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Ketoacidosis Is A Complication Of

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Diabetes: What Is Ketoacidosis And How Can Be Avoided & Treated?

Diabetes: What Is Ketoacidosis And How Can Be Avoided & Treated?

Good question! According to Wikipedia: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with diabetes mellitus. In order to define ketoacidosis a little better, let's go back to the source: diabetes. Someone who is diabetic is unable to produce insulin, a hormone necessary for the transfer of sugar from the bloodstream to the cells, which in turn produce energy. If this progression is disrupted, through lack of insulin for example, the body has to try to compensate by creating energy elsewhere. And so the body starts to burn fat and muscle to meet its energy needs. Unfortunately, this chemical reaction produces molecules known as ketone bodies. In small quantities, these are fine, and it is in fact normal to have traces of them in your blood (approximately 1mg/dl). However, if the quantity of ketones surpasses this threshold by too much, it starts to affect the pH of your blood (which becomes progressively more acidic). Even the slightest drop in pH can have dangerous effects: as the quantity of the ketones in your blood increases, and the blood pH diminishes, your kidneys start having problems. Eventually, if the ketoacidosis is left untreated, your kidneys can fail and you can die from dehydration, tachycardia and hypotension. A number of other symptoms can appear in extreme cases. Fortunately for us, the quantity of ketones has to be consequential, and it usually takes a while before individuals start manifesting symptoms. In my case, my diabetes went undiagnosed for a month and a half before it was discovered, and even then my ketone levels were relatively normal. If you're a diabetic, ketoacidosis can be easily avoided by controlling your blood sugar levels and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Some doctors, preferring to stay on the Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, And Complications

Diabetic ketoacidosis definition and facts Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes (though rare, it can occur in people with type 2 diabetes) that occurs when the body produces high levels of ketones due to lack of insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body cannot produce enough insulin. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis are type 1 diabetes, and missing insulin doses frequently, or being exposed to a stressor requiring higher insulin doses (infection, etc). Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by an elevated blood sugar (glucose) level, elevated blood ketones and acidity of the blood (acidosis). The treatment for diabetic ketoacidosis is insulin, fluids and electrolyte therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be prevented by taking insulin as prescribed and monitoring glucose and ketone levels. The prognosis for a person with diabetic ketoacidosis depends on the severity of the disease and the other underlying medical conditions. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life-threatening complication of diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the cells in our body do not receive the sugar (glucose) they need for energy. This happens while there is plenty of glucose in the bloodstream, but not enough insulin to help convert glucose for use in the cells. The body recognizes this and starts breaking down muscle and fat for energy. This breakdown produces ketones (also called fatty acids), which cause an imbalance in our electrolyte system leading to the ketoacidosis (a metabolic acidosis). The sugar that cannot be used because of the lack of insulin stays in the bloodstream (rather than going into the cell and provide energy). The kidneys f Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis: A Diabetes Complication

Ketoacidosis: A Diabetes Complication

Ketoacidosis can affect both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes patients. It's a possible short-term complication of diabetes, one caused by hyperglycemia—and one that can be avoided. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are two of the most serious complications of diabetes. These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of mortality among persons with diabetes in spite of all of the advances in understanding diabetes. The annual incidence rate of DKA estimated from population-based studies ranges from 4.8 to 8 episodes per 1,000 patients with diabetes. Unfortunately, in the US, incidents of hospitalization due to DKA have increased. Currently, 4% to 9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes include DKA. The incidence of HHS is more difficult to determine because of lack of population studies but it is still high at around 15%. The prognosis of both conditions is substantially worsened at the extremes of age, and in the presence of coma and hypertension. Why and How Does Ketoacidosis Occur? The pathogenesis of DKA is more understood than HHS but both relate to the basic underlying reduction in the net effective action of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counter regulatory hormones such as glucagons, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone. These hormonal alterations in both DKA and HHS lead to increased hepatic and renal glucose production and impaired use of glucose in peripheral tissues, which results in hyperglycemia and parallel changes in osmolality in extracellular space. This same combination also leads to release of free fatty acids into the circulation from adipose tissue and to unrestrained hepatic fatty acid oxidation to ketone bodies. Some drugs ca Continue reading >>

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Acute Complications Of Diabetes - Diabetic Ketoacidosis

- [Voiceover] Oftentimes we think of diabetes mellitus as a chronic disease that causes serious complications over a long period of time if it's not treated properly. However, the acute complications of diabetes mellitus are often the most serious, and can be potentially even life threatening. Let's discuss one of the acute complications of diabetes, known as diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA for short, which can occur in individuals with type 1 diabetes. Now recall that type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. And as such, there's an autoimmune destruction of the beta cells in the pancreas, which prevents the pancreas from producing and secreting insulin. Therefore, there is an absolute insulin deficiency in type 1 diabetes. But what exactly does this mean for the body? To get a better understanding, let's think about insulin requirements as a balancing act with energy needs. Now the goal here is to keep the balance in balance. As the energy requirements of the body go up, insulin is needed to take the glucose out of the blood and store it throughout the body. Normally in individuals without type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is able to produce enough insulin to keep up with any amount of energy requirement. But how does this change is someone has type 1 diabetes? Well since their pancreas cannot produces as much insulin, they have an absolute insulin deficiency. Now for day-to-day activities, this may not actually cause any problems, because the small amount of insulin that is produced is able to compensate and keep the balance in balance. However, over time, as type 1 diabetes worsens, and less insulin is able to be produced, then the balance becomes slightly unequal. And this results in the sub-acute or mild symptoms of type 1 diabetes such as fatigue, because the body isn Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that can occur in diabetes. DKA happens when acidic substances, called ketones, build up in your body. Ketones are formed when your body burns fat for fuel instead of sugar, or glucose. That can happen if you don’t have enough insulin in your body to help you process sugars. Learn more: Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis: What you should know » Left untreated, ketones can build up to dangerous levels. DKA can occur in people who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but it’s rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA can also develop if you are at risk for diabetes, but have not received a formal diagnosis. It can be the first sign of type 1 diabetes. DKA is a medical emergency. Call your local emergency services immediately if you think you are experiencing DKA. Symptoms of DKA can appear quickly and may include: frequent urination extreme thirst high blood sugar levels high levels of ketones in the urine nausea or vomiting abdominal pain confusion fruity-smelling breath a flushed face fatigue rapid breathing dry mouth and skin It is important to make sure you consult with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. If left untreated, DKA can lead to a coma or death. All people who use insulin should discuss the risk of DKA with their healthcare team, to make sure a plan is in place. If you think you are experiencing DKA, seek immediate medical help. Learn more: Blood glucose management: Checking for ketones » If you have type 1 diabetes, you should maintain a supply of home urine ketone tests. You can use these to test your ketone levels. A high ketone test result is a symptom of DKA. If you have type 1 diabetes and have a glucometer reading of over 250 milligrams per deciliter twice, you should test your urine for keton Continue reading >>

What Are The Treatments Of Ketonuria?

What Are The Treatments Of Ketonuria?

If someone has ketonuria from starvation the treatment is giving them something to eat. If a person has ketonuria as a feature of diabetic ketoacidosis the treatment is a little bit of insulin and a lot of hydration. Complicated manipulation of electrolytes also plays a great part of the treatment. It all must be done correctly to bring the patient through. Feel free to treat simple ketonuria as needed. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a emergency medical treatment, and requires removal to a hospital as soon as humanly possible. Continue reading >>

Rare Complications Of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Rare Complications Of Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: CEREBRAL EDEMA Many children who present with DKA have some degree of altered mental status. Typically the altered status is due to acidosis or hyperosmolarity, although some studies show that subclinical cerebral edema occurs in the majority of patients in DKA[9,10]. Approximately 0.5%-1% of children in DKA develop frank cerebral edema[11-13]. Morbidity related to cerebral edema is approximately 13%-35% and mortality 24%-28%[12,14]. Risk factors for the development of cerebral edema during DKA include new onset T1DM, low bicarbonate, low partial pressure of CO2, and high BUN[13,15]. Conventional thinking attributes the mechanism of injury in cerebral edema to swelling from an influx of fluid into the brain[15-17]. This influx is thought to be due to the rapidly declining serum osmolarity caused by overly aggressive fluid resuscitation; however, data reveals the only treatment-related risk factor to be administration of bicarbonate[15]. The association between high fluid infusion rates and development of cerebral edema trends toward, but does not reach, statistical significance[13]. Radiographic confirmation of cerebral edema in patients with DKA prior to initiation of fluid therapy further discredits the association[13,15]. Also, many children have normal brain imaging at the onset of clinical cerebral edema and do not develop radiographic signs of edema until hours or days later, suggesting that edema is a consequence rather than the cause of injury[11]. A more plausible hypothesis is that cerebral edema is caused by cerebral hypoperfusion, which leads to cytotoxic edema (cell swelling and death) at presentation followed by vasogenic edema (breakdown of the blood brain barrier leading to capillary leakage) during treatment[9]. There is supporting evidence for t Continue reading >>

What Is The Treatments For Ketoacidosis?

What Is The Treatments For Ketoacidosis?

Management of diabetic ketoacidos Time: 0–60 mins 1. Commence 0.9% sodium chloride If systolic BP > 90 mmHg, give 1 L over 60 mins If systolic BP < 90 mmHg, give 500 mL over 10–15 mins, then re-assess. If BP remains < 90 mmHg, seek senior review 2. Commence insulin treatment 50 U human soluble insulin in 50 mL 0.9% sodium chloride infused intravenously at 0.1 U/kg body weight/hr Continue with SC basal insulin analogue if usually taken by patient 3. Perform further investigations: see text 4. Establish monitoring schedule Hourly capillary blood glucose and ketone testing Venous bicarbonate and potassium after 1 and 2 hrs, then every 2 hrs Plasma electrolytes every 4 hrs Clinical monitoring of O2 saturation, pulse, BP, respiratory rate and urine output every hour 5. Treat any precipitating cause Time: 60 mins to 12 hrs • IV infusion of 0.9% sodium chloride with potassium chloride added as indicated below 1 L over 2 hrs 1 L over 2 hrs 1 L over 4 hrs 1 L over 4 hrs 1 L over 6 hrs • Add 10% glucose 125 mL/hr IV when glucose < 14 mmol/L • Be more cautious with fluid replacement in elderly, young people, pregnant patients and those with renal or heart failure. If plasma sodium is > 155 mmol/L, 0.45% sodium chloride may be used. • Adjust potassium chloride infusion Plasma potassium (mmol/L) Potassium replacement (mmol/L of infusion) > 5.5 Nil 3.5–5.5 40 < 3.5 Senior review – additional potassium required Time: 12–24 hrs • Ketonaemia and acidosis should have resolved (blood ketones < 0.3 mmol/L, venous bicarbonate > 18 mmol/L). Request senior review if not improving • If patient is not eating and drinking Continue IV insulin infusion at lower rate of 2–3 U/kg/hr Continue IV fluid replacement and biochemical monitoring • If ketoacidosis has resolved and Continue reading >>

Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Complications Of Diabetes Mellitus

Autophagy and Diabetes Complications Complications of diabetes represent the major causes of morbidity and mortality that are associated with this chronic metabolic disorder84. Specifically, cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in subjects with diabetes, which represents the major cause of end stage renal disease, blindness and limb amputations in developed and many developing societies. Broadly speaking, diabetes complications can be categorized as macrovascular, which are those affecting large and medium size blood vessels and microvascular complications, which involve small blood vessels such as small arterioles. Macrovascular complications include accelerated atherosclerosis, leading to increased coronary artery disease, increased cerebrovascular disease and stroke, and increased peripheral arterial disease that contributes to critical limb ischemia. There is also strong evidence that diabetes leads to direct adverse effects in the heart that leads to diabetic cardiomyopathy85. Microvascular impairment leads to the complications of diabetic retinopathy, diabetic nephropathy and diabetic neuropathy. The pathogenesis of these diverse complications of diabetes is complex, is only partially understood and has been the subject of many reviews. Only recently has attention turned to the potential contribution of changes in autophagy due to the complications of diabetes. As reviewed in other chapters, autophagy may serve a protective role in cells where it promotes cellular survival by removing damaged organelles such as mitochondria. Therefore in these contexts, a decrease in autophagy could contribute to cellular dysfunction that occurs on the basis of accumulation of dysfunctional organelles or irreversibly damaged cellular substructures. Conversely, Continue reading >>

Acute Diabetic Ketoacidosis — A Complication Of Intravenous Diazoxide Treatment For Refractory Hypertension

Acute Diabetic Ketoacidosis — A Complication Of Intravenous Diazoxide Treatment For Refractory Hypertension

This article has no abstract; the first 100 words appear below. IT has been reported that severe arterial hypertension can be treated effectively and safely with diazoxide given in a series of intravenous injections.1 , 2 During such treatment we have observed the appearance of diabetic ketoacidosis in a nondiabetic patient with impaired renal function. Case Report A 29-year-old woman, previously in good health, was admitted to the University of Wisconsin Hospitals in July, 1966, after the abrupt onset of hematuria, hypertension, oliguria and azotemia. Renal biopsy on the 19th day of oliguria revealed changes consistent with glomerulonephritis. Treatment with azathioprine was begun, and dialytic support continued until the acute renal failure resolved. . . . *From the Renal Section, Department of Medicine, University of Wisconsin Medical Center (address reprint requests to Dr. Updike at the University of Wisconsin Medical Center, Madison, Wise. 53706). We are indebted to Dr. Richard Rieselbach for advice during this study, to Dr. J. M. B. Bloodworth, Jr., for his interpretation of light and electron micrographs and to Dr. Edgar Gordon for the immunoassays for insulin. Continue reading >>

What Are The Side Effects Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2?

What Are The Side Effects Of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2?

With Diabetes, there are short- and long-term side effects to deal with, if you don’t work hard to keep your blood glucose level under control. However, by watching the amount and types of food you eat (your meal plan), exercising, and taking any necessary medications, you may be able to prevent these complications. Heart disease and stroke If you have diabetes, you're up to five times more likely to develop heart disease or have a stroke. Prolonged, poorly controlled blood glucose levels increase the likelihood of atherosclerosis, where the blood vessels become clogged up and narrowed by fatty substances. Nerve damage High blood glucose levels can damage the tiny blood vessels in your nerves. This can cause a tingling or burning pain that spreads from your fingers and toes up through your limbs. It can also cause numbness, which can lead to ulceration of the feet. Diabetic retinopathy Diabetic retinopathy is when the retina, the light-sensitive layer of tissue at the back of the eye, becomes damaged. Blood vessels in the retina can become blocked or leaky, or can grow haphazardly. This prevents light fully passing through to your retina. If it isn't treated, it can damage your vision. Kidney disease If the small blood vessels of your kidney become blocked and leaky, your kidneys will work less efficiently. It's usually associated with high blood pressure, and treating this is a key part of management. Foot problems Damage to the nerves of the foot can mean small nicks and cuts aren't noticed and this, in combination with poor circulation, can lead to a foot ulcer. About 1 in 10 people with diabetes get a foot ulcer, which can cause a serious infection. Sexual dysfunction In men with diabetes, particularly those who smoke, nerve and blood vessel damage can lead to ere Continue reading >>

What Are Symptoms Of Diabetes Complications?

What Are Symptoms Of Diabetes Complications?

Complications of Diabetes can be many and while the pathophysiology is deeply satisfying to learn because it incorporates so many different aspects of pathology & physiology. I will simply just line a simple overview of some of the most common complications of Diabetes. In acute / short term complications, these two are the most prominent: In Type I DM - Ketoacidosis is a terrible complication that results from the production of ketone bodies that acidify the blood when the brain is going hungry and needs ketones to fuel it. In Type II DM, we tend to see complications of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Coma. In the long term or chronic long standing uncontrolled Diabetes, we can see complications such as: Blindness Kidney Diseases Nerve Damage Amputations Heart Attack / Stroke Hope that helps! Continue reading >>

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