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Ketoacidosis Medical Terminology Breakdown

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

ketoacidosis [ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis] the accumulation of ketone bodies in the blood, which results in metabolic acidosis; it is often associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus. See also ketosis. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. ke·to·ac·i·do·sis (kē'tō-as'i-dō'sis), Acidosis, as in diabetes or starvation, caused by the enhanced production of ketone bodies. ketoacidosis /ke·to·ac·i·do·sis/ (ke″to-as″ĭ-do´sis) acidosis accompanied by the accumulation of ketone bodies in the body tissues and fluids. ketoacidosis (kē′tō-ăs′ĭ-dō′sĭs) n. pl. ketoaci·doses (-dō′sēz) 1. Metabolic acidosis caused by an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and body tissues. 2. This condition occurring as a complication of untreated or improperly controlled diabetes mellitus, especially type 1 diabetes, characterized by thirst, fatigue, a fruity odor on the breath, and other symptoms, and having the potential to progress to coma or death. Also called diabetic ketoacidosis. ketoacidosis [kē′tōas′idō′sis] acidosis accompanied by an accumulation of ketones in the body, resulting from extensive breakdown of fats because of faulty carbohydrate metabolism. It occurs primarily as a complication of diabetes mellitus and is characterized by a fruity odor of acetone on the breath, mental confusion, dyspnea, nausea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and, if untreated, coma. Emergency treatment includes the administration of insulin and IV fluids and the evaluation and correction of electrolyte imbalance. Nasogastric intubation and bladder catheterization may be required if the patient is comatose. Continue reading >>

Medical Terminology - Chapter 18

Medical Terminology - Chapter 18

Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates salt and water balance. Male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics. Secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland; promotes water reabsorption by the kidney. Hormone secreted by the thyroid gland; lowers calcium levels in the blood. Hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla; epinephrine (adrenaline) is an example. Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol and aldosterone are examples. Hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; regulates the use of sugars, fats, and proteins in cells. Cortisol raises blood sugar. Substance that, in solution, carries an electric charge; examples are sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-). Medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders. Hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla; increases heart rate and blood pressure. Female hormone secreted by the ovaries and to a lesser extent by the adrenal cortex in both males and females. Pertaining to the producing of female characteristics or having the same effect as estrogen. Measures circulating glucose level in a patient who has fasted at least 4 hours. This test can diagnose diabetes mellitus. Secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland; stimulates ovarian follicles to produce egg cells. Hormone secreted by the pancreas (alpha islet cells); increases blood glucose (sugar) by conversion of glycogen to glucose. Steroid hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex; cortisol is an example. It raises blood sugar. Deficient secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. Region of the brain lying below the thalamus, but above the pituitary gland. It stimulates the pituitary gland to secrete and release hormones. Hormone secreted by t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetes is a long-term condition that can have a major impact on the life of a child or young person, as well as their family or carers. In addition to insulin therapy, diabetes management should include education, support and access to psychological services, as detailed here and in this guideline. Preparations should also be made for the transition from paediatric to adult services, which have a somewhat different model of care and evidence base. Rapid‐acting insulin analogues (artificial insulin such as insulin lispro, insulin aspart, or insulin glulisine) act more quickly than regular human insulin. In people with a specific type of life‐threatening diabetic coma due to uncontrolled diabetes, called diabetic ketoacidosis, prompt administration of intravenous regular insulin is standard therapy. The rapid‐acting insulin analogues, if injected subcutaneously, act faster than subcutaneously administered regular insulin. The need for a continuous intravenous infusion, an intervention that usually requires admission to an intensive care unit, can thereby be avoided. This means that subcutaneously given insulin analogues for diabetic ketoacidosis might be applied in the emergency department and a general medicine ward. Type 1 diabetes affects over 370,000 adults in the UK, representing approximately 10% of adults diagnosed with diabetes. Given the complexity of its treatment regimens, successful outcomes depend, perhaps more than with any other long-term condition, on full engagement of the adult with type 1 diabetes in life-long day-by-day self-management. In order to support this, the health service needs to provide informed, expert support, education and training as well as a range of other more conventional biomedical services and interventionsfor the preventio Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

Diabetes Medical Terminology

Diabetes Medical Terminology

Serious complication related to a deficiency of insulin and increase in insulin counter-regulatory hormones Enzyme that rapidly degrades active incretin hormones after they are released Normal concentration of glucose in the blood. Also called normoglycemia Stored form of glucose in the liver and skeletal muscle conversion of glycogen to glucose in the body The synthesis of glucose in the body from non-carbohydrates, such as protein or fats A value that represents the percent of hemoglobin in the blood that is glycosylated. This percent reflects the glycemic control over the past 2 to 3 months. Serious condition characterized by hyperglycemia, hyperosmolarity and dehydration and the absence of ketoacidosis that may occur in type 2 diabetes Most common acute complication of diabetes; occurs from a relative excess of insulin in the blood and is characterized by below-normal blood glucose levels A condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of ketones in the body tissues and fluid Breakdown of fats and lipids to fatty acids (alternative fuel source) Small blood vessel disease caused by long term exposure to hyperglycemia; most commonly affects the eyes, kidneys, and nerves Large blood vessels disease; most commonly affected are the coronary arteries, the large arteries in the brain, and large arteries in the periphery A term that reflects when the kidney is allowing an abnormal amount of protein (> 30 g/mg) to be filtered through the glomerulous. Marker used in addition to serum creatinine and GFR to stage chronic kidney disease. Continue reading >>

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

These Word Parts Provide The Basic Meanings For Medical Terms. They Can Be Used Alone Or Can Be Joined With A Prefix, A Suffix, Or Both.

Root Words – Medical Terminology Example 1: (A root word with no prefix or suffix.) The root word "plasma" means a semi-liquid form found in cells. Example 2:(A prefix and root word conjoined.) The prefix dys- means painful and root word "uria" means urine, together they form the medical term "dysuria" which mean "painful or difficult urination. Example 3: (A root word and suffix conjoined.) The root word dermat means skin, the suffix ology means the study of, together they form the medical term "dermatology" which means "to study the skin". Example 4:(A prefix, root word, and suffix conjoined.) The prefix leuko means white, the root word cyte means cell, and the suffix osis means a condition of. Together these word parts form the term "leukocytosis", which means "a condiotion of elevated white blood cells". · Root word: Acanth(o) Meaning: Spiny, thorny Example: acanthion - the tip of the anterior nasal spine · Root word: Actin(o) Meaning: Light Example: Actinotherapy - ultraviolet light therapy used in dermatology · Root word: Aer(o) Meaning: Air, gas Example: Aerosol - liquid or particulate matter dispersed in air, gas, or vapor form · Root word: Alge, algesi, algio, algo Meaning: Pain Example: Analgesic - a pain reducing agent · Root word: Amyl(o) Meaning: Starch Example: Amylolysis - hydrolysis of starch unto soluable products · Root words: Andro Meaning: Masculine Example: Androsterone - a steroid metabolite found in male urine · Root words: Athero Meaning: Plaque, fatty substance Example: Atheroembolism - cholesterol embolism originating from an atheroma · Root qord: Bacill(i) Meaning: Bacilli, bacteria Example: Bacillemia - presence of bacilli in the blood · Root word: Bacteri(o) Meaning: Bacteria Example: Bacteriocin - a protien Continue reading >>

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tail, toward the lower part of the body corticospinal tract, corticosteroid cortical myoma, myalgia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis rachischisis, rachiocentesis, rachiomyelitis edge of eyelid, tarsal (instep of foot) deformity, dehydration, deoxyribonucleic acid absence of a normal body opening, occlusion, closure substance or agent that produces or causes allergen, pathogen, glycogen, pyrogen oxygen, nitrogen, fibrinogen mucoid, osteoid, amyloid, adenoid, lipoid one who studies and practices (specialist) abnormal condition (means increased when used with blood cell word roots) neurosis, diverticulosis, alkalosis leucocytosis, erythrocytosis cholecystostomy, colostomy, tracheostomy, gastrostomy neutrophil, basophil, acidophil, oxyphil, chlorophil abnormal fear of oraversion to specific, objects or things chromophobia, phobophobia, hydrophobia, laliophobia hyperplasia, hypoplasia, dysplasia, aplasia, desmoplasia cystoscope, stethoscope, endoscope uteroscope, telescope Common Plural Endings for Medical Terms @@In the English language one often forms plurals by simply adding ''s'' or ''es'' to the word. Forming plurals in the language of medicine is not so simple. Use the table below to learn the standard plural formationof medical terms. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

Tcc Medical Terminology Jen Campbell Ch.14 Study Guide

Tcc Medical Terminology Jen Campbell Ch.14 Study Guide

hyposecretion of growth hormone during childhood and puberty. diabetes ______ / no word breakdown. Term means = lacking a distinctive appearance or taste. Fun Fact - if you didn't read this in the book, your gonna love this one fellow wanna be Dr's Patients with diabetes insipidus have tasteless, dilute urine, like water, while the urine of patients with diabetes mellitus is sweet. Before there were laboratories, physicians used to taste the patient's urine to make a diagnosis. condition; state; thing / many; much / urine condition; state; thing / many; much / thirst process; disease from a specific cause / above; more than normal / thyroid gland abnormal condition / shield-shaped structure (thyroid gland) / poison; toxin abnormal condition in which too much thyroid gland hormone acts as a poison chronic inflammation and progressive destruction of the thyroid gland. The most common type is _______ thyroiditis. process; disease from a specific cause / above; more than normal / beside; apart from; two parts of a pair; abnormal / thyroid gland condition of the blood; substance in the blood / above; more than normal / calcium process; disease from a specific cause / below; deficient / beside; apart from; two parts of a pair; abnormal / thyroid gland condition of the blood; substance in the blood / below; deficient / calcium process; disease from a specific cause / above; more than normal / insulin condition of the blood; substance in the blood / below; deficient / glucose body does not respond to insulin and glucose cannot enter cells. As result body produces more and more insulin & glucose levels rise in the blood. study guide lists term as Diabetes ______ Hyposecretion of insulin. it is caused by an inability of the beta cells of the pancreas to secrete enough insulin. A Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

Diabetes Glossary

Diabetes Glossary

Antibodies Antibodies are specialized proteins that are part of the immune system. They are created when an antigen (such as a virus or bacteria) is detected in the body. The antibodies bond with the specific antigen that triggered their production, and that action neutralizes the antigen, which is a threat to the body. Antibodies are created to fight off whatever has invaded the body. See also autoantibodies. Antigens An antigen is a foreign substance (such as a virus or bacteria) that invades the body. When the body detects it, it produces specific antibodies to fight off the antigen. Autoantibodies Autoantibodies are a group of antibodies that “go bad” and mistakenly attack and damage the body’s tissues and organs. In the case of type 1 diabetes, autoantibodies attack the insulin producing beta cells in the pancreas. Autoimmune disorder If you have an autoimmune disorder (also called an autoimmune disease), your body’s immune system turns against itself and starts to attack its own tissues. Basal secretion (basal insulin) We all should have a small amount of insulin that’s constantly present in the blood; that is the basal secretion. People with type 1 diabetes must take a form of insulin that replicates the basal secretion throughout the day; that’s basal insulin. Beta cells Beta cells are located in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas. They are responsible for making insulin. Blood glucose level The blood glucose level is how much glucose is in your blood at a given time. This level is very important for people with diabetes, and they must monitor their blood glucose level throughout the day. If the blood glucose level is too high (hyperglycemia), that means that there isn’t enough insulin in the blood. If it’s too low (hypoglycemia), that mean Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Medical Terms: Endocrinology

Medical Terms: Endocrinology

Sort Nutritional Recommendations for Persons w Diab cals: sufficient to maintain healthy wt carbs: 45-55% of ttl cals. prot: 2x's amt needed fat: <30% ttl cals based on person fib: <=40g/day (25g/1000 cal) alt sweeteners: use of varied is ok sod: 1000mg/1000cal (<=3000mg/d) vit/min: no influence on diabetes Continue reading >>

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