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Is Type 2 Diabetes Hypo Or Hyper

Hypo Hyper Diabetes | Diabetic Care Hypo | Management Of Hypos

Hypo Hyper Diabetes | Diabetic Care Hypo | Management Of Hypos

Hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia occur when the body is unable to strike that delicate balance of blood glucose with food and activities. Even with the additional support of insulin injections it is easy to lose this balance. Hypoglycaemia is when blood glucose drops too low. Hyperglycaemia is when blood glucose rises too high. Diabeter can help treat and avoid these conditions. With a hypo (full: hypoglycemia) the blood sugar is too low. A hypo can occur because you eat too little, inject too much insulin or do a bodily effort for too long. Most times a hypo feels like feeling uneasy, but this is not always the case. Sometimes you don’t feel a hypo coming at all. In this case, somebody else catches on to what is happening to you before you do. Being tired Feeling hungry, shaking, sweating Seeing less Headache – feeling very warm or cold Mood swings, loss of concentration It is important to recognize a hypo timely. If not, ultimately there can be so little glucose available to the brain that it doesn’t function properly anymore. You can faint or even go into a coma. Therefore, the lack of sugar in the blood has to be supplemented as soon as possible with fast carbohydrates. Fructose (Dextro Energy) or lemonade syrup are very useful for this. Directly after that, you have to eat something, like a cake, a sandwich or a banana. Exercising or other bodily efforts are things best not to do if you have a hypo. Measure your blood glucose level again after fifteen minutes. Is it lower than 2,7 mmol/l, call our emergency line and you are immediately given advice by one of our doctors. The reverse of a hypo is a hyper (full: hyperglycemia). The blood sugar level is too high, which means above 11.1 mmol/l. A hyper can occur by eating too much, using no or too little insulin, s Continue reading >>

Another Confused Type 2- Hyper/hypo

Another Confused Type 2- Hyper/hypo

Diabetes Forum The Global Diabetes Community Find support, ask questions and share your experiences. Join the community Had a bit of surprise a few weeks ago as I hadn't been to doctor or felt the need to for about 18 years. I went to register with our surgery last week after a house move (7 Years ago )and they did some tests as I hadn't been seen for so long and found glucose in my urine and so tested my blood and my level was 21 I had to fast over night and go back for more blood tests and even the t was 18. Strangely didnt really have any symptoms so had no idea. I was immediatley diagnosed as being type 2 and put on 1000 Mg of metformin 3 x per day Bit of a shock but just the kick in the butt I needed to sort my life out so I've been doing an hours walking every night to get some much needed exercise and I've also totally changed my diet. I've already lost 8Lbs in about 10 weeks so I'm quite pleased with the gradual weight loss. As I said I never had any real symptoms but I can look back over the course of a few years and see where I have had what could be descibed as Hypos. Yesterday I was working from a different office a couple of hours away from home and had forgotton to bring any tablets with me so missed my lunch time dose. I felt okay had my tablets with my evening meal and went to bed feeling fine. In the middle of the night I woke up sweating and feeling I wanted to be sick. I was shakey and somewhat delireous talking utter rubbish, my breathing fast and I was constantly Yawning, my feet were burning hot. This lasted about 30 mins and then I began to feel fine again, It took a further hour to calm my wife down who was petrified and wanted to call an ambulance. This morning I woke feeling fine and decided to test my blood which I do once a week normally to Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia?

Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) and hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) can both occur in patients who have diabetes. Diabetes occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin (known as ‘Type 1 Diabetes’) or the cells in the body stop responding to insulin (known as ‘Type 2 Diabetes’). So what’s the difference between hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia? And how can a first aider spot the difference? Read on to find out how! Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia occurs when insulin is in excess of that needed to balance the patient’s food intake and energy expenditure. If untreated it will lead to unconsciousness and if prolonged, irreversible damage can occur. Signs and symptoms can be found for hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia in the table below. Hypoglycemic patients may appear drunk although alcohol may also induce hypoglycemia. You should never discount the possibility that a patient who appears to be drunk may in fact be hypoglycemic. Most patients under the influence of alcohol will have their blood glucose levels recorded at hospital to ensure that they are not hypoglycemic. Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia is often the presenting feature of diabetes. Patients who have not been diagnosed as diabetics will often go to their doctor complaining of excessive hunger, thirst and urination. On testing their blood glucose levels they are often found to be greater than 20 mmol/l (normal non-diabetics range is 3.0-5.6 mmol/l). Diabetic patients who are hyperglycemic have often been ill for some hours or days and have since deteriorated − most calls for assistance are made when the patient falls unconscious Want to learn more? Our advanced online first aid course contains information on diabetes and a range of other medical conditions. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Reaction

Diabetic Reaction

A A A There are two main forms of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes: Absent or low insulin levels prevent cells from taking up and using sugar for energy, thus requiring insulin injections Type 2 diabetes: Cellular resistance to insulin reduces glucose uptake, often requiring medication to improve the sensitivity of cells to insulin Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is the most common form of diabetic reaction. A low blood sugar reaction is caused by increased exertion or increased demand for glucose. The body may "run out" of stored glucose more quickly, thus bringing on a hypoglycemic attack. Persistent intake of excessive alcohol may cause this reaction, because alcohol decreases glucose stores in the liver. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is a common problem for people with diabetes. High blood sugar can be brought on by infections or other significant stresses that cause the body to decrease cell uptake of glucose. A decrease in cell uptake of glucose leads to high blood sugar levels as well as the alternative use of fats by starving cells for energy. Fat breakdown increases the acidity of the blood and worsens symptoms of high blood sugar. Symptoms of diabetic reaction depends on the type of reaction. rapid onset of cool, pale, moist, and clammy skin; dizziness; headache; rapid pulse; and shallow breathing. If untreated, symptoms may progress to confusion, nonsensical behavior, coma, and death. Symptoms occur gradually over several days. The person with high blood sugar develops increasing thirst and urination due to large amounts of unused glucose being lost in the urine. Skin feels warm and dry; respirations may be shallow; pulse is rapid and weak, and breath may have a sweet odor (due to ketoacidosis from fat breakdown). The person with high blood sugar may become confus Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia is defined as blood glucose (sugar) levels that are higher than the target values for the majority of people with diabetes: above 7 mmol/L fasting or before a meal above 10 mmol/L two hours after a meal Hyperglycemia occurs when the amount of insulin in the blood is insufficient or ineffective. When glucose circulating in the blood cannot enter the cells because of a lack of insulin, it accumulates in the blood and raises a person’s glycemia (blood glucose levels) . Symptoms Some people may not notice their hyperglycemia. However, above a certain threshold, high blood sugar can lead to the following symptoms: drowsiness increased urination intense thirst excessive hunger involuntary weight loss irritability dizziness Causes The primary causes of hyperglycemia are: insufficient insulin and/or antidiabetic medication (dosage error or a skipped dose) physical stress (illness, surgery, infection, etc.) or psychological stress (mourning a death, new job, moving, etc.) taking certain drugs (e.g.: cortisone) Hyperglycemia can also be caused by two lesser known phenomena: the dawn phenomenon and the Somogyi effect. Preventing hyperglycemia In most cases, hyperglycemia can be avoided by taking the following precautions: Measure your blood glucose (sugar) levels regularly. Follow a daily meal plan designed by a dietitian. Take your insulin or antidiabetic medication as prescribed. Adjust your insulin dose based on your medical prescription Treatment If you experience hyperglycemic symptoms, you should: take your blood glucose (sugar) readings frequently if you have type 1 diabetes: if your blood glucose level is higher than 14 mmol/L, check for ketones in your urine or blood drink lots of water to prevent dehydration (250 ml of water every hour) adjust your insuli Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Weather

Diabetes And Weather

The weather can have a significant impact on people with diabetes as blood glucose levels can be affected in hot and cold weather. In hot weather, the risk of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia is increased, while people with diabetes tend to have higher HbA1c levels during the winter months. Diabetes and hot weather Hot weather can cause several problems cause for people with diabetes. These include: Increased hypo and hyper risks Dehydration Carrying medication Blood testing Heat exhaustion Increased hypo and hyper risks Hot weather can increase the risk of hypos and hypers for people on blood-glucose lowering medication. Whether it is a blood glucose raising or lowering effect can vary from person to person. According to the Joslin Diabetes Center, the body’s metabolism is higher in hot weather, and this can increase the absorption of medication such as insulin. Increased activity in hot weather can exacerbate this risk, and you should test your blood sugar more often if taking part in exercise or physical activity. You may also need to adjust your insulin levels in hot weather, especially if you are experiencing erratic blood sugar levels. This should be discussed with a member of your health care team. Hypos might be harder to spot in hot weather, and you should take extra care to prevent hypos from occurring. Steps that can be made include: Don’t disregard hypo symptoms – sweating and fatigue, which can occur in hot weather, could be signs of a hypo Take extra care when driving – test your blood before and after each journey, and stop regularly on longer journeys Keep sugar on hand at all times – such as glucose tablets, or some quick-acting carbohydrate Dehydration Hot weather can increase the risk of dehydration, and so can having higher than normal blood Continue reading >>

Dealing With Diabetes

Dealing With Diabetes

Nearly three million people in the UK have diabetes and a further one million may have undiagnosed Type 2 diabetes. Dr Sarah Jarvis has the lowdown on this long-term condition and the role that blood sugar levels play. Diabetes, or diabetes mellitus, is a health condition that’s caused by having too much glucose – a type of sugar – in your blood. There are two main forms of the condition, known as Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. What is diabetes? The main symptoms of diabetes are: Extreme thirst Frequent urination, especially at night Extreme tiredness Unexplained weight loss Regular thrush Blurred vision With Type 1 diabetes, symptoms may develop rapidly, suddenly coming on in days or weeks. Type 2 diabetes develops more slowly, with symptoms being quite general, and many people may have it for years without it being diagnosed. Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes “Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes are diagnosed on the basis of your blood sugar being too high,” explains Dr Sarah Jarvis; “Type 1 diabetes tends to start earlier in life (usually in childhood or teenage years) and has to be treated with insulin injections from the outset.” Type 1 diabetes is less common than Type 2. Whereas Type 1 occurs when the body produces no insulin at all, Type 2 occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin or when the cells in the body don’t react to insulin (known as insulin resistance). The hormone insulin is important, as it helps control the amount of sugar in the blood. Produced by the pancreas, it works by moving glucose out of the blood and into cells, where it’s broken down into energy. Type 2 diabetes is more closely linked to being overweight. It more often runs in families, tends to come on in adulthood and can often be treated with diet, weight control and tab Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Tweet Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream. Hyperglycemia should not be confused with hypoglycemia, which is when blood sugar levels go too low. You should aim to avoid spending long periods of time with high blood glucose levels. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, the term for expressing high blood sugar, has been defined by the World Health Organisation as: Blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) when fasting Blood glucose levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) 2 hours after meals Although blood sugar levels exceeding 7 mmol/L for extended periods of time can start to cause damage to internal organs, symptoms may not develop until blood glucose levels exceed 11 mmol/L. What causes hyperglycemia? The underlying cause of hyperglycemia will usually be from loss of insulin producing cells in the pancreas or if the body develops resistance to insulin. More immediate reasons for hyperglycemia include: Missing a dose of diabetic medication, tablets or insulin Eating more carbohydrates than your body and/or medication can manage Being mentally or emotionally stressed (injury, surgery or anxiety) Contracting an infection What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? The main 3 symptoms of high blood sugar levels are increased urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. High blood sugar levels can also contribute to the following symptoms: Regular/above-average urination Weakness or feeling tired Increased thirst Vision blurring Is hyperglycemia serious? Hyperglycemia can be serious if: Blood glucose levels stay high for extended periods of time - this can lead to the development of long term complications Blood glucose levels rise dangerously high - this can lead to short term complications In the shor Continue reading >>

Hypo & Hyper Management

Hypo & Hyper Management

Home blood glucose monitoring The aim of treatment is to try to maintain your glucose level to as near a “non -diabetic” range as possible. In general terms this means to aim towards 4 -7 mmol/l before meals, and around 8 mmol/l if testing 2 hours after meals. This can be difficult at times as you are trying to mimic what the body had previously done of its own accord, and your readings may vary depending your carbohydrate intake, exercise and many other daily factors. This management takes time and practice and requires that you work closely with your doctor, diabetes nurse specialist and other members of your diabetes care team. They’ll guide you to maintain the best possible blood glucose control. HbA1c This is known as the “long term test” and is performed by a medical professional. This is a measure of your blood glucose control over a period of the previous approx 6 -8 weeks. It is a very good indicator of your overall control of your condition despite the odd high or low readings you may have had during that time. Hyperglycaemia or Hypoglycaemia This can be caused by high or low glucose levels. High blood glucose levels, also know as Hyperglycaemia or Hyper. You will notice that your blood glucose level may be higher if you: Are not taking enough insulin Miss or forget to take your insulin ( or take a lower amount in error) Eat more carbohydrate foods than usual Are less active than usual Are under stress Have an illness eg cold flu, infection (see further info re illness below) Sometimes it may be difficult to find a reason Low blood glucose levels, also known as Hypoglycaemia or Hypo. You may notice that your blood glucose may go to low (ie. Under 4 mmol/l) if you: Take too much insulin Eat less carbohydrate than usual Leave too long between meals Do Continue reading >>

Hypoglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia, sometimes called a hypo or low, is a condition that occurs when a person’s blood glucose level (BGL) has dropped too low, below 4mmol/L. It is important to treat a hypo quickly to stop the BGL from falling even lower and the person becoming seriously unwell. Hypoglycaemia can make it hard to concentrate and carry out everyday activities. Some activities, such as driving and operating machinery, are not safe if BGLs are less than 5.0mmol/L. Hypoglycaemia is much more common in people who take insulin or certain other glucose lowering tablets, however it can occur in people with diabetes who are not using insulin. Hypoglycaemia can be caused by one or a number of events, such as: Too much insulin or other glucose lowering diabetes tablets Delaying or missing a meal Not eating enough carbohydrate Unplanned physical activity* More strenuous exercise than usual* Drinking alcohol - the risk of hypoglycaemia increases, the more alcohol you drink *Hypoglycaemia may be delayed for 12 hours or more after exercise Symptoms of hypoglycaemia vary from person to person. Early signs and symptoms may include: Shaking, trembling or weakness Sweating Paleness Hunger Light headedness Headache Dizziness Pins and needles around mouth Mood change If the BGL continues to drop, more serious signs and symptoms may occur. Later signs and symptoms of hypoglycaemia may include: Lack of concentration/ behaviour change Confusion Slurred speech Not able to treat own hypo Not able to drink or swallow Not able to follow instructions Loss of consciousness Fitting/seizures Hypoglycaemia can be classified as mild or severe. A mild hypo occurs when a person can treat their own hypo. A severe hypo occurs when a person needs help from someone else to treat their hypo. What should I do if I s Continue reading >>

Hyper Or Hypo! | Shsl

Hyper Or Hypo! | Shsl

April 3, 2013 Hypo vs hyper BGL , Blood , blood sugar , body temperature , confusion , Diabetes mellitus type 1 , diabetic coma , Diabetic ketoacidosis , dizziness , DKA , hunger , Hyperglycemia , Hypoglycemia , Insulin , lack of energy , nocturnal hypoglycaemia , Polydipsia , Polyuria , weight loss sugar high sugar low 12 comments As a Type 1 diabetic , I am all too familiar with high and low blood sugars . Its a constant struggle to keep levels within a good range. When I think about it, diabetes and controlling BGL is quiet a scary prospect. People without diabetes may not realise the difficulty of managing their sugar levels, because the body does this automatically. On a daily basis Im faced with the complexity of managing, my sometimes unpredictable blood glucose levels. Ive learnt that there are many factors which can impact blood glucose level (BGL) such as, eating too much, or not eating enough, eating on time, how much exercise Ive done, stress, too little, or too much Insulin . It is extremely important to keep a close eye on what Im eating, the Insulin I take and most of all my BGL. It all ties together! Hyperglycaemia this occurs when blood glucose levels increase above 11mmol (200mg/dL) and circulate in the blood stream . High BGLs over a period of years can lead to many type of serious complications. I will touch on these complications in another post. In the weeks prior to my diagnosis, I began to experience symptoms which were consistent with chronic hyperglycaemia. I will just outline a few of these symptoms. Fatigue Tiredness which I cant even begin to explain. If I had to explain this, it would feel like running a marathon, with no water, under the scorching sun and no breaks. Absolutely zapped of energy! Then youll probably have a rough idea of the Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

Dealing With Hypoglycemia

Dealing With Hypoglycemia

If you have diabetes, your concern isn’t always that your blood sugar is too high. Your blood sugar can also dip too low, a condition known as hypoglycemia. This occurs when your blood sugar levels fall below 70 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dl). The only clinical way to detect hypoglycemia is to test your blood sugar. However, without blood tests it’s still possible to identify low blood sugar by its symptoms. Early recognition of these symptoms is critical because hypoglycemia can cause seizures or induce a coma if left untreated. If you have a history of low blood sugar episodes, you may not feel symptoms. This is known as hypoglycemic unawareness. By learning to control your blood sugar, you can prevent hypoglycemic episodes. You also should take steps to ensure you and others know how to treat low blood sugar. Managing your blood sugar is a constant balancing of: diet exercise medications A number of diabetes medications are associated with causing hypoglycemia. Only those medications that increase insulin production increase the risk for hypoglycemia. Medications that can cause hypoglycemia include: Combination pills that contain one of the medications above may also cause hypoglycemic episodes. This is a reason why it’s so important to test your blood sugar, especially when making changes to your treatment plan. Some of the most common causes of low blood sugar are: skipping a meal or eating less than usual exercising more than usual taking more medication than usual drinking alcohol, especially without food People with diabetes aren’t the only ones who experience low blood sugar. If you have any of the following conditions, you may also experience hypoglycemia: weight-loss surgery severe infection thyroid or cortisol hormone deficiency Hypoglycemia affect Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

Blood sugar control is at the center of any diabetes treatment plan. High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, is a major concern, and can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes . There are two main kinds: Fasting hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after not eating or drinking for at least 8 hours. Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after you eat. People without diabetes rarely have blood sugar levels over 140 mg/dL after a meal, unless it’s really large. Frequent or ongoing high blood sugar can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels, and organs. It can also lead to other serious conditions. People with type 1 diabetes are prone to a build-up of acids in the blood called ketoacidosis. If you have type 2 diabetes or if you’re at risk for it, extremely high blood sugar can lead to a potentially deadly condition in which your body can’t process sugar. It's called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). You’ll pee more often at first, and then less often later on, but your urine may become dark and you could get severely dehydrated. It's important to treat symptoms of high blood sugar right away to help prevent complications. Your blood sugar may rise if you: Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin you took, or eat too many carbs in general Have an infection Are ill Are under stress Become inactive or exercise less than usual Take part in strenuous physical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high and insulin levels are low Early signs include: Increased thirst Trouble concentrating Frequent peeing Fatigue (weak, tired feeling) Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL Ongoing high blood sugar Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia can occur when blood sugar levels are too high. People develop hyperglycemia if their diabetes is not treated properly. Hypoglycemia sets in when blood sugar levels are too low. It is usually a side effect of treatment with blood-sugar-lowering medication. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with far-reaching health consequences. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is released into the bloodstream, or the insulin cannot be used properly. In type 1 diabetes, the body only produces very little insulin, or none at all. We need insulin to live. Without it, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood because it cannot be taken out and used by the body. Very high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, leads to a number of symptoms. If blood sugar levels are too low, it is called hypoglycemia. When is blood sugar considered to be too high or too low? Slight fluctuations in blood sugar levels are completely normal and also happen on a daily basis in people who do not have diabetes. Between around 60 and 140 milligrams of sugar per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) is considered to be healthy. This is equivalent to between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/L. “Millimole per liter” (mmol/L) is the international unit for measuring blood sugar. It indicates the concentration of a certain substance per liter. If type 1 diabetes is left untreated, people’s blood sugar levels can get very high, even exceeding 27.8 mmol/L (500 mg/dL). Such high levels are rather uncommon for type 2 diabetes. Blood sugar concentrations below 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) are considered to be too low. As you can see in the illustration below, there are no clear-cut borders between the normal range of blood sugar and high and low blood sugar. Signs of hyperglycemia People with type 2 diabetes do not always realize that their Continue reading >>

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