diabetestalk.net

Ketoacidosis Combining Form

Invokana Lawsuit

Invokana Lawsuit

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has issued a new safety alert regarding a possible increase in the risk of leg or foot amputation after taking the antidiabetic medication, Invokana. Previous safety warnings were also issued about an increased risk of severe urinary tract infection and diabetic ketoacidosis which has required hospitalization and dialysis due to kidney failure. Invokana, a medication used to treat Type 2 diabetes, may have caused serious injury in some patients. Patients who have taken Invokana may have experienced leg, foot or toe amputation, kidney failure, heart attack or other events which were life-threatening or resulted in permanent injury. Many of these patients or their family members have filed an Invokana lawsuit against the manufacturer of Invokana, stating that the company failed to warn the public and the medical community about the potential risks of the medication. If you or a loved one required amputation, experienced kidney failure with dialysis, heart attack or other serious injuries after taking Invokana, you may be eligible for legal compensation. What is Invokana? Invokana (canagliflozin) is a newer type of anti-diabetic medication used to treat Type 2 diabetes. It is a member of the class “SGLT2 inhibitors” (sodium-glucose-co-transporter 2) medications that work to lower blood sugar by encouraging the body to release excess sugar into the urine. Normally, insulin is secreted by the body to help move sugar or glucose from the bloodstream into the cells where it can be used as energy. Type 2 diabetics are often resistant to insulin, causing the sugar to remain in the blood stream, unusable by the cells. This excess sugar is excreted into the urine but is reabsorbed by the kidneys. Over time, high blood sugar may cause perman Continue reading >>

Incidence Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Sglt2 Inhibitors And Other Antihyperglycemic Agents

Incidence Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Treated With Sglt2 Inhibitors And Other Antihyperglycemic Agents

Highlights • Overall, unadjusted DKA incidence were similar between SGLT2 and non-SGLT2 agents. • Overall, unadjusted DKA incidence dropped by ∼50% when excluding potential autoimmune diabetes. • Primary analysis found no statistically significant increased risk of DKA with SGLT2 inhibitors. • No increased risk of DKA with SGLT2 inhibitors when excluding potential autoimmune diabetes. • More than half of the DKA cases met the definition of potential autoimmune diabetes. Abstract To estimate and compare incidence of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) among patients with type 2 diabetes who are newly treated with SGLT2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) versus non-SGLT2i antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs) in actual clinical practice. A new-user cohort study design using a large insurance claims database in the US. DKA incidence was compared between new users of SGLT2i and new users of non-SGLT2i AHAs pair-matched on exposure propensity scores (EPS) using Cox regression models. Overall, crude incidence rates (95% CI) per 1000 patient-years for DKA were 1.69 (1.22–2.30) and 1.83 (1.58–2.10) among new users of SGLT2i (n = 34,442) and non-SGLT2i AHAs (n = 126,703). These rates more than doubled among patients with prior insulin prescriptions but decreased by more than half in analyses that excluded potential autoimmune diabetes (PAD). The hazard ratio (95% CI) for DKA comparing new users of SGLT2i to new users of non-SGLT2i AHAs was 1.91 (0.94–4.11) (p = 0.09) among the 30,196 EPS-matched pairs overall, and 1.13 (0.43–3.00) (p = 0.81) among the 27,515 EPS-matched pairs that excluded PAD. This was the first observational study that compared DKA risk between new users of SGLT2i and non-SGLT2i AHAs among patients with type 2 diabetes, and overall no statistically significant differen Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

Role Of Beta-hydroxybutyric Acid In Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Review

Role Of Beta-hydroxybutyric Acid In Diabetic Ketoacidosis: A Review

Go to: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a complication of diabetes mellitus, is a severe metabolic disease that often requires intensive treatment. Diagnosis of ketosis associated with DKA can be difficult due to variability in the metabolic state of DKA patients. Recognition of the clinical signs and definitive diagnosis are essential for proper treatment. This article reviews the formation of ketoacids during DKA and the role of β-hydroxybutyric acid in the diagnosis and monitoring of DKA. Go to: Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe and life threatening metabolic disease caused by an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin in the body (1). A disease of middle-aged dogs and cats, DKA occurs as a complication of diabetes mellitus (1). The clinical presentation can range from ketotic patients that are eating, drinking, and maintaining hydration on their own to the more common ketoacidotic patients that are dehydrated and have other signs such as vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy (1). The intensity of treatment is therefore variable and depends on the severity of clinical signs and the degree of metabolic derangement. Most DKA patients require intensive, in-hospital treatment. Go to: Pathophysiology Decreased insulin production by pancreatic beta cells, decreased activity of insulin receptors at the cellular level, or both, are responsible for the abnormal glucose metabolism and resulting hyperglycemia (1,2). One consequence of this disregulated glucose metabolism is that glucose transport from serum into the cells is inadequate, leading to cellular starvation (1–3). In order to satisfy its cellular energy requirements and maintain cellular integrity, the body utilizes adipose tissue as the main energy source (1,4). This is a protective mechanism designed Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome After Renal Transplantation In The United States

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome After Renal Transplantation In The United States

Abstract The incidence and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome, previously called non-ketotic hyperosmolar coma) have not been reported in a national population of renal transplant (renal transplantation) recipients. We performed a historical cohort study of 39,628 renal transplantation recipients in the United States Renal Data System between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1998, followed until 31 Dec 1999. Outcomes were hospitalizations for a primary diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (ICD-9 code 250.1x) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (code 250.2x). Cox Regression analysis was used to calculate adjusted hazard ratios for time to hospitalization for diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome. The incidence of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome were 33.2/1000 person years (PY) and 2.7/1000 PY respectively for recipients with a prior diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM), and 2.0/1000 PY and 1.1/1000 PY in patients without DM. In Cox Regression analysis, African Americans (AHR, 2.71, 95 %CI, 1.96–3.75), females, recipients of cadaver kidneys, patients age 33–44 (vs. >55), more recent year of transplant, and patients with maintenance TAC (tacrolimus, vs. cyclosporine) had significantly higher risk of diabetic ketoacidosis. However, the rate of diabetic ketoacidosis decreased more over time in TAC users than overall. Risk factors for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome were similar except for the significance of positive recipient hepatitis C serology and non-significance of female gender. Both diabetic ketoacidosis (AHR, 2.44, 95% CI, 2.10–2.85, p < 0.0001) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (AHR 1.87, 95% CI, 1.22 Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus

Return to The Medical Biochemistry Page Diabetes is any disorder characterized by excessive urine excretion. The most common form of diabetes is diabetes mellitus, a metabolic disorder in which there is an inability to oxidize carbohydrate due to disturbances in insulin function. Diabetes mellitus is characterized by elevated glucose in the plasma and episodic ketoacidosis. Additional symptoms of diabetes mellitus include excessive thirst, glucosuria, polyuria, lipemia and hunger. If left untreated the disease can lead to fatal ketoacidosis. Other forms of diabetes include diabetes insipidus and brittle diabetes. Diabetes insipidus is the result of a deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (ADH, also referred to as vasopressin or arginine vasopressin, AVP). The major symptom of diabetes insipidus (excessive output of dilute urine) results from an inability of the kidneys to resorb water. Brittle diabetes is a form that is very difficult to control. It is characterized by unexplained oscillations between hypoglycemia and acidosis. Criteria, which clinically establish an individual as suffering from diabetes mellitus, include: 1. having a fasting plasma glucose level in excess of 126mg/dL (7mmol/L). Normal levels should be less than 100mg/dL (5.6mmol/L) or: 2. having plasma glucose levels in excess of 200mg/dL (11mmol/L) at two times points during an oral glucose tolerance test, OGTT, one of which must be within 2 hrs of ingestion of glucose. Different clinical labs may use different units for the measurement of serum glucose concentrations, either in mmol/L or mg/dL. One can easily interconvert these values using the following formulas: mg/dL x 0.0555 = mmol/L (or simply divide mg/dL by 18) mmol/L x 18.0182 = mg/dL (or simply multiply mmol/L by 18) The earlier a person is dia Continue reading >>

Drug And Alcohol Use With Diabetes

Drug And Alcohol Use With Diabetes

Comprehensive Guide to Research on Risk, Complications and Treatment Substance abuse is described as the excessive use of a substance such as alcohol or drugs that results in significant clinical impairments as well as the loss of ability to function academically, professionally, and socially [1]. An individual who was healthy before the substance abuse began will typically begin to experience serious health problems over time, but extensive damage may be avoided or reversed if effective substance abuse treatment is received. This is not the case, however, for individuals who have been diagnosed with diabetes, and although this is a manageable disease with proper treatment, substance abuse may cause it to become life-threatening. This guide will discuss, in detail, how substance abuse can negatively impact the life and health of a person with diabetes. Diabetes, also referred to as diabetes mellitus, is a condition in which the body is unable to properly regulate blood sugar levels. There are two forms known as type 1 and type 2 diabetes, but in order to better understand the difference between the two types, the role that insulin plays in the regulation of healthy blood sugar levels will be briefly described. During the digestive process, carbohydrates are broken down into glucose, which is a form of sugar that easily enters the bloodstream and is used by the body for energy. The pancreas normally responds to increasing blood sugar levels by initiating the production of the hormone known as insulin. As insulin levels increase, it signals the transfer of glucose into cells throughout the body and it also ensures that excess glucose will be stored in the liver in order to prevent high blood sugar levels. Type 1 diabetes, which is also called juvenile or insulin dependent Continue reading >>

Clinical Applications Of Diabetes Antibody Testing

Clinical Applications Of Diabetes Antibody Testing

Context: Autoantibodies to glutamate decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin, and zinc transporter-8 are characteristic of type 1 diabetes. They are detectable before clinical onset and define the subgroup of patients with latent autoimmune diabetes in adults. Autoantibody assays are increasingly available to clinicians. This article reviews the prognostic significance of autoantibodies and considers the utility of diabetes antibody testing in routine clinical practice. Evidence Acquisition: The medical literature to May 2009 was reviewed for key articles and consensus statements covering use of islet autoantibody testing for prediction and classification of diabetes and implications for therapy. Evidence Synthesis: Sensitive and specific glutamate decarboxylase and islet antigen-2 antibody assays are widely available, although to insulin autoantibody assays remain variable. Islet autoantibodies appear early in life, and testing for multiple antibodies identifies unaffected individuals at very high risk of type 1 diabetes with high sensitivity. This is important for research, but currently no intervention prevents or delays diabetes, and evidence of benefit from awareness of risk is weak. In non-insulin-treated diabetes, patients with autoantibodies progress to insulin requirement more rapidly, but evidence that testing benefits the individual patient is limited. Antibody testing is useful in classifying diabetes of other types. Conclusions: Islet autoantibody testing allows prediction of type 1 diabetes and definition of the latent autoimmune diabetes in adults subgroup of non-insulin-treated patients. Although useful for research, until therapies modulating the disease process become available, the benefit to individual patients is generally questionable. With a few e Continue reading >>

Corticosteroids And Diabetes

Corticosteroids And Diabetes

Tweet Use of corticosteroids to treat inflammation can lead to higher than normal blood glucose levels and, in longer term usage may lead to type 2 diabetes developing. What are corticosteroids? Corticosteroids are medications that contain synthetic versions of cortisol, the hormone produced by our adrenal glands and responsible for the body’s stress response. Corticosteroids may be taken orally in tablet form, via inhalers, via injections or within lotions, gels and creams. Examples of steroid medications include: Prednisolone Hydrocortisone Dexamethesone Fludrocortisone Deflazacort Corticosteroids are not to be confused with anabolic steroids, a type of steroid and class C drug which some body builders use, illegally, to build muscle. When are corticosteroids used or prescribed? Corticosteroids may be used to control inflammation as a result of conditions including: Rhuematoid arthritis Asthma Ulcerative colitis Chron’s disease Lupus Addison’s disease Can steroids lead to diabetes? One of the side effects of oral corticosteroids is that they can increase blood glucose levels and increase insulin resistance, which can lead to type 2 diabetes. Typically, blood glucose levels will return to normal after you finish taking the steroids but in some cases, particularly if you have pre-existing risk factors for type 2 diabetes, you may be diagnosed with this form of diabetes. Being on steroids for a longer period of time, over 3 months, may also increase your risk of type 2 diabetes. Treating diabetes when on steroids If you have diabetes prior to starting on oral corticosteroids, you need to be aware that your blood glucose levels may rise whilst you are taking steroids. This is more likely to be the case if you are taking steroids orally. If you do not currently monit Continue reading >>

Factors Associated With The Presence Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis At Diagnosis Of Diabetes In Children And Young Adults: A Systematic Review

Factors Associated With The Presence Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis At Diagnosis Of Diabetes In Children And Young Adults: A Systematic Review

Abstract Objective To identify the factors associated with diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in children and young adults. Design Systematic review. Data sources PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cinahl and article reference lists. Study selection Cohort studies including unselected groups of children and young adults presenting with new onset type 1 diabetes that distinguished between those who presented in diabetic ketoacidosis and those who did not and included a measurement of either pH or bicarbonate in the definition of diabetic ketoacidosis. There were no restrictions on language of publication. Results 46 studies involving more than 24 000 children in 31 countries were included. Together they compared 23 different factors. Factors associated with increased risk were younger age (for <2 years old v older, odds ratio 3.41 (95% confidence interval 2.54 to 4.59), for <5 years v older, odds ratio 1.59 (1.38 to 1.84)), diagnostic error (odds ratio 3.35 (2.35 to 4.79)), ethnic minority, lack of health insurance in the US (odds ratio 3.20 (2.03 to 5.04)), lower body mass index, preceding infection (odds ratio 3.14 (0.94 to 10.47)), and delayed treatment (odds ratio 1.74 (1.10 to 2.77)). Protective factors were having a first degree relative with type 1 diabetes at the time of diagnosis (odds ratio 0.33 (0.08 to 1.26)), higher parental education (odds ratios 0.4 (0.20 to 0.79) and 0.64 (0.43 to 0.94) in two studies), and higher background incidence of type 1 diabetes (correlation coefficient –0.715). The mean duration of symptoms was similar between children presenting with or without diabetic ketoacidosis (16.5 days (standard error 6.2) and 17.1 days (6.0) respectively), and up to 38.8% (285/735) of children who presented with diabetic ke Continue reading >>

Phd Public Health, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Phd Public Health, Suez Canal University, Egypt

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of diseases characterized by high levels of blood glucose resulting from defects in insulin production, insulin action, or both. The term diabetes mellitus describes a metabolic disorder of multiple aetiology characterized by chronic hyperglycaemia with disturbances of carbohydrate, fat and protein metabolism resulting from defects in insulin secretion, insulin action, or both. The effects of diabetes mellitus include long–term damage, dysfunction and failure of various organs. Diabetes mellitus may present with characteristic symptoms such as thirst, polyuria, blurring of vision, and weight loss. In its most severe forms, ketoacidosis or a non–ketotic hyperosmolar state may develop and lead to stupor, coma and, in absence of effective treatment, death. Often symptoms are not severe, or may be absent, and consequently hyperglycaemia sufficient to cause pathological and functional changes may be present for a long time before the diagnosis is made. The long–term effects of diabetes mellitus include progressive development of the specific complications of retinopathy with potential blindness, nephropathy that may lead to renal failure, and/or neuropathy with risk of foot ulcers, amputation, Charcot joints, and features of autonomic dysfunction, including sexual dysfunction. People with diabetes are at increased risk of cardiovascular, peripheral vascular and cerebrovascular disease. The development of diabetes is projected to reach pandemic proportions over the next10-20 years. International Diabetes Federation (IDF) data indicate that by the year 2025, the number of people affected will reach 333 million –90% of these people will have Type 2 diabetes. In most Western societies, the overall prevalence has reach Continue reading >>

Diabetic Emergencies, Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults, Part 3

Diabetic Emergencies, Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults, Part 3

Clinical Management Treatment consists of rehydration with intravenous fluids, the administration of insulin, and replacement of electrolytes. General medical care and close supervision by trained medical and nursing staff is of paramount importance in the management of patients with DKA. A treatment flowchart (Table 1.3) should be used and updated meticulously. A urine catheter is necessary if the patient is in coma or if no urine is passed in the first 4 hours…. Replacement of water deficit Patients with DKA have severe dehydration. The amount of fluid needing to be administered depends on the degree of dehydration (Table 1.4). Fluid replacement aims at correction of the volume deficit and not to restore serum osmolality to normal. Isotonic solution NaCl (0.9%) (normal saline; osmolality 308 mOsm/kg) should be administered even in patients with high serum osmolality since this solution is hypotonic compared to the extracellular fluid of the patient. 10 The initial rate of fluid administration depends on the degree of volume depletion and underlying cardiac and renal function. In a young adult with normal cardiac and/or renal function 1 L of normal saline is administered intravenously within the first half- to one hour. In the second hour administer another 1 L, and between the third and the fifth hours administer 0.5–1 L per hour. Thus, the total volume in the first 5 hours should be 3.5–5 L [1]. If the patient is in shock or blood pressure does not respond to normal saline infusion, colloid solutions together with normal saline may be used.1,6 Some authors suggest replacement of normal saline with hypotonic (0.45%) saline solution after stabilization of the hemodynamic status of the patient and when corrected serum sodium levels are normal.8 However, this appro Continue reading >>

Peer Reviewers

Peer Reviewers

Pediatric Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Outpatient Perspective On Evaluation and Management Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common, serious acute complication in children with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis can accompany new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus or it can occur with established type 1 diabetes mellitus during the increased demands of an acute illness or with decreased insulin delivery due to omitted doses or insulin pump failure. Additionally, diabetic ketoacidosis episodes in children with type 2 diabetes mellitus are being reported with greater frequency. Although the diagnosis is usually straightforward in a known diabetes patient with expected findings, a fair proportion of patients with new-onset diabetes present in diabetic ketoacido- sis. The initial management of children with diabetic ketoacidosis frequently occurs in an emergency department. Physicians must be aware that diabetic ketoacidosis is an important consideration in the differential diagnosis of pediatric metabolic acidosis. This review will acquaint emergency medicine clinicians with the pathophysiology, treatment, and potential complications of this disorder. Author William Bonadio, MD Attending Physician, Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Maimonides Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY Arleta Rewers, MD, PhD Associate Professor of Pediatrics, University of Colorado, Denver, School of Medicine, Aurora, CO Joseph I. Wolfsdorf, MD Clinical Director, Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children’s Hospital, Professor of Pediatrics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA CME Objectives Upon completion of this article, you should be able to: 1. Describe the pathophysiology of DKA and the associated clinical signs and symptoms of this disorder. 2. Discuss management of DKA to restore metabolic hom Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis - Dka (exam 4)

Metabolic Acidosis - Dka (exam 4)

Transcript of Metabolic Acidosis - DKA (Exam 4) ATI Metabolic Acidosis ATI Client Education - ATI The following are the five classic types of ABG results demonstrating balance and imbalance. ATI Metabolic Acidosis Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures • To determine the type of imbalance, follow these steps: Metabolic Acidosis - DKA Patient-Centered Care • For all acid-base imbalances, it is imperative to treat the underlying cause. Exam 4 Results from - ›› Excess production of hydrogen ions »»Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) »»Lactic acidosis »»Starvation »»Heavy exercise »»Seizure activity »»Fever »»Hypoxia »»Intoxication with ethanol or salicylates ›› Inadequate elimination of hydrogen ions »»Kidney failure ›› Inadequate production of bicarbonate »»Kidney failure »»Pancreatitis »»Liver failure »»Dehydration ›› Excess elimination of bicarbonate »»Diarrhea, ileostomy ›› Vital signs: bradycardia, weak peripheral pulses, hypotension, tachypnea ›› Dysrhythmias ›› Neurological: muscle weakness, hyporeflexia, flaccid paralysis, fatigue, confusion ›› Respiratory: rapid, deep respirations (Kussmaul respirations) ›› Skin: warm, dry, flushed • Step 1: Look at pH. - If less than 7.35, diagnose as acidosis . • Step 2: Look at PaCO2 and HCO3 - simultaneously. Determine which is in the expected reference range. Conclude that the other is the indicator of imbalance. Diagnose less than 22 or greater than 26 HCO3 - as metabolic in origin. Step 3: Combine diagnoses of Steps 1 and 2 to name the type of imbalance. - If greater than 7.45, diagnose as alkalosis. Diagnose less than 35 or greater than 45 PaCO2 as respiratory in origin. Step 4: Evaluate the PaO2 and the SaO2. • If the results are below the expected refe Continue reading >>

What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide

What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide

Ketoacidosis is lethal. It is responsible for over 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the US with a mortality rate of around 5%. In other words, ketoacidosis is to blame for about 5,000 deaths per year. The cause? A deadly combination of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone body levels in the blood (more on this deadly combination later). Luckily, this lethal triad rarely affects individuals who don’t have diabetes. However, the majority (80%) of cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with a known history of diabetes mellitus (any form of diabetes). Ketoacidosis vs. Diabetic Ketoacidosis — What’s The Difference? At this point, you may have noticed that I used ketoacidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis interchangeably. This is because it is difficult for the body to get into a state of ketoacidosis without the blood sugar control issues that are common in people with diabetes. Hence, the term diabetic ketoacidosis. (However, there is another form of ketoacidosis called alcoholic ketoacidosis. This occurs in alcoholics who had a recent alcohol binge during a period of time when they didn’t eat enough.) Ketoacidosis tends to occur the most in people who have type 1 diabetes. Somewhere between 5 and 8 of every 1,000 people with type 1 diabetes develops diabetic ketoacidosis each year. Type 2 diabetics also run the risk of ketoacidosis under stressful situations, but it is much rarer because type 2 diabetics have some remaining insulin production (type 1 diabetics do not). If you are not part of the 422 million people worldwide that have diabetes, your risk of getting ketoacidosis is negligible. You would have to put yourself through years of stress, inactivity, and unhealthy eating habits before you experience ketoacidosis. ( Continue reading >>

More in ketosis