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Ketoacidosis Medical Terminology Definition

Diabetes: Glossary

Diabetes: Glossary

Acesulfame-k — an artificial sweetener used in place of sugar because it has very few calories. Acetone — a chemical formed in the blood when the body uses fat instead of glucose (sugar) for energy. If acetone forms, it usually means the cells do not have enough insulin, or cannot use the insulin that is in the blood, to use glucose for energy. Acetone passes through the body into the urine. Acidosis — too much acid in the body. For a person with diabetes, this can lead to ketoacidosis. Acute — abrupt onset that is usually severe; happens for a limited period of time. Adrenal glands — two endocrine glands that sit on top of the kidneys and make and release hormones such as epinephrine (adrenaline) which stimulates carbohydrate metabolism; norepinephrine which raises heart rate and blood pressure; and corticosteroid hormones which control how the body utilizes fat, protein, carbohydrates, and minerals and help reduce inflammation. Adult-onset diabetes — former term for type 2 diabetes, also formerly called noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Adverse effect — harmful effect. Albuminuria — more than normal amounts of a protein called albumin in the urine. Albuminuria may be a sign of kidney disease, a problem that can occur in people who have had diabetes for a long time. Alpha cell — a type of cell in an area of the pancreas called the islets of Langerhans. Alpha cells make and release a hormone called glucagon, which increases the glucose concentration in the blood. Amino acids — the building blocks of proteins; the main material of the body’s cells. Insulin is made of 51 amino acids joined together. Amyotrophy — a disease of diabetic neuropathy that causes muscle weakness and wasting. Anomalies — birth defects; abnormalities. Antibodies — proteins Continue reading >>

Terms & Definitions

Terms & Definitions

Definitions for words found on our website that may not be familiar. A1C A test that measures a person's average blood sugar level over the past 2 to 3 months. Antibody Proteins made by the body to protect itself from invasion of "foreign" substances, such as bacteria or viruses. People get type 1 diabetes when their bodies make antibodies that mistakenly attack healthy insulin-making beta cells. Antigen Any substance that causes a person’s immune system to produce autoantibodies (attack healthy cells). Autoantibody A protein produced by the body’s immune system that attacks one or more of its healthy proteins. Autoimmunity The body’s systematic immune response against its own healthy cells and tissues. Autoimmune disease A disorder of the body's immune system where the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys body tissue it believes to be foreign. Beta cells The cells in the body that makes insulin. Beta cells are located in the islets of the pancreas. Blood sugar (also called blood glucose) The main sugar found in the blood, and the body's main source of energy. Blood sugar level (also called blood glucose level) The amount of sugar in a given amount of blood. It is noted in milligrams. Blood glucose meter A small, portable machine used by people with diabetes to check their blood glucose (sugar) levels. After pricking the skin, a drop of blood is placed on a test strip. The test strip in placed in a machine, which displays the blood glucose level as a number on the digital display. Blood glucose monitoring Checking blood glucose level on a regular basis in order to manage diabetes. Certified diabetes educator (CDE) A health care professional specializing in diabetes education who has met eligibility requirements and successfully completed a certification e Continue reading >>

Medical Dictionary Of Health Terms: D-i

Medical Dictionary Of Health Terms: D-i

Browse dictionary by letter: A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z D D2 receptor: A type of dopamine receptor (see neurotransmitter receptors) that seems to be particularly important in addiction. daidzein: A substance found in soybeans. daily value: A guide to the amount of nutrients in a given food; Daily values are given in percentages based on a 2,000-calorie-per-day diet. dandruff: A mild and common condition that is characterized by an itchy, flaky scalp and that may extend to the ears, face, and chest. Also known as seborrheic dermatitis. de Quervain's tendonitis: Painful swelling of the tendons at the wrist that move the thumb. debility: Weakness or a loss of physical strength. decibel: A unit of measurement for the loudness of a sound. The highest decibels indicate the loudest sounds. declarative memory: Memory for facts or events (episodic memory); also called explicit memory. decoction: An herbal product or tea made by boiling a plant in water. decongestant: Type of medication used to relieve nasal congestion. deep sleep: Stage of sleep where the brain is less responsive to outside stimuli. deep venous thrombosis: A dangerous condition in which blood clots form in veins deep in the body, usually the legs. They may break off and block blood flow in the lungs, seriously damaging organs or causing death. defenses: Coping strategies a person adopts to make it easier to operate in the world. defibrillation: The delivery of an electric shock to the heart to stop an abnormal rhythm and restore a normal heartbeat. defibrillator: A device that delivers an electric shock to the heart to restore normal rhythm. Used to treat cardiac arrest and other dangerous heart rhythm problems. degenerative disease?: Any Continue reading >>

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

Patient Education: Diabetes Mellitus Type 1: Overview (beyond The Basics)

TYPE 1 DIABETES OVERVIEW Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic medical condition that occurs when the pancreas, an organ in the abdomen, produces very little or no insulin (figure 1). Insulin is a hormone that helps the body to absorb and use glucose and other nutrients from food, store fat, and build up protein. Without insulin, blood glucose (sugar) levels become higher than normal. Type 1 diabetes requires regular blood sugar monitoring and treatment with insulin. Treatment, lifestyle adjustments, and self-care can control blood sugar levels and minimize the risk of disease-related complications. Type 1 diabetes usually begins in childhood or young adulthood but can develop at any age. In the United States, Canada, and Europe, type 1 diabetes accounts for 5 to 10 percent of all cases of diabetes. Other topics that discuss type 1 diabetes are available: (See "Patient education: Diabetes mellitus type 1: Insulin treatment (Beyond the Basics)".) (See "Patient education: Care during pregnancy for women with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) THE IMPACT OF TYPE 1 DIABETES Being diagnosed with type 1 diabetes can be a frightening and overwhelming experience, and it is common to have questions about why it developed, what it means for long-term health, and how it will affect everyday life. For most patients, the first few months after being diagnosed are filled with emotional highs and lows. You and your family can use this time to learn as much as possible so that diabetes-related care (eg, self-blood sugar testing, medical appointments, daily insulin) becomes a "normal" part of your routine. (See "Patient education: Self-monitoring of blood glucose in diabetes mellitus (Beyond the Basics)".) In addition, you should talk with your doctor or nurse about re Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

ketoacidosis [ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis] the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood, which results in metabolic acidosis; it is often associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. See also ketosis. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. ke·to·ac·i·do·sis (kē'tō-as'i-dō'sis), Acidosis, as in diabetes or starvation, caused by the enhanced production of ketone bodies. ketoacidosis /ke·to·ac·i·do·sis/ (ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis) acidosis accompanied by the accumulation of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids. ketoacidosis (kē′tō-ăs′ĭ-dō′sĭs) n. pl. ketoaci·doses (-dō′sēz) 1. Metabolic acidosis caused by an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and body tissues. 2. This condition occurring as a complication of untreated or improperly controlled diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes, characterized by thirst, fatigue, a fruity odor on the breath, and other symptoms, and having the potential to progress to coma or death. Also called diabetic ketoacidosis. ketoacidosis [kē′tōas′idō′sis] acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the body, resulting from extensive breakdown of fats because of faulty carbohydrate metabolism. It occurs primarily as a complication of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by a fruity odor of acetone on the breath, mental confusion, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and, if untreated, coma. Emergency treatment includes the administration of insulin and IV fluids and the evaluation and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Nasogastric intubation and bladder catheterization may be required if the patient is comatose. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

All of Your.MDs Health A-Z articles are reviewed by certified doctors Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes , although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes . Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis . Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis . This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infection, which could be a trigger. After diabetic ketoacidosis has been diagnosed, you'll probably need regular blood and urine tests to check how well you're responding to treat Continue reading >>

Dka (ketoacidosis) & Ketones

Dka (ketoacidosis) & Ketones

If your deductible reset on January 1, there are new programs to help you afford your insulin prescription| Learn more Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that can lead to diabeticcoma(passing out for a long time) or even death. When your cells don't get the glucose they need for energy, your body begins to burn fat for energy, which produces ketones. Ketones are chemicals that the body creates when it breaks downfatto use for energy. The body does this when it doesnt have enoughinsulinto useglucose, the bodys normal source of energy. When ketones build up in the blood, they make it more acidic. They are a warning sign that your diabetes is out of control or that you are getting sick. High levels of ketones can poison the body. When levels get too high, you can develop DKA. DKA may happen to anyone with diabetes, though it is rare in people with type 2. Treatment for DKA usually takes place in the hospital. But you can help prevent it by learning the warning signs and checking yoururineand blood regularly. DKA usually develops slowly. But when vomiting occurs, this life-threatening condition can develop in a few hours. Early symptoms include the following: (Vomiting can be caused by many illnesses, not just ketoacidosis. If vomiting continues for more than 2 hours, contact your health care provider.) A hard time paying attention, or confusion Ketoacidosis (DKA) is dangerous and serious. If you have any of the above symptoms, contact your health care provider IMMEDIATELY, or go to the nearest emergency room of your local hospital. You can detect ketones with a simple urine test using a test strip, similar to a blood testing strip. Ask your health care provider when and how you should test for ketones. Many experts advise to check your urine for ketones wh Continue reading >>

Type I Diabetes And Management Of Dka

Type I Diabetes And Management Of Dka

Introduction Type I diabetes is a disorder that results from the destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, which produce insulin It occurs in genetically susceptible individuals with environmental trigger factors, although the exact aetiology is not well understood The development of the disease probably occurs over months or years, during which time, the patient is asymptomatic It can cause the acute presentation diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) which is life-threatening if untreated, although with the correct treatment, it often improves rapidly Patients require life-long insulin therapy The pathology differs from type II diabetes, where decreased insulin production, and increase insulin resistance in the peripheral tissues are the main factors It is not strictly genetically determined, but a given individual may have an increased risk due to their genetic make-up. Monozygous twins show a concordance rate of 30-50%. The risk is highest in those with a close family member with type 1 diabetes Certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) variants are correlated with the disease Having a father with type 1 puts you at greater risk (3-8%) than having a mother with type 1 diabetes (1-4%) It is often associated with other autoimmune diseases, particularly auto-immune thyroid disease, celiac disease and pernicious anaemia. Proposed environmental triggers include viral infection, and early exposure to cow’s milk in childhood. Particularly suspected are enteroviruses such as coxsackie, Epstein-Barr, rubella, mumps. It is thought that this risk is greatest if an individual was exposed wither very early in life, or before they were born, via the mother (in utero). Also suspected but not proven is a ‘clean environment’ during childhood. This means less exposure to pathogens, and t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

Diabetes

Diabetes

When a person has the medical condition called diabetes, the body can’t produce enough insulin to process the glucose in the blood. Diabetes has been known since the first century B.C.E., when a Greek physician, Aretus the Cappadocian, named it diabainein, meaning "a siphon," referring to the excessive urination associated with the disease. The word diabetes was first recorded in 1425, and in 1675, the Greek mellitus, “like honey,” was added, to reflect the sweet smell and taste of the patient’s urine. An unrelated and rare disorder, diabetes insipidus, is usually caused by a hormone deficiency. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute metabolic complication of diabetes characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperketonemia, and metabolic acidosis. Hyperglycemia causes an osmotic diuresis with significant fluid and electrolyte loss. DKA occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). It causes nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain and can progress to cerebral edema, coma, and death. DKA is diagnosed by detection of hyperketonemia and anion gap metabolic acidosis in the presence of hyperglycemia. Treatment involves volume expansion, insulin replacement, and prevention of hypokalemia. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is most common among patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus and develops when insulin levels are insufficient to meet the body’s basic metabolic requirements. DKA is the first manifestation of type 1 DM in a minority of patients. Insulin deficiency can be absolute (eg, during lapses in the administration of exogenous insulin) or relative (eg, when usual insulin doses do not meet metabolic needs during physiologic stress). Common physiologic stresses that can trigger DKA include Some drugs implicated in causing DKA include DKA is less common in type 2 diabetes mellitus, but it may occur in situations of unusual physiologic stress. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes is a variant of type 2 diabetes, which is sometimes seen in obese individuals, often of African (including African-American or Afro-Caribbean) origin. People with ketosis-prone diabetes (also referred to as Flatbush diabetes) can have significant impairment of beta cell function with hyperglycemia, and are therefore more likely to develop DKA in the setting of significant hyperglycemia. SGLT-2 inhibitors have been implicated in causing DKA in both type 1 and type 2 DM. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

The three types of diabetic coma include diabetic ketoacidosis coma, hyperosmolar coma and hypoglycaemic coma. Diabetic coma is a medical emergency and needs prompt medical treatment. Uncontrolled blood glucose levels may lead to hyperglycaemia or hypoglycaemia. Low or persistently high blood glucose levels mean your diabetes treatment needs to be adjusted. Speak to your doctor or registered diabetes healthcare professional. Prevention is always the best strategy. If it is a while since you have had diabetes education, make an appointment with your diabetes educator for a review. On this page: Diabetes mellitus is a condition characterised by high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Uncontrolled diabetes may lead to a diabetic coma or unconsciousness. The three types of coma associated with diabetes are diabetic ketoacidosis coma, hyperosmolar coma and hypoglycaemic coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis coma Diabetic ketoacidosis typically occurs in people with type 1 diabetes, which was previously known as juvenile diabetes or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), though it can occasionally occur in type 2 diabetes. This type of coma is triggered by the build-up of chemicals called ketones. Ketones are strongly acidic and cause the blood to become too acidic. When there is not enough insulin circulating, the body cannot use glucose for energy. Instead, fat is broken down and then converted to ketones in the liver. The ketones can build up excessively when insulin levels remain too low. Common causes of ketoacidosis include a missed dose of insulin or an acute infection in a person with type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis may be the first sign that a person has developed type 1 diabetes. Symptoms of ketoacidosis Symptoms of ketoacidosis are: extreme thirst lethargy frequent urination ( Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

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