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Ketoacidosis Definition

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High Frequency Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis At Diagnosis Of Type 1 Diabetes In Italian Children: A Nationwide Longitudinal Study, 2004–2013

This longitudinal population-based study analyses the frequency of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) at type 1 diabetes diagnosis in Italian children under 15 years of age, during 2004–2013. DKA was defined as absent (pH ≥ 7.30), mild/moderate (7.1 ≤ pH < 7.30) and severe (pH < 7.1). Two multiple logistic regression models were used to evaluate the time trend of DKA frequency considered as present versus absent and severe versus absent, adjusted for gender, age group and geographical area of residence at diagnosis. Overall, 9,040 cases were ascertained. DKA frequency was 40.3% (95%CI: 39.3–41.4%), with 29.1% and 11.2% for mild/moderate and severe DKA, respectively. Severe DKA increased significantly during the period (OR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.003–1.05). Younger-age children and children living in Southern Italy compared to Central Italy were at significantly higher risk of DKA and severe DKA. Family history of type 1 diabetes and residence in Sardinia compared to Central Italy were significantly associated with a lower probability of DKA and severe DKA. The high frequency of ketoacidosis in Italy over time and high variability among age groups and geographical area of residence, str Continue reading >>

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  1. laurenschofield

    I started the Keto Diet about a week ago, and have definitely been experiencing the "Keto Flu", which I've read about and was ready for. I wasn't ready for a sore throat, though. For the last three days, I've been experiencing the lump-in-the-throat/difficult-to-swallow feeling, like when you get a cold. I'm drinking more than enough water, and hot lemon water helps quite a bit.
    My question is, has anyone else experienced this as a side effect? If so, any way to quell it? Does it go away after a bit? I've done some internet research, but it hasn't pulled up much. Thank you!

  2. grndzro

    You also need electrolytes. not just water.
    Eat 2 bricks of spinach, and take a tsp of lite salt.
    Get some exercise to burn off excess ketones.
    Have a cup of milk.

  3. laurenschofield

    Originally Posted by grndzro
    You also need electrolytes. not just water.
    Eat 2 bricks of spinach, and take a tsp of lite salt.
    Get some exercise to burn off excess ketones.
    Have a cup of milk.

    Excellent, thank you! I'm exercising 5/week, so we're set there. I'll down some spinach tomorrow (gonna leave the milk though, it doesn't agree with my lactose intolerance!)

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

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  1. holymolysoly

    I am on day 21 and my husband has remarked on several occasions that my breath is absolutely horrific and offensive. After some searching in this forum and online, it seems the most likely culprits are ketosis and acetone breath from the over-consumption of protein? I dont think either of these are possible culprits, but over the last few days, I have increased my starchy veggie consumption to two per day and my husband said it hasn't helped. I am a nursing mamma to an almost 2 year old, so I figured I could use the extra starchy veggie because he still nurses 4 to 6 times in a 24 hour period. I follow the meal template fairly strictly so I don't think I am lacking or overdoing it in terms of protein or plant based starches/carbs. I feel great and want to continue with a very slow reintroduction of just a few things but my husband said he can barely tolerate the next 9 days and he is looking forward to me eating "normally" and my bad breath issue resolving ASAP. Any suggestions ? I really would like to make this way of eating a lifestyle and the breath issue is the only impediment for me.

  2. ladyshanny

    On July 25, 2016 at 10:12 PM, holymolysoly said:



    I am on day 21 and my husband has remarked on several occasions that my breath is absolutely horrific and offensive. After some searching in this forum and online, it seems the most likely culprits are ketosis and acetone breath from the over-consumption of protein? I dont think either of these are possible culprits, but over the last few days, I have increased my starchy veggie consumption to two per day and my husband said it hasn't helped. I am a nursing mamma to an almost 2 year old, so I figured I could use the extra starchy veggie because he still nurses 4 to 6 times in a 24 hour period. I follow the meal template fairly strictly so I don't think I am lacking or overdoing it in terms of protein or plant based starches/carbs. I feel great and want to continue with a very slow reintroduction of just a few things but my husband said he can barely tolerate the next 9 days and he is looking forward to me eating "normally" and my bad breath issue resolving ASAP. Any suggestions ? I really would like to make this way of eating a lifestyle and the breath issue is the only impediment for me.
    Hi,
    The most common culprits is ketosis but could also be from dehydration causing dry mouth which allows bacteria to breed.
    If would be most helpful if you would outline your last few days of food including portion sizes, specific vegetables/fat types and quantities, fluids, exercise etc. We can take a look and see if anything stands out.

  3. holymolysoly

    Thanks so much for the response. I generally walk between 5-7 miles a day and sleep is disrupted with several night time wake-ups since my son does not sleep through the night yet.
    Here's what my days have looked like:
    M1 - 3 scrambled eggs cooked in ghee
    1/3 of a 6 inch in diameter acorn squash drizzled with some EVOO
    1 trader joe's bag of organic spinach, steamed to yield about a cup
    1/2 cup coconut milk in coffee
    M2 - 3 turkey meatballs (each a bit smaller than a tennis ball),
    1 cup home made complaint marinara
    2 cups green beans (steamed)
    2 tbsp ghee mixed into marinara after cooking
    M3 - 1 and a half boneless skinless chicken thighs cooked into a curry with
    1 cup broccoli, 1/2 cup red peppers
    Served atop cauli rice with 1-2 tbsp of ghee mixed in after cooking
    Yesterday
    M1 - Fritatta made with 2 eggs, 1/4 cup ground chicken, asparagus, zucchini, onions, spinach
    roasted potatoes with herbs
    1/2 cup coconut milk with coffee
    M2 - Buffalo chicken spaghetti squash bake (PaleoOMG recipe)
    Mixed greens with tomato and cucumber, EVOO and balsamic
    M3 - ground turkey with 2 cups of veggies (same as in morning fritatta) with 1-2 tbsp of ghee mixed in after cooking
    I practice good oral hygeine and brush and floss twice a day. I have been carrying around mouth wash and using that several times a day as well. I can't tell that my breath smells bad. Also, I never had this issue before W30, and do not have any underlying medical conditions that could be causing this. My husband mentioned bad breath to me the last time I did a W30 in October of 2013, but he doesn't recall it being as severe as it is now. About a week ago, I ate squash or potato at every meal for 2 or 3 days and my husband said it wasn't as rancid but that he could still smell it.

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an acute complication of diabetes that occurs mostly in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and a characteristic fruity odor on the breath. Diabetic ketoacidosis is diagnosed by blood tests that show high levels of glucose, ketones, and acid. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis involves intravenous fluid replacement and insulin. Without treatment, diabetic ketoacidosis can progress to coma and death. There are two types of diabetes mellitus, type 1 and type 2. In both types, the amount of sugar (glucose) in the blood is elevated. Glucose is one of the body's main fuels. Insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. helps glucose move from the blood into the cells. Once glucose is inside the cells, it is either converted to energy or stored as fat or glycogen until it is needed. When there is not enough insulin, most cells cannot use the glucose that is in the blood. Because cells still need energy to survive, they switch to a back-up mechanism to obtain energy. Fat cells begin breaking down, producing compounds called ketones. Ketones provide some energy to cells but also make the blood too aci Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Peter1235

    keto diet what are your individual macros and calorie intake? I'm getting so many different answers

    Need help new to this
    Sent from my iPhone using Diabetes Daily

  2. Nan OH

    Some members are Keto adapted but not many. You may not get too many replies.

  3. AnnC

    Everyone is different. I just worked out I needed fewer than 30g of carbs a day to lose weight and get good BG numbers. I then used a calculator to determine the optimum amount of protein for me, which was around 65g a day. With those two sorted out as actual grams, I just ate good fats to satiety. The final ratio came out at an F:P:C of around 85:10:5, but it varied day by day according to what I felt like eating each day, although for many months I was meticulous about not going over the 30g of carbs. Sometimes that was as low as 13 or 14.
    I no longer weigh and measure my food, but my fasting glucose and HbA1c are still where I like them to be. My HA1c has been pretty well a horizontal line now for over five years. You'll see my current number in my sig line.

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