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Ketoacidosis Breath

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Patho

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Patho

pathophysiology ketogenesis due to insulin deficiency leads to increased serum levels of ketones anad ketonuria acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate; ketone bodies produced by the liver, organic acids that cause metabolic acidosis respiration partially compensates; reduces pCO2, when pH < 7.2, deep rapid respirations (Kussmaul breathing) acetone; minor product of ketogenesis, can smell fruity on breath of ketoacidosis patients elevated anion gap Methanol intoxication Uremic acidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis Paraldehyde ingestions Intoxicants (salicyclate, ethylene glycol, nipride, epinephrine, norepinephrine) Lactic acidosis (drug induced; didanosine, iron, isoniazid, metformin, zidovudine) Ethanol ketoacidosis Severe renal failure starvation Blood glucose regulation (6) 1. When blood glucose levels rise above a set point, 2. the pancreas secretes insulin into the blood. 3. Insulin stimulates liver and muscle cells to make glycogen, dropping blood glucose levels. 4. When glucose levels drop below a set point, 5. the pancreas secretes glucagon into the blood. 6. Glucagon promotes the breakdown of glycogen and the release of glucose into the blood. (The pancreas signals distant cells to regulate levels in the blood = endocrine function.) Insulin and Glucagon (Regulation) (10) 1. High blood glucose 2. Beta cells 3. Insulin 4. Glucose enters cell 5. Blood glucose lowered 6. Low blood glucose 7. Alpha cells 8. Glucagon 9. Liver releases glucose from glycogen 10. Blood glucose raised What is the manifestations (symptoms) of Type 1? (10) 1. Extreme thirst 2. Frequent urination 3. Drowsiness, lethargy 4. Sugar in urine 5. Sudden vision change 6. Increased appetite 7. Sudden weight loss 8. Fruity, sweet, or wine like odor on breath 9. Heavy, laboured breathing 10. Stupor, unconscious Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

What Does Bad Breath Have To Do With Diabetes?

What Does Bad Breath Have To Do With Diabetes?

Your breath has an interesting ability to provide clues to your overall health. A sweet, fruity odor can be a sign of ketoacidosis, an acute complication of diabetes. An odor of ammonia is associated with kidney disease. Similarly, a very foul, fruity odor may be a sign of anorexia nervosa. Other diseases, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and liver disease, also can cause distinct odors on the breath. Bad breath, also called halitosis, can be so telling that doctors may even be able to use it to identify diabetes. Recently, researchers have found that infrared breath analyzers can be effective in identifying prediabetes or early-stage diabetes. Diabetes-related halitosis has two main causes: periodontal disease and high levels of ketones in the blood. Periodontal diseases Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, include gingivitis, mild periodontitis, and advanced periodontitis. In these inflammatory diseases, bacteria attack the tissues and bone that support your teeth. Inflammation can affect metabolism and increase your blood sugar, which worsens diabetes. While diabetes can lead to periodontal diseases, these diseases can also create further problems for people with diabetes. According to a report in IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, an estimated one in three people with diabetes will also experience periodontal diseases. Heart disease and stroke, which can be complications of diabetes, are also linked to periodontal disease. Diabetes can damage blood vessels, which can reduce blood flow throughout your body, including your gums. If your gums and teeth aren’t receiving a proper supply of blood, they may become weak and more prone to infection. Diabetes may also raise glucose levels in your mouth, promoting bacteria growth, infection, Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition caused by dangerously high blood sugar levels. Your child's blood sugar levels become high because his body does not have enough insulin. Insulin helps move sugar out of the blood so it can be used for energy. The lack of insulin forces his body to use fat instead of sugar for energy. As fats are broken down, they leave chemicals called ketones that build up in the blood. Ketones are dangerous at high levels. What increases my child's risk for DKA? Not enough insulin Poorly controlled diabetes Infection or other illness Heart attack, stroke, trauma, or surgery Emotional stress Being female What are the signs and symptoms of DKA? Your child may feel very thirsty, and urinate more than usual. He may have a fever. He may also have any of the following: Dry mouth, eyes, and skin Fast, deep breathing Faster heartbeat than normal for him Abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting Fruity, sweet breath Mood changes and irritability Feeling very weak, tired, and confused Weight loss How is DKA treated? DKA can be life-threatening. Your child must get immediate medical attention. The goal of treatment is to replace lost body fluids, and to bring blood sugar levels back to normal. How can I help prevent DKA? The best way to prevent DKA is to help your child control his diabetes. Ask your child's healthcare provider for more information on how to manage your child's diabetes. The following may help decrease your child's risk for DKA: Monitor your child's blood sugar levels closely if he has an infection, is stressed, sick, or experiences trauma. Check his blood sugar levels often. You may need to check at least 3 times each day. If your child's blood sugar level is too high, Continue reading >>

Sweet-smelling Breath To Help Diabetes Diagnosis In Children

Sweet-smelling Breath To Help Diabetes Diagnosis In Children

The potential to quickly diagnose children with type 1 diabetes before the onset of serious illness could be achieved using a simple, non-invasive breath test, according to new research published today. In one of the most comprehensive breath-based studies of children with type 1 diabetes performed to date, a team of researchers from Oxford, UK have linked a sweet-smelling chemical marker in the breath with a build-up of potentially harmful chemicals in the blood that accumulate when insulin levels are low. It is hoped these results—linking an increased level of breath acetone with increased levels of ketones in the blood—could inspire the development of a diagnostic device to identify children with new diabetes before the onset of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The results of the study have been published today, 26 November, in IOP Publishing’s Journal of Breath Research. DKA occurs when a severe lack of insulin means the body cannot use glucose for energy and starts to break down fat instead. Organic compounds called ketones are the by-product of the breakdown of fat and, if left unchecked, can build up and cause the body to become acidic. About one in four children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes don’t know they have it until they develop DKA, which can cause severe illness. Acetone, which is the simplest ketone, is one of the by-products produced in the development of DKA and is usually disposed of through the breath. Indeed, for over 200 years acetone has been known to produce a sweet smell on the breath of diabetes sufferers. In their study, the researchers, from the University of Oxford, Oxford Medical Diagnostics and Oxford Children’s Hospital, collected the breath samples from 113 children and adolescents between the ages 7 and 18. Isoprene and acetone w Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Definition Diabetic ketoacidosis is a dangerous complication of diabetes mellitus in which the chemical balance of the body becomes far too acidic. Description Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) always results from a severe insulin deficiency. Insulin is the hormone secreted by the body to lower the blood sugar levels when they become too high. Diabetes mellitus is the disease resulting from the inability of the body to produce or respond properly to insulin, required by the body to convert glucose to energy. In childhood diabetes, DKA complications represent the leading cause of death, mostly due to the accumulation of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the brain (cerebral edema). DKA combines three major features: hyperglycemia, meaning excessively high blood sugar kevels; hyperketonemia, meaning an overproduction of ketones by the body; and acidosis, meaning that the blood has become too acidic. Insulin deficiency is responsible for all three conditions: the body glucose goes largely unused since most cells are unable to transport glucose into the cell without the presence of insulin; this condition makes the body use stored fat as an alternative source instead of the unavailable glucose for energy, a process that produces acidic ketones, which build up because they require insulin to be broken down. The presence of excess ketones in the bloodstream in turn causes the blood to become more acidic than the body tissues, which creates a toxic condition. Causes and symptoms DKA is most commonly seen in individuals with type I diabetes, under 19 years of age and is usually caused by the interruption of their insulin treatment or by acute infection or trauma. A small number of people with type II diabetes also experience ketoacidosis, but this is rare give Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Diabetic Ketoacidosis

How To Avoid Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a possible complication of diabetes caused by extreme hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose. It is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication, one that you should work hard to avoid when you have diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but it is a very rare possible complication for people with type 2 diabetes. Your doctor and certified diabetes educator will teach you how to recognize and manage diabetic ketoacidosis. It's critical to know and recognize the signs and symptoms of DKA, as well as how to treat it. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when your blood glucose level gets too high—usually higher than 300 mg/dL. Because people with type 1 diabetes do not have the insulin to process this extra glucose, their body cannot break down this glucose to create energy. To create energy for itself, the body starts to aggressively break down fat. Ketones or ketoacids are a byproduct of this process. Your body can handle a small amount of ketones circulating in your blood. However, the sizeable amounts from DKA are toxic. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes Illness, infections, stress, injuries, neglecting diabetes care (not properly taking your insulin, for example), and alcohol consumption can cause DKA. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms Initial symptoms of DKA include a stomach ache, nausea, and vomiting. One problem with DKA is that people could mistake it for an illness that typically gets better over time like the flu or food poisoning. Other symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: fruity breath (when fat is broken down by the body, it creates a chemical called acetone that smells fruity) fatigue frequent urination intense thirst headache If you feel any of these sympto Continue reading >>

Breath Acetone Is A Reliable Indicator Of Ketosis In Adults Consuming Ketogenic Meals1,2,3

Breath Acetone Is A Reliable Indicator Of Ketosis In Adults Consuming Ketogenic Meals1,2,3

Abstract Background: Ketogenic diets are used therapeutically to treat intractable seizures. Clinically, it appears that the maintenance of ketosis is crucial to the efficacy of the diet in ameliorating seizures. To understand how ketosis and seizure protection are related, a reliable, noninvasive measure of ketosis that can be performed frequently with minimal discomfort is needed. Objective: The objective was to determine which index, breath acetone or urinary acetoacetate, is more strongly related to the plasma ketones acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate. Design: After fasting overnight for 12 h, 12 healthy adults consumed 4 ketogenic meals over 12 h. Blood, breath, and urine samples were collected hourly. Blood was analyzed for plasma acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate, breath for acetone, and urine for acetoacetate. Results: By the end of the 12-h dietary treatment, plasma acetoacetate, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, and breath acetone had increased 3.5-fold, whereas urinary acetoacetate increased 13-fold when measured enzymatically and 25-fold when measured with urinary ketone dipsticks. Plasma acetoacetate was best predicted by breath acetone (R2 = 0.70, P < 0.0001). Plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was equally predicted by breath acetone and urinary acetoacetate (R2 = 0.54, P = 0.0040). Conclusions: Breath acetone is as good a predictor of ketosis as is urinary acetoacetate. Breath acetone analysis is noninvasive and can be performed frequently with minimal discomfort to patients. As an indicator of ketosis in epilepsy patients consuming a ketogenic diet, breath acetone may be useful for understanding the mechanism of the diet, elucidating the importance of ketosis in seizure protection, and ultimately, enhancing the efficacy of the diet by improving patient monitoring. I Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. It's important to seek medical advice quickly if you think that you or your child is experiencing the condition. Causes of diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes that can occur if the body starts to run out of insulin. It's common in people with type 1 diabetes and can very occasionally affect those with type 2 diabetes. It sometimes develops in people who were previously unaware they had diabetes. Children and young adults are most at risk. Insulin enables the body to use blood sugar (glucose). If there is a lack of insulin, or if it can't be used properly, the body will break down fat instead. The breakdown of fat releases harmful, acidic substances called ketones.The lack of insulin in your body leads to high blood glucose levels (hyperglycaemia). The combination of high ketone and blood sugar levels can cause a number of symptoms that can be very serious if the levels aren't corrected quickly. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis The initial symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can develop quite suddenly. They will continue to get worse if not treated. Early symptoms In the early stages, the main signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine severe thirst weight loss feeling sick tiredness You may also develop other symptoms of dehydration, such as a dry mouth. If you have your own device or kit to measure your blood sugar and/or ketone levels, you may notice that the levels of both of these are higher than normal. Advanced symptoms Left untreated, more advanced symptoms can develop, including: rapid heartbeat (tachycardia) rapid breathing, where you breathe in more oxygen than your body actua Continue reading >>

Why Does My Breath Smell Like Acetone?

Why Does My Breath Smell Like Acetone?

People often associate strong smelling breath with the food someone has eaten or poor dental hygiene. But it may reveal much more than that. If a person's breath smells like acetone or nail polish remover, it could indicate health conditions, including diabetes. The way a person's breath smells can be an indicator of their overall health. This article explores why a person's breath might smell like acetone and what this might mean about their health. Contents of this article: How diabetes can affect breath Diabetes can affect the way a person's breath smells and can cause bad breath, or halitosis. In a 2009 study, researchers found that analyzing a person's breath helped to identify prediabetes when diabetes is in its early stages. There are two conditions associated with diabetes that can cause bad breath: gum disease and a high ketone level. The proper name for gum diseases in periodontal disease, and its forms include: Diabetes can be associated with an increased risk of gum disease, which may cause a person's breath to smell bad. However, gum disease does not cause a person's breath to smell like acetone. If a person has diabetes and their breath smells like acetone, this is usually caused by high levels of ketones in the blood. Diabetes and acetone breath When diabetes is not managed well, the body does not make enough insulin to break down glucose in the blood. This means that the body's cells do not receive enough glucose to use as energy. When the body cannot get its energy from sugar, it switches to burning fat for fuel instead. The process of breaking down fat to use as energy releases by-products called ketones. Ketone bodies include acetone. Acetone is the same substance that is used in nail varnish remover and is distinguished by its fruity smell. When a pe Continue reading >>

Akers Biosciences Completes Clinical Trial For Rapid Diabetic Ketoacidosis Breath Test

Akers Biosciences Completes Clinical Trial For Rapid Diabetic Ketoacidosis Breath Test

THOROFARE, NJ -- (Marketwired) -- 11/28/16 -- Akers Biosciences, Inc. (NASDAQ: AKER) (AIM: AKR.L), ("Akers Bio" or the "Company"), a developer of rapid health information technologies, has completed a clinical trial for BreathScan® DKA, the first single-use, non-invasive breath test to rapidly screen for diabetic ketoacidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. The clinical trial was performed at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital in Philadelphia, PA, on patients admitted to the emergency department with suspected ketoacidosis. The results were highly successful, with sensitivity (a true positive result) of 91% and specificity (a true negative result) of 93%. The overall agreement between the BreathScan® DKA test and the gold standard hospital blood test was 92%. The BreathScan® DKA test utilizes Akers Bio's proprietary MPC Biosensor Technology, which permits the rapid identification of medical or metabolic conditions through biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate. BreathScan® DKA is a first-in-class device that detects the presence of ketones in a person's breath condensate. Ketones are present in the blood before they can be detected in urine; and breath and blood ketone levels are closely correlated. Ketones are acids that have the potential to build up in the body causing a condition referred to as ketosis. An extreme form of this complication is ketoacidosis. At-risk populations for ketoacidosis include those with diabetes, and persons who subscribe to restrictive ketogenic diets for epilepsy management or to obtain aggressive weight loss results. Current tests for this condition are primarily performed in a hospital or reference laboratory, and can take hours to produce a result. These tests must Continue reading >>

Sweet-smelling Breath Holds Promise As Tool For Diagnosing Diabetes

Sweet-smelling Breath Holds Promise As Tool For Diagnosing Diabetes

A simple breath test may be able to quickly and noninvasively diagnose children who have Type 1 diabetes, according to new research from the United Kingdom. Every year, more than 15,000 children (and 15,000 adults) in the United States are diagnosed with Type 1. Roughly one in four children who have Type 1 diabetes are not diagnosed until they develop diabetic ketoacidosis, a severe and potentially fatal hyperglycemic (high blood glucose) condition that develops when the body lacks the insulin to convert glucose into energy and instead begins to break down fat. By-products of this process known as ketones can build up and cause the body to become acidic. Previous studies have indicated that gases in the breath are related to blood glucose and blood ketone levels in adults with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. To determine whether this is also true in children, researchers in Oxford collected breath samples from 113 children and adolescents with Type 1 diabetes between the ages of 7 and 18. Levels of the breath gases isoprene and acetone were measured and compared to blood glucose and blood ketone levels taken from the capillaries during the same visit. Although there was no link between isoprene or acetone levels in the breath and glucose levels in the blood, the researchers did find a significant association between increased levels of breath acetone and increased levels of blood ketones. “Our results have shown that it is realistically possible to use measurements of breath acetone to estimate blood ketones,” says study coauthor Gus Hancock, PhD. “We are working on the development of a small hand held device that would allow the possibility of breath measurements for ketone levels and help to identify children with new diabetes before DKA supervenes. Currently testin Continue reading >>

Ketosis Breath: Causes & Solutions For Bad Breath

Ketosis Breath: Causes & Solutions For Bad Breath

Ultra-low carb diets have grown in popularity over recent years. These so-called “keto diets” aim to facilitate rapid weight loss, through the consumption of minimal carbohydrates. Keto diets have become understandably popular on account of their rapid results, together with the practical benefits of consuming healthy volumes of the right foods, making hunger less of a problem than on more typical calorie-controlled diets. However keto diets are not without their issues, and one of the most common complaints comes in the form of “ketosis breath”. Quite simply many individuals making use of very low carb diets suffer from pungent and unpleasant breath. The question is what can be done to counteract such a problem? The Cause of Ketosis Breath In order to learn how to get rid of keto breath, we first need to understand why breath can smell under such a regime. As it turns out there are two potential reasons(1), both of which can operate independently, or in conjunction. Ketone Release The most typical source of energy used by the body is glucose. This is typically derived from carbohydrates, where the digestive system breaks down complex sugars into simple glucose molecules. On very low carb diets, however, the body is unable to utilize such a fuel. Instead, the liver utilizes the fat present in the body as an energy source, producing “ketones” in the process(2). This is known as “ketosis” – and is the process from where keto diets get their unusual name. These ketone bodies come in three common forms; acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetone(3). In large quantities they are removed from the body in the urine or through exhalation. Ketones can have quite a characteristic smell; they often make the dieter’s breath smell quite sweet and fruity, quit Continue reading >>

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