiac arrest and other dangerous heart rhythm problems. degenerative disease?: Any Continue reading >>

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

Root Words – Medical Terminology Example 1: (A root word with no prefix or suffix.) The root word "plasma" means a semi-liquid form found in cells. Example 2:(A prefix and root word conjoined.) The prefix dys- means painful and root word "uria" means urine, together they form the medical term "dysuria" which mean "painful or difficult urination. Example 3: (A root word and suffix conjoined.) The root word dermat means skin, the suffix ology means the study of, together they form the medical term "dermatology" which means "to study the skin". Example 4:(A prefix, root word, and suffix conjoined.) The prefix leuko means white, the root word cyte means cell, and the suffix osis means a condition of. Together these word parts form the term "leukocytosis", which means "a condiotion of elevated white blood cells". · Root word: Acanth(o) Meaning: Spiny, thorny Example: acanthion - the tip of the anterior nasal spine · Root word: Actin(o) Meaning: Light Example: Actinotherapy - ultraviolet light therapy used in dermatology · Root word: Aer(o) Meaning: Air, gas Example: Aerosol - liquid or particulate matter dispersed in air, gas, or vapor form · Root word: Alge, algesi, algio, algo Meaning: Pain Example: Analgesic - a pain reducing agent · Root word: Amyl(o) Meaning: Starch Example: Amylolysis - hydrolysis of starch unto soluable products · Root words: Andro Meaning: Masculine Example: Androsterone - a steroid metabolite found in male urine · Root words: Athero Meaning: Plaque, fatty substance Example: Atheroembolism - cholesterol embolism originating from an atheroma · Root qord: Bacill(i) Meaning: Bacilli, bacteria Example: Bacillemia - presence of bacilli in the blood · Root word: Bacteri(o) Meaning: Bacteria Example: Bacteriocin - a protien Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Evaluation And Treatment

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years. The case fatality rate is 1 to 5 percent. About one-third of all cases are in persons without a history of diabetes mellitus. Common symptoms include polyuria with polydipsia (98 percent), weight loss (81 percent), fatigue (62 percent), dyspnea (57 percent), vomiting (46 percent), preceding febrile illness (40 percent), abdominal pain (32 percent), and polyphagia (23 percent). Measurement of A1C, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, serum glucose, electrolytes, pH, and serum ketones; complete blood count; urinalysis; electrocardiography; and calculation of anion gap and osmolar gap can differentiate diabetic ketoacidosis from hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, gastroenteritis, starvation ketosis, and other metabolic syndromes, and can assist in diagnosing comorbid conditions. Appropriate treatment includes administering intravenous fluids and insulin, and monitoring glucose and electrolyte levels. Cerebral edema is a rare but severe complication that occurs predominantly in children. Physicians should recognize the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis for prompt diagnosis, and identify early symptoms to prevent it. Patient education should include information on how to adjust insulin during times of illness and how to monitor glucose and ketone levels, as well as i Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes, making it a medical emergency. Nurses need to know how to identify and manage it and how to maintain electrolyte balance Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 1 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin (figure 1). Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to absorb and use glucose and other nutrients from food, store fat, and build up protein. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal. Type 1 diabetes requires regular blood sugar monitoring and treatment with insulin. Treatment, lifestyle adjustments, and self-care can control blood sugar levels and minimize the risk of disease-related complications. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or young adulthood but can develop at any age. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all cases of diabetes. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are available: (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Insulin treatment (Beyond the Basics)".) (See "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) THE IMPACT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and it is common to have questions about why it developed, what it means for long-term health, and how it will affect everyday life. For most patients, the first few months after being diagnosed are filled with emotional highs and lows. You and your family can use this time to learn as much as possible so that diabetes-related care (eg, self-blood sugar testing, medical appointments, daily insulin) becomes a "normal" part of your routine. (See "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) In addition, you should talk with your doctor or nurse about re Continue reading >>

Dkh Stands For Diabetic Ketoacidosis (medical)

Dkh Stands For Diabetic Ketoacidosis (medical)

Samples in periodicals archive: One in four children and young people are diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes when they are already in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) - a life-threatening condition that requires urgent medical attention. This is one of the reasons why a quarter of children with Type 1 diabetes are only diagnosed once they are already seriously ill with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a life-threatening condition that needs immediate treatment in hospital. He was on the verge of having diabetic ketoacidosis because he was not getting enough insulin into his system to help lower his blood sugar. They explain common symptoms, causes, and diagnosis; treatment options, such as insulin therapy, blood glucose testing, ketones and diabetic ketoacidosis, and emergency care; dietary information; the effects of common illnesses and viruses on diabetes; effects on daily life, including child care and school; and financial, emotional, and health concerns. Additionally, the high [beta]-hydroxybutyrate concentration is indicative of ketoacidosis; however, because this patient's plasma was mildly hypoglycemic and because no history of type I diabetes could be ascertained, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) [2] was considered highly improbable (2). More than 1,500 children in Wales have Type 1 diabetes, which, if left untreated, can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis, dangerously high blood glucose levels that can lead to coma or death. Continue reading >>

Difference Between Dka And Hhnk

Difference Between Dka And Hhnk

DKA vs HHNK The body normally functions to control the intake of glucose into the cells. In normal cases, insulin is supplied endogenously in order for the body to get the much needed glucose into the cell and out from the bloodstream, but the normal physiology of the body can be disrupted every once in a while. Because of the diet that people have and their lifestyle, it is common nowadays to see cases of diabetes. Type II Diabetes is the type of diabetes that develops insulin resistance to the cells. There are a number of symptoms that people experience whenever they have a dysfunctional system that pertains to the control of the blood sugar. In type II diabetes, one of the most common signs is uncontrolled weight loss and whenever the person’s blood is taken, there are instances of hyperglycemia. Normally, you would want to get your blood glucose level within 80-120 mg/dl. But because of the fact that resistance is present during type II diabetes – unlike Type I diabetes where production itself is limited – it is expected that the glucose is found in the bloodstream rather than in the cells. Two of the worst complications of diabetes are DKA and HHNK. There are striking disparities between these two diseases when it comes to pathophysiology and other aspects. DKA is called diabetic ketoacidosis and is one of the deadliest complications that one can experience in diabetes. On the other hand, HHNK, which literally means hyperosmolar hyperglycemic non-ketoacidosis or simply non-ketoacidotic coma. The similarity between HHNK and DKA is the fact that both are potenitally life threatening and should be managed as soon as possible. DKA is caused by the shortage of insulin. It happens both in type I and type II diabetes. Whenever the body feels that there is a shortage Continue reading >>

Master Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Diagnosis And Labs With Picmonic For Medicine

Master Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Diagnosis And Labs With Picmonic For Medicine

With Picmonic, facts become pictures. We've taken what the science shows - image mnemonics work - but we've boosted the effectiveness by building and associating memorable characters, interesting audio stories, and built-in quizzing. Dyed-bead-pancreas with Key-to-acidic-lemon and Diagnostic-computer with Test-tubes Picmonic Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency and complication of diabetes. Patients have increased insulin requirements, which leads to a shortage. As a response, the body begins burning excess fat (and fatty acids), causing ketone body buildup Lab values seen in DKA include blood sugars above 250 mg/dL, and anion gap metabolic acidosis with pH below 7.3 and bicarbonate below 18. Patients will also show present plasma ketones. Due to an extracellular shift, patients may be hyperkalemic. Picmonic for Medicine (MD/DO) covers information that is relevant to your entire Medical (MD/DO) education. Whether you’re studying for your classes or getting ready to conquer the USMLE Step 1, USMLE Step 2 CK, COMLEX Level 1, or COMLEX Level 2, we’re here to help. Research shows that students who use Picmonic see a 331% improvement in memory retention and a 50% improvement in test scores. "[Picmonics] correlate directly with what is in First Aid so you know it is essential information that will show up on the exam. The number of questions I got right in biochemistry and microbiology were mainly due to this resource." James, Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Medicine, 274 on Step 1 TRY IT FREE Continue reading >>

Acute Kidney Injury In Children With Type 1 Diabetes Hospitalized For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Acute Kidney Injury In Children With Type 1 Diabetes Hospitalized For Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Questions What proportion of pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes who present in diabetic ketoacidosis develop acute kidney injury, and what are the associated risk factors? Findings In this medical record review of 165 children with type 1 diabetes who were hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis, 106 (64.2%) met the criteria for acute kidney injury. Serum bicarbonate level less than 10 mEq/L and an elevated heart rate were found to be associated with an increased risk of severe acute kidney injury. Meaning Children in diabetic ketoacidosis are at high risk for acute kidney injury, suggesting that clinicians should consider acute kidney injury as a frequent complication in this population. Importance Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is associated with poor short-term and long-term health outcomes; however, the frequency of AKI in children hospitalized for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has not been previously examined. Objectives To determine the proportion of children hospitalized for DKA who develop AKI and to identify the associated clinical and biochemical markers of AKI. Design, Setting, and Participants This medical record review of all DKA admissions from September 1, 2008, through December 31, 2013, was conducted at British Columbia Children’s Hospital, the tertiary pediatric hospital in British Columbia, Canada. Children aged 18 years or younger with type 1 diabetes and DKA and with complete medical records available for data analysis were included (n = 165). All data collection occurred between September 8, 2014, and June 26, 2015. Data analysis took place from August 25, 2015, to June 8, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures Acute kidney injury was defined using Kidney Disease/Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria. Multinomial logistic regress Continue reading >>

Diabetes: Glossary

Diabetes: Glossary

Acesulfame-k — an artificial sweetener used in place of sugar because it has very few calories. Acetone — a chemical formed in the blood when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. If acetone forms, it usually means the cells do not have enough insulin, or cannot use the insulin that is in the blood, to use glucose for energy. Acetone passes through the body into the urine. Acidosis — too much acid in the body. For a person with diabetes, this can lead to ketoacidosis. Acute — abrupt onset that is usually severe; happens for a limited period of time. Adrenal glands — two endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys and make and release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates carbohydrate metabolism; norepinephrine which raises heart rate and blood pressure; and corticosteroid hormones which control how the body utilizes fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals and help reduce inflammation. Adult-onset diabetes — former term for type 2 diabetes, also formerly called noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Adverse effect — harmful effect. Albuminuria — more than normal amounts of a protein called albumin in the urine. Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease, a problem that can occur in people who have had diabetes for a long time. Alpha cell — a type of cell in an area of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon, which increases the glucose concentration in the blood. Amino acids — the building blocks of proteins; the main material of the body’s cells. Insulin is made of 51 amino acids joined together. Amyotrophy — a disease of diabetic neuropathy that causes muscle weakness and wasting. Anomalies — birth defects; abnormalities. Antibodies — proteins Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What is Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the hallmark of type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. DKA is an emergency condition caused by a disturbance in your body’s metabolism. Extremely high blood glucose levels, along with a severe lack of insulin, result in the breakdown of body fat for energy and an accumulation of ketones in the blood and urine. Statistics on Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in between 16%-80% of children presenting with newly diagnosed diabetes. It remains the most common cause of death for young type 1 diabetes sufferers. Before the discovery of insulin, mortality rates were up to 100%. Today, the mortality has fallen to around 2% due to early identification and treatment. Death is usually caused by cerebral oedema (swelling of the brain). DKA is most common in type 1 diabetes sufferers but may also occur in those with type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, the latter group usually has at least some functioning insulin so suffer from another disorder called hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma (HONK). DKA tends to occur in individuals younger than 19 years, the more brittle of type 1 diabetic patients. However, DKA can affect diabetic patients of any age or sex. Risk Factors for Diabetic Ketoacidosis People with diabetes lack sufficient insulin, a hormone the body uses to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar) for energy. Therefore in diabetic patients glucose is not available as a fuel, so the body turns to fat stores for energy. However when fats are broken down they produce byproducts called ketones which build up in the blood and can be damaging to the body. In particular, accumulated ketones can “spill” over into the urine and make the blood become more acidic than body tissues (ketoacidosis). Blood gl Continue reading >>

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