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Is Ketone An Acid Or Base

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Explanation on the observed regioselective and stereoselective outcome of the Luche reduction of 19 While the Luche reduction has been tested for over 30 years, a clear explanation for the stereoselective outcomes of compounds which undergo this sort of reduction is still vague and unknown. The novel characteristic of the Luche reduction is its ability to not affect specific groups such as carboxylic acids, esters, amides, halides, and cyano and nitro groups. When looking at compound 19 from the previous reaction, it may be noted that the only “available” site for reduction via the Luche method is the ketone found on the 6-membered, oxygen containing ring. Why is only this ketone (and only ketones in general) affected? While many explanations have been brought forth, the simple concept of the Hard-Soft Acid and Bases (HSAB) theory has been the most supported explanation. While hard acids or bases are compact, with the electrons held fairly tightly by the nucleus, and not very polarizable; soft acids and bases are larger, with a more diffuse distribution of electrons. Knowing this, the HSAB simply states that hard acids react preferentially with hard bases, and soft acids react preferentially with soft bases. In the case of a Luche reduction reaction, the lanthanide (Ce3+ in this case) acts to increase the electrophilicity of the specific ketone-carbonyl group. This CeCl3-O complex allows for the hardness of the borohydride (NaBH4) to increase by replacing hydride groups with alkoxide groups. Because of this increase in “hardness” the NaBH4 can now be considered a “hard” acid. Along with this, ketones have been categorized as a “hard” Lewis base. Following the HSAB theory, when the unstable CeCl3 activates the ketone, the C=O becomes delocalized (shown be Continue reading >>

Impact Of Preoperative Fasting Times On Blood Glucose Concentration, Ketone Bodies And Acid-base Balance In Children Younger Than 36 Months: A Prospective Observational Study.

Impact Of Preoperative Fasting Times On Blood Glucose Concentration, Ketone Bodies And Acid-base Balance In Children Younger Than 36 Months: A Prospective Observational Study.

Abstract BACKGROUND: In contrast to preoperative fasting guidelines in paediatric anaesthesia, actual fasting times are often too long. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of preoperative fasting on glucose concentration, ketone bodies and acid-base balance in children. DESIGN: A prospective, noninterventional, clinical observational study. SETTING: A single-centre trial, study period from June 2014 to November 2014. PATIENTS: One hundred children aged 0 to 36 months scheduled for elective paediatric surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient demographics, fasting times, haemodynamic data, glucose and ketone body concentrations, and acid-base parameters after induction of anaesthesia were documented using a standardised case report form. RESULTS: Mean fasting period was 7.8 ± 4.5 (3.5 to 20) h, and deviation from guideline (ΔGL) was 3.3 ± 3.2 (-2 to 14) h. Linear regression showed a significant correlation between fasting times and ketone bodies, anion gap, base excess, osmolality as well as bicarbonate (for each, P < 0.05), but not glucose or lactate. In children with ΔGL more than 2 h (54%), ketone bodies, osmolality and anion gap were significantly higher and base excess significantly lower than children with ΔGL less than 2 h (for each, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: After prolonged preoperative fasting, children younger than 36 months can present with ketoacidosis and (low) normal blood glucose concentrations. Actual fasting times should be optimised according to existing guidelines. In small infants, deviations from fasting guidelines should be as short as possible and not longer than 2 h. Continue reading >>

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

1. Nomenclature Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones are organic compounds which incorporate a carbonyl functional group, C=O. The carbon atom of this group has two remaining bonds that may be occupied by hydrogen or alkyl or aryl substituents. If at least one of these substituents is hydrogen, the compound is an aldehyde. If neither is hydrogen, the compound is a ketone. The IUPAC system of nomenclature assigns a characteristic suffix to these classes, al to aldehydes and one to ketones. For example, H2C=O is methanal, more commonly called formaldehyde. Since an aldehyde carbonyl group must always lie at the end of a carbon chain, it is by default position #1, and therefore defines the numbering direction. A ketone carbonyl function may be located anywhere within a chain or ring, and its position is given by a locator number. Chain numbering normally starts from the end nearest the carbonyl group. In cyclic ketones the carbonyl group is assigned position #1, and this number is not cited in the name, unless more than one carbonyl group is present. If you are uncertain about the IUPAC rules for nomenclature you should review them now. Examples of IUPAC names are provided (in blue) in the following diagram. Common names are in red, and derived names in black. In common names carbon atoms near the carbonyl group are often designated by Greek letters. The atom adjacent to the function is alpha, the next removed is beta and so on. Since ketones have two sets of neighboring atoms, one set is labeled α, β etc., and the other α', β' etc. Very simple ketones, such as propanone and phenylethanone (first two examples in the right column), do not require a locator number, since there is only one possible site for a ketone carbonyl function. Likewise, locator numbers are omitted for the simple dialdehyde at t Continue reading >>

Why Are Aldehydes And Ketones Neutral And Not Acidic/basic?

Why Are Aldehydes And Ketones Neutral And Not Acidic/basic?

This question is quite general, and as other answers have pointed out, depends on what you mean by acidic/basic. The other answers have already covered the Lewis bit, so I will focus a bit more on the Bronsted-Lowry and Arrhenius definitions. In water, almost all aldehydes and ketones do not dissociate to give the H+ or OH- ion, which is the Arrhenius definition. However, the alpha position of acetylacetone is considered acidic by the Bronsted-Lowry definition, and can be deprotonated by strong bases to give the conjugated enone after tautomerism. This is due to the stability of the conjugate base. Continue reading >>

Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes And Ketones

Introduction We will focus more specifically on the organic compounds that incorporate carbonyl groups: aldehydes and ketones. Key Terms Aldehyde Formyl group Ketone Hydrogen bonding Hydration Hydrate Objectives Identify IUPAC names for simple aldehydes and ketones Describe the boiling point and solubility characteristics of aldehydes and ketones relative to those of alkanes and alcohols Characterize the process of nucleophilic addition to the carbonyl group The carbonyl group is shown below in the context of synthesizing alcohols. This functional group is the key component of aldehydes and ketones, which we will discuss here. Nomenclature for Aldehydes and Ketones Aldehydes and ketones are structurally similar; the only difference is that for an aldehyde, the carbonyl group has at most one substituent alkyl group, whereas the carbonyl group in a ketone has two. Several examples of aldehydes and ketones are depicted below. Aldehydes are named by replacing the -e ending of an alkane with -al (similarly to the use of -ol in alcohols). The base molecule is the longest carbon chain ending with the carbonyl group. Furthermore, the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is assumed to be carbon 1, so a number is not needed in the IUPAC name to identify the location of the doubly bonded oxygen atom. If the chain contains two carbonyl groups, one at each end, the correct suffix is -dial (used in the same manner as -diol for compounds with two hydroxyl groups). An example aldehyde is shown below with its IUPAC name. One- and two-carbon aldehydes have common names (one of which you will likely be familiar with) in addition to their systematic names. Both names are acceptable. Sometimes, the carbonyl group plus one proton (called a formyl group) must be treated separately for nomenclatu Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Not to be confused with ketone bodies. Ketone group Acetone In chemistry, a ketone (alkanone) /ˈkiːtoʊn/ is an organic compound with the structure RC(=O)R', where R and R' can be a variety of carbon-containing substituents. Ketones and aldehydes are simple compounds that contain a carbonyl group (a carbon-oxygen double bond). They are considered "simple" because they do not have reactive groups like −OH or −Cl attached directly to the carbon atom in the carbonyl group, as in carboxylic acids containing −COOH.[1] Many ketones are known and many are of great importance in industry and in biology. Examples include many sugars (ketoses) and the industrial solvent acetone, which is the smallest ketone. Nomenclature and etymology[edit] The word ketone is derived from Aketon, an old German word for acetone.[2][3] According to the rules of IUPAC nomenclature, ketones are named by changing the suffix -ane of the parent alkane to -anone. The position of the carbonyl group is usually denoted by a number. For the most important ketones, however, traditional nonsystematic names are still generally used, for example acetone and benzophenone. These nonsystematic names are considered retained IUPAC names,[4] although some introductory chemistry textbooks use systematic names such as "2-propanone" or "propan-2-one" for the simplest ketone (CH3−CO−CH3) instead of "acetone". The common names of ketones are obtained by writing separately the names of the two alkyl groups attached to the carbonyl group, followed by "ketone" as a separate word. The names of the alkyl groups are written alphabetically. When the two alkyl groups are the same, the prefix di- is added before the name of alkyl group. The positions of other groups are indicated by Greek letters, the α-carbon being th Continue reading >>

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Reactions Of Aldehydes And Ketones

Aldehydes and ketones undergo a variety of reactions that lead to many different products. The most common reactions are nucleophilic addition reactions, which lead to the formation of alcohols, alkenes, diols, cyanohydrins (RCH(OH)C&tbond;N), and imines R 2C&dbond;NR), to mention a few representative examples. The main reactions of the carbonyl group are nucleophilic additions to the carbon‐oxygen double bond. As shown below, this addition consists of adding a nucleophile and a hydrogen across the carbon‐oxygen double bond. Due to differences in electronegativities, the carbonyl group is polarized. The carbon atom has a partial positive charge, and the oxygen atom has a partially negative charge. Aldehydes are usually more reactive toward nucleophilic substitutions than ketones because of both steric and electronic effects. In aldehydes, the relatively small hydrogen atom is attached to one side of the carbonyl group, while a larger R group is affixed to the other side. In ketones, however, R groups are attached to both sides of the carbonyl group. Thus, steric hindrance is less in aldehydes than in ketones. Electronically, aldehydes have only one R group to supply electrons toward the partially positive carbonyl carbon, while ketones have two electron‐supplying groups attached to the carbonyl carbon. The greater amount of electrons being supplied to the carbonyl carbon, the less the partial positive charge on this atom and the weaker it will become as a nucleus. The addition of water to an aldehyde results in the formation of a hydrate. The formation of a hydrate proceeds via a nucleophilic addition mechanism. 1. Water, acting as a nucleophile, is attracted to the partially positive carbon of the carbonyl group, generating an oxonium ion. Acetal formation reacti Continue reading >>

Enolization Of Aldehydes And Ketones: Structural Effects On Concerted Acid−base Catalysis

Enolization Of Aldehydes And Ketones: Structural Effects On Concerted Acid−base Catalysis

Abstract The third-order term (kAB) for the concerted acid−base catalyzed enolization of a selection of simple aldehydes and ketones has been measured in a series of substituted acetic acids at 25 °C at constant ionic strength 2.0 (NaNO3). While there is no direct correlation of the magnitude of the third-order term with either the rate constants for acid (kA) or base (kB) catalysis, a simple log−log relationship exists between the product of the consecutive rate constants (kA·kB) and the concerted (third order) rate constants (kAB). This implies that the concerted pathway is important only when both the general acid and the general base terms are significant; this will be useful in designing other systems which might show such concerted catalysis. In the case of aldehydes, a slope of 0.97 was found for this plot, which compares to the result for 4-substituted cyclohexanones (0.51) and other ketones (0.59), as measured in acetic acid buffers. The resultant Brønsted βAB value of 0.20 found for propanal (2) is consistent with the overall observation that concerted catalysis is largely independent of the buffering species, and that process is overall base catalyzed. The solvent isotope effect on the concerted acid−base catalyzed enolization rate term, kAB(H2O)/kAB(D2O) = 1.33, indicates that the transition state for proton transfer to the carbonyl is more advanced than in the case of ketones. In general we have found that carbonyl compounds with large measured (or estimated) enol contents show significant third-order terms. Continue reading >>

Aldol Condensation – Acid Catalyzed

Aldol Condensation – Acid Catalyzed

Aldol condensation reaction can be either acid catalyzed or base catalyzed. This page deals with the acid catalysis mechanism of the aldol reaction. Earlier, this reaction was thought to occur only with aldehydes. However, it has been realized that a similar reaction would occur with ketones and reactive carbonyl compounds with available α-hydrogens (the need for which will be apparent with the mechanism below). The reaction proceeds with the condensation of an aldehyde (or carbonyl compound) with an enol. The product formed has an aldehyde (or carbonyl) group and a β-hydroxy (alcohol) group, giving the product the name aldol (or if the carbonyl compound is a ketone it maybe called a ketol). This condensation is often followed by spontaneous dehydration due to β-elimination to produce an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde or α,β-unsaturated ketone. The mechanisms for acid catalyzed aldol condensation and base catalyzed aldol condensation is significantly different. While bases activate the nucleophile, acids activate the electrophile in the reaction. It must be noted that aldol condensation is an integral mechanism of Robinson annulation as well. Mechanism of Acid Catalyzed Aldol Condensation Step 1 In step 1 of the reaction, the acid acts as a proton donor and activates the carbonyl oxygen into a protonated form. Step 2 In step 2, the intermediate 1 reacts with the conjugate base of the acid (i.e. A-) to produce the enol (intermediate 2). Step 3 This step involves the conjugation of the enol (intermediate 2) with another molecule of the activated carbonyl compound (intermediate 1) to produce the aldol (or ketol). Step 4 In step 4, the aldol (or ketol) undergoes spontaneous dehydration due to base catalyzed dehydration to yield the α,β-unsaturated aldehyde or α,β-unsat Continue reading >>

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

Aldehydes, Ketones, Carboxylic Acids, And Esters

Learning Objectives By the end of this section, you will be able to: Describe the structure and properties of aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters Another class of organic molecules contains a carbon atom connected to an oxygen atom by a double bond, commonly called a carbonyl group. The trigonal planar carbon in the carbonyl group can attach to two other substituents leading to several subfamilies (aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and esters) described in this section. Aldehydes and Ketones Both aldehydes and ketones contain a carbonyl group, a functional group with a carbon-oxygen double bond. The names for aldehyde and ketone compounds are derived using similar nomenclature rules as for alkanes and alcohols, and include the class-identifying suffixes –al and –one, respectively: In an aldehyde, the carbonyl group is bonded to at least one hydrogen atom. In a ketone, the carbonyl group is bonded to two carbon atoms: In both aldehydes and ketones, the geometry around the carbon atom in the carbonyl group is trigonal planar; the carbon atom exhibits sp2 hybridization. Two of the sp2 orbitals on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group are used to form σ bonds to the other carbon or hydrogen atoms in a molecule. The remaining sp2 hybrid orbital forms a σ bond to the oxygen atom. The unhybridized p orbital on the carbon atom in the carbonyl group overlaps a p orbital on the oxygen atom to form the π bond in the double bond. Like the C=O bond in carbon dioxide, the C=O bond of a carbonyl group is polar (recall that oxygen is significantly more electronegative than carbon, and the shared electrons are pulled toward the oxygen atom and away from the carbon atom). Many of the reactions of aldehydes and ketones start with the reaction between a Lewis base and Continue reading >>

Ketone

Ketone

Ketone, any of a class of organic compounds characterized by the presence of a carbonyl group in which the carbon atom is covalently bonded to an oxygen atom. The remaining two bonds are to other carbon atoms or hydrocarbon radicals (R): Ketone compounds have important physiological properties. They are found in several sugars and in compounds for medicinal use, including natural and synthetic steroid hormones. Molecules of the anti-inflammatory agent cortisone contain three ketone groups. Only a small number of ketones are manufactured on a large scale in industry. They can be synthesized by a wide variety of methods, and because of their ease of preparation, relative stability, and high reactivity, they are nearly ideal chemical intermediates. Many complex organic compounds are synthesized using ketones as building blocks. They are most widely used as solvents, especially in industries manufacturing explosives, lacquers, paints, and textiles. Ketones are also used in tanning, as preservatives, and in hydraulic fluids. The most important ketone is acetone (CH3COCH3), a liquid with a sweetish odour. Acetone is one of the few organic compounds that is infinitely soluble in water (i.e., soluble in all proportions); it also dissolves many organic compounds. For this reason—and because of its low boiling point (56 °C [132.8 °F]), which makes it easy to remove by evaporation when no longer wanted—it is one of the most important industrial solvents, being used in such products as paints, varnishes, resins, coatings, and nail-polish removers. The International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) name of a ketone is derived by selecting as the parent the longest chain of carbon atoms that contains the carbonyl group. The parent chain is numbered from the end that Continue reading >>

Reactions At The Α-carbon

Reactions At The Α-carbon

Many aldehydes and ketones undergo substitution reactions at an alpha carbon, as shown in the following diagram (alpha-carbon atoms are colored blue). These reactions are acid or base catalyzed, but in the case of halogenation the reaction generates an acid as one of the products, and is therefore autocatalytic. If the alpha-carbon is a chiral center, as in the second example, the products of halogenation and isotopic exchange are racemic. Indeed, treatment of this ketone reactant with acid or base alone serves to racemize it. Not all carbonyl compounds exhibit these characteristics, the third ketone being an example. Two important conclusions may be drawn from these examples. First, these substitutions are limited to carbon atoms alpha to the carbonyl group. Cyclohexanone (the first ketone) has two alpha-carbons and four potential substitutions (the alpha-hydrogens). Depending on the reaction conditions, one or all four of these hydrogens may be substituted, but none of the remaining six hydrogens on the ring react. The second ketone confirms this fact, only the alpha-carbon undergoing substitution, despite the presence of many other sites. Second, the substitutions are limited to hydrogen atoms. This is demonstrated convincingly by the third ketone, which is structurally similar to the second but has no alpha-hydrogen. 1. Mechanism of Electrophilic α-Substitution Kinetic studies of these reactions provide additional information. The rates of halogenation and isotope exchange are essentially the same (assuming similar catalysts and concentrations), and are identical to the rate of racemization for those reactants having chiral alpha-carbon units. At low to moderate halogen concentrations, the rate of halogen substitution is proportional (i.e. first order) to aldehyde Continue reading >>

Is A Ketone An Acid Or A Base?

Is A Ketone An Acid Or A Base?

Ketones are in fact weak acids. This comes from an ability to shift the places of the double bond and one of the hydrogen atoms, resulting in an alcohol compound with a double bond between two of the carbon atoms. This is called an enol, and is less stable than the ketone - the two are in rapid equilibrium. This enol may lose a hydrogen ion to become an enolate. This happens only when a ketone is reacted with a strong base. Continue reading >>

Base-catalysed Bromination Of Ketones

Base-catalysed Bromination Of Ketones

Click each of the reaction schemes below to view the 3D models and animations respectively The hydroxide removes a proton from the ketone to form an enolate anion. The enolate anion attacks the bromine molecule yielding a mono-substituted bromoketone. The reaction continues until the tribromoketone is formed. The hydroxide then attacks directly at the carbonyl and a tribromomethyl anion is lost. E. Tapuhi and W. P. Jencks, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 5758–5765. Continue reading >>

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

Chapter 16: Aldehydes And Ketones (carbonyl Compounds)

The Carbonyl Double Bond Both the carbon and oxygen atoms are hybridized sp2, so the system is planar. The three oxygen sp2 AO’s are involved as follows: The two unshared electorn pairs of oxygen occupy two of these AO’s, and the third is involved in sigma bond formation to the carbonyl carbon. The three sp2 AO’s on the carbonyl carbon are involved as follows: One of them is involved in sigma bonding to one of the oxygen sp2 AO’s, and the other two are involved in bonding to the R substituents. The 2pz AO’s on oxygen and the carbonyl carbon are involved in pi overlap, forming a pi bond. The pi BMO, formed by positive overlap of the 2p orbitals, has a larger concentration of electron density on oxygen than carbon, because the electrons in this orbital are drawn to the more electronegative atom, where they are more highly stabilized. This result is reversed in the vacant antibonding MO. As a consequence of the distribution in the BMO, the pi bond (as is the case also with the sigma bond) is highly polar, with the negative end of the dipole on oxygen and the positive end on carbon. We will see that this polarity, which is absent in a carbon-carbon pi bond, has the effect of strongly stabilizing the C=O moiety. Resonance Treatment of the Carbonyl Pi Bond 1.Note that the ionic structure (the one on the right side) has one less covalent bond, but this latter is replaced with an ionic bond (electrostatic bond). 2.This structure is a relatively “good” one, therefore, and contributes extensively to the resonance hybrid, making this bond much more thermodynamically stable than the C=C pi bond, for which the corresponding ionic structure is much less favorable (negative charge is less stable on carbon than on oxygen). 3.The carbonyl carbon therefore has extensive car Continue reading >>

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