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Is Type 1 Diabetes Hyperglycemia Or Hypoglycemia?

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels are too high. People develop hyperglycemia if their diabetes is not treated properly. Hypoglycemia sets in when blood sugar levels are too low. This is usually a side effect of treatment with blood-sugar-lowering medication. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with far-reaching health effects. In type 1 diabetes, the body only produces very little insulin, or none at all. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is released into the bloodstream, or the insulin cannot be used properly. We need insulin to live. Without it, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood because it cannot be taken out and used by the body. Very high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, leads to a number of symptoms. If blood sugar levels are too low, it is called hypoglycemia. When is blood sugar considered to be too high or too low? Slight fluctuations in blood sugar levels are completely normal and also happen on a daily basis in people who do not have diabetes. Between around 60 and 140 milligrams of sugar per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) is considered to be healthy. This is equivalent to blood sugar concentrations between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/L. “Millimole per liter” (mmol/L) is the international unit for measuring blood sugar. It indicates the concentration of a certain substance per liter. If type 1 diabetes is left untreated, people’s blood sugar levels can get very high, sometimes exceeding 27.8 mmol/L (500 mg/dL). Blood sugar concentrations below 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) are considered to be too low. As you can see in the illustration below, there are no clear-cut borders between the normal range of blood sugar and high and low blood sugar. Signs of hyperglycemia Signs of very high blood sugar levels in type 1 diabetes may include the following: If you o Continue reading >>

Acute Hyperglycemia Alters Mood State And Impairs Cognitive Performance In People With Type 2 Diabetes

Acute Hyperglycemia Alters Mood State And Impairs Cognitive Performance In People With Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE—To examine the effects of acute hyperglycemia on cognitive function and mood in people with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Twenty subjects with type 2 diabetes, median age 61.5 years (range 53.1–72.0), known duration of diabetes 5.9 years (range 2.8–11.2), BMI 29.8 kg/m2 (range 22.0–34.6), and HbA1c 7.5% (range 6.7–8.4) were studied. Treatment modalities varied from antidiabetic medications to insulin. A hyperinsulinemic glucose clamp was used to maintain arterialized blood glucose at either 4.5 (euglycemia) or 16.5 mmol/l (hyperglycemia) on two occasions in a randomized and counterbalanced fashion. Tests of information processing, immediate and delayed memory, working memory, and attention were administered, along with a mood questionnaire, during each experimental condition. RESULTS—Speed of information processing, working memory, and some aspects of attention were impaired during acute hyperglycemia. Subjects were significantly more dysphoric during hyperglycemia, with reduced energetic arousal and increased sadness and anxiety. CONCLUSIONS—During acute hyperglycemia, cognitive function was impaired and mood state deteriorated in a group of people with type 2 diabetes. These findings are of practical importance because intermittent or chronic hyperglycemia is common in people with type 2 diabetes and may interfere with many daily activities through adverse effects on cognitive function and mood. Diabetes is associated with rapid fluctuations in blood glucose. Hyperglycemia is a frequent consequence of the relative or absolute insulin deficiency that is intrinsic to diabetes, and hypoglycemia is a common side effect of treatment with insulin and some antidiabetic medications (1). Because the brain is dependent on a continuous su Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

Treatment Strategies For Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Treatment Strategies For Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Many patients with diabetes often do not completely grasp the consequences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on vascular health, and health care providers should not assume that a patient has been well educated on the pathophysiology of diabetes. Some fundamental points to review include the basic concept of carbohydrates, which convert to glucose in the digestive tract. Glucose then enters the blood, triggering the pancreas to release the hormone insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin then takes the glucose out of the blood and brings it to cells, which use the glucose for energy. When the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, an excess of glucose remains in the blood vessel, resulting in hyperglycemia, inducing vascular damage. In addition, white blood cells are damaged and lose their effectiveness in combating disease. With insulin resistance, there are fewer receptors on the cell to receive insulin and glucose; therefore, the cells do not receive glucose for energy. Hypoglycemia This occurs when the level of insulin in the blood is greater than glucose, lowering glucose to levels below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Some call this an “insulin reaction” because it often occurs when too much insulin is given to a patient. It may also occur with excessive physical activity without eating enough carbohydrates. Because sulfonylureas stimulate insulin release, reminding patients to eat regular meals may reduce hypoglycemic excursions. If someone consistently has high blood glucose levels greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), hypoglycemic symptoms may be experienced when blood glucose lowers into a normal range (between 80 and 150 mg/dL; 4.4 and 8.3 mmol/L, respectively). A small (15 g) carbohydrate and protein snack will help abate these symptoms because it will increa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Reaction

Diabetic Reaction

A A A There are two main forms of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes: Absent or low insulin levels prevent cells from taking up and using sugar for energy, thus requiring insulin injections Type 2 diabetes: Cellular resistance to insulin reduces glucose uptake, often requiring medication to improve the sensitivity of cells to insulin Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) is the most common form of diabetic reaction. A low blood sugar reaction is caused by increased exertion or increased demand for glucose. The body may "run out" of stored glucose more quickly, thus bringing on a hypoglycemic attack. Persistent intake of excessive alcohol may cause this reaction, because alcohol decreases glucose stores in the liver. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is a common problem for people with diabetes. High blood sugar can be brought on by infections or other significant stresses that cause the body to decrease cell uptake of glucose. A decrease in cell uptake of glucose leads to high blood sugar levels as well as the alternative use of fats by starving cells for energy. Fat breakdown increases the acidity of the blood and worsens symptoms of high blood sugar. Symptoms of diabetic reaction depends on the type of reaction. rapid onset of cool, pale, moist, and clammy skin; dizziness; headache; rapid pulse; and shallow breathing. If untreated, symptoms may progress to confusion, nonsensical behavior, coma, and death. Symptoms occur gradually over several days. The person with high blood sugar develops increasing thirst and urination due to large amounts of unused glucose being lost in the urine. Skin feels warm and dry; respirations may be shallow; pulse is rapid and weak, and breath may have a sweet odor (due to ketoacidosis from fat breakdown). The person with high blood sugar may become confus Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Wondering about the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia—or high blood sugar? High blood sugar occurs in type 1 diabetes when the body has too much glucose/food or not enough insulin. Having hyperglycemia symptoms doesn’t immediately put you in danger but regular high blood-sugar levels over time does. That’s because they can lead to complications including blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and amputation. What are the symptoms of high blood sugar? – Thirst – Frequent urination – Stomach pain – Blurry vision – Increased Hunger Other signs of hyperglycemia With high blood sugar, you may also experience drowsiness, exhaustion, nausea or vomiting, confusion, fruity or sweet-smelling breath, impaired concentration and sweating. And, having very high blood-glucose levels for an extended period can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA happens when the body starts to burn fat and body tissue for energy. This releases toxic acids called ketones that build up in the blood and urine—and can lead to a diabetic coma. So if you’re experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, it’s important to get checked out by your doctor. The earlier high blood-sugar issues are treated, the better. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

Chronic Fatigue In Type 1 Diabetes: Highly Prevalent But Not Explained By Hyperglycemia Or Glucose Variability

Chronic Fatigue In Type 1 Diabetes: Highly Prevalent But Not Explained By Hyperglycemia Or Glucose Variability

OBJECTIVE Fatigue is a classical symptom of hyperglycemia, but the relationship between chronic fatigue and diabetes has not been systematically studied. We investigated prevalence, impact, and potential determinants of chronic fatigue in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Out of 324 randomly selected T1DM outpatients, 214 participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Participants were compared with age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Chronic fatigue, functional impairments, current health status, comorbidity, diabetes-related factors, and fatigue-related cognitions and behaviors were assessed with questionnaires, and HbA1c values and comorbidity were assessed with medical records. Sixty-six patients underwent continuous glucose monitoring combined with an electronic fatigue diary for 5 days. Acute fatigue and four glucose parameters were determined: mean, variability, and relative time spent in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. RESULTS T1DM patients were significantly more often chronically fatigued (40%; 95% CI 34–47%) compared with matched controls (7%; 95% CI 3–10%; P < 0.001). Chronically fatigued patients had significantly more functional impairments. Fatigue was the most troublesome symptom. Age, depression, pain, sleeping problems, low self-efficacy concerning fatigue, and physical inactivity were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronically fatigued patients spent slightly less time in hypoglycemia (proportion 0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.12 ± 0.10; P = 0.025). Glucose parameters were not related to acute fatigue. CONCLUSIONS Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent and clinically relevant in T1DM. Its significant relationship with cognitive behavioral variables and weak association with blood gl Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Diabetes And Hyperglycemia

Tweet Hyperglycemia occurs when people with diabetes have too much sugar in their bloodstream. Hyperglycemia should not be confused with hypoglycemia, which is when blood sugar levels go too low. You should aim to avoid spending long periods of time with high blood glucose levels. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, the term for expressing high blood sugar, has been defined by the World Health Organisation as: Blood glucose levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dl) when fasting Blood glucose levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dl) 2 hours after meals Although blood sugar levels exceeding 7 mmol/L for extended periods of time can start to cause damage to internal organs, symptoms may not develop until blood glucose levels exceed 11 mmol/L. What causes hyperglycemia? The underlying cause of hyperglycemia will usually be from loss of insulin producing cells in the pancreas or if the body develops resistance to insulin. More immediate reasons for hyperglycemia include: Missing a dose of diabetic medication, tablets or insulin Eating more carbohydrates than your body and/or medication can manage Being mentally or emotionally stressed (injury, surgery or anxiety) Contracting an infection What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? The main 3 symptoms of high blood sugar levels are increased urination, increased thirst and increased hunger. High blood sugar levels can also contribute to the following symptoms: Regular/above-average urination Weakness or feeling tired Increased thirst Vision blurring Is hyperglycemia serious? Hyperglycemia can be serious if: Blood glucose levels stay high for extended periods of time - this can lead to the development of long term complications Blood glucose levels rise dangerously high - this can lead to short term complications In the shor Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

How To Tell The Difference Between Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

How To Tell The Difference Between Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) can happen to just about anyone, but people with diabetes are more susceptible than most. It is important to recognize the symptoms of both issues so you can treat them properly. Hypoglycemia Symptoms (Low Blood Sugar) Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when the level of glucose in your blood drops below normal. This can happen when your body receives too much insulin within a short period of time. For example, someone new to insulin or oral glucose medication might accidentally take too much. But non-diabetics can also experience hypoglycemia as well. The most common symptoms are: Heart palpitations Fatigue Pale skin Shakiness Anxiety Sweating Hunger Irritability Tingling sensation around the mouth Crying out during sleep As hypoglycemia worsens, signs and symptoms may include: Confusion, abnormal behavior or both, such as the inability to complete routine tasks Visual disturbances, such as blurred vision Seizures Loss of consciousness Initial treatment of hypoglycemia is drinking juice, taking glucose tablets or anything that has high levels of sugar that can be quickly absorbed including less healthy options such as regular soft drinks and candy. The priority here is to get the blood sugar levels up as fast as possible. See also: Reversing diabetes Type-2 Hyperglycemia Symptoms (High Blood Sugar) Hyperglycemia is defined as having an abnormally high blood glucose. This condition is more common in Type 2, or non-insulin-dependent diabetics. It can also occur in Type 1 diabetics who consume carbohydrate-heavy foods without enough insulin afterwards. The most common symptoms are: Increased thirst Headaches Trouble concentrating Blurred vision Frequent peeing Fatigue ( Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Does It Matter?

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Young Children With Type 1 Diabetes: Does It Matter?

Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia in Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes: Does it matter? As all families with young children with type 1 diabetes know, it is a balancing act to try to keep blood glucose levels within a defined range. Our Diabetes team at Childrens National Medical Center recommends different ranges based on the age of the child. Generally, for children up to age 5 years, the suggested goal range is between 100-200 mg/dl. For children from ages 5 until about 12 the suggested goal range is 70-180 mg/dl; And for adolescents and young adults the range is 70-150 mg/dl (or lower upper range based on preference). We have previously discussed that there are subtle changes in short term memory and cognitive skills in the presence of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and that it was (and is) important to try to avoid major fluctuations in blood sugar for additional reasons other than euglycemia and a good hb A1c. This is very tough for caregivers of young children. Toddlers and young children are notorious for erratic eating patterns and thus it is very difficult to accurately determine the amount of insulin to inject prior to eating. We often recommend that in young children it might be wiser to give rapid acting insulin after eating to better determine the number of carbohydrates that were actually ingested and avoid low blood sugars This method, however, contributes to a greater amount of blood glucose fluctuations, which is not ideal. As young children grow, there is a tremendous amount of remodeling in the brain where there are multiple changes in synaptic connections and new pathways are thus continually developed. The brain also physically grows during these phases of development. In a very timely paper published in Diabetes Care, Volume 34, July 2011, pages 1 Continue reading >>

Is Type 1 Diabetes Hyperglycemia Or Hypoglycemia?

Is Type 1 Diabetes Hyperglycemia Or Hypoglycemia?

Is type 1 diabetes Hyperglycemia or Hypoglycemia? Are you sure that you want to delete this answer? Best Answer: Bren has it half correct. What she meant was, "type 1 diabetes the body does not produce insulin which means without injections of it u would be hypoglycemic. Without insulin your blood sugar would rise every time you eat something. It would never drop. You could go blind, have other severe problems or even die if things continued like this for too long. Source(s): Secret To Destroy Diabetes : Source(s): Two Weeks Diabetes Cure : Hyperglycemia is a condition caused by diabetes, not a type of diabetes in itself. Hyperglycemia is the medical term for high blood sugar. Hypoglycemia is the medical term for low blood sugar. Both of which can happen to a diabetic, both type 1 and type 2 diabetics. Check the source below for more info! For the best answers, search on this site Type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent diabetes. In this type, the pancreas cannot make insulin. About 10-20% of all diabetics have this type and require insulin to bring their high glucose levels(hyperglecima) down, for the rest of their lives...and this form of the disease usually strikes during the childhood years. Taking too much insulin or not eating after an insulin shot, will cause the sugar level to drop (hypoglecemia) suddenly. Both hyper and hypo can be critical if not treated immediately If you or a loved one is suffering with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes or even pre-diabetes, Im about to tell you something you have n-e-v-e-r heard before... I guarantee this will be the most important report you ever read. Im going to expose a shocking secret that *will* change your life forever. Reverse Your Diabetes Today - After being a diabetic for many many years, Im extremely happy to report that Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia is a term referring to high blood glucose levels - the condition that often leads to a diagnosis of diabetes. High blood glucose levels are the defining feature of diabetes, but once the disease is diagnosed, hyperglycemia is a signal of poor control over the condition. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose:1 Fasting levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) Two-hours postprandial (after a meal) levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Chronic hyperglycemia usually leads to the development of diabetic complications.2 Symptoms of hyperglycemia The most common symptoms of diabetes itself are related to hyperglycemia - the classic symptoms of frequent urination and thirst.2,3 Typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia that has been confirmed by blood glucose measurement include:1,3,4 Thirst and hunger Dry mouth Frequent urination, particularly at night Tiredness Recurrent infections, such as thrush Weight loss Vision blurring. Causes of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia often leads to the diagnosis of diabetes. For people already diagnosed and treated for diabetes, however, poor control over blood sugar levels leads to the condition. Causes of this include:1,3,4 Eating more or exercising less than usual Insufficient amount of insulin treatment (more commonly in cases of type 1 diabetes) Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes Illness such as the flu Psychological and emotional stress The "dawn phenomenon" or "dawn effect" - an early morning hormone surge. The video below from Diabetes UK explains the dawn phenomenon and offers practical tips. Treatment and prevention of hyperglycemia Prevention of hyperglycemia for people with a diabetes diagnosis is a matter of good self-monitoring and management of blood glucose levels, including ad Continue reading >>

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