diabetestalk.net

Is Ketoacidosis Hyposecretion Or Hypersecretion

Endocrine Disorders – Outline Notes

Endocrine Disorders – Outline Notes

Hormones are chemical messengers. They are a major way in which our body communicates with itself. If our messages are unable to do their job, i.e. too much *hypersecretion or too little *hyposecretion, serious problems can result. The following are common endocrine disorders. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) -hyposecretion / hypoactivity of insulin -without insulin, glucose cannot enter most cells -without glucose in cells, the cells will turn to lipids for fuel -lipidemia – high lipid in blood -cells use lipids for fuel — byproduct is ketones (organic acids) -Ketoacidosis – high ketones will decrease pH – also see ketones in urine (ketonuria) 3 signs of Diabetes Mellitus 1. Polyuria – increased urine output -loss of electrolytes can lead to abdominal cramping 2. Polydipsia – increased thirst 3. polyphagia – increased hunger 2 types of DM 1. Type I diabetes mellitus / insulin-dependent DM / juvenile onset -symptoms appear suddenly before age 15 -autoimmune response destroying B-cells of pancreas for long period -no insulin produced -because of high lipidemia and cholesterol –vascular problems —atherosclerosis, strokes, MI, gangrene, blindness -neuropathies – loss of sensation, bladder functions, impotence 2. Type II diabetes mellitus / non-insulin DM / mature onset -after age of 40 usually -familial predisposition – hereditary -usually insulin receptors are not responding -obesity can also bring this on HORMONE Growth Hormone HYPOSECRETION (not enough); Dwarfism – children, HYPERSECRETION (too much); Gigantism – children; Acromegaly – adults; thickening of bony areas still sensitive to GH (hands, feet, face) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormones HYPOSECRETION; Myxedema – aldults; decreased metabolism, lethargy; goiter – if from lack of Continue reading >>

Endocrine System Diseases

Endocrine System Diseases

1. Endocrine System Diseases Introduction to Human Diseases: Chapter 14 2. Endocrine System Terminology • Endocrine • Exocrine • Hormone • Target organ • Hypersecretion • Hyposecretion 3. Pituitary Gland Diseases • Hyperpituitarism – Hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) by the pituitary • Gigantism – GH hypersecretion during puberty and growth years • Person is very tall, proportioned normally • Acromegaly – GH hypersecretion during adulthood – Disfiguring overgrowth of bones & soft tissues 4. Hyperpituitarism • Other aspects: – Gigantism: • Fairly abrupt onset • Non-life threatening • Growth up to 6 inches/yr – Agromegaly: • Gradual onset • Decreases life expectancy • Headache, sinus problems, skin changes, paresthesias, joint pain, visual disorders 5. Hypopituitarism • Deficiency of any or all of the pituitary hormones • Usually involve GH and gonadotropin – LH, FSH, Prolactin, Oxytocin • Less commonly involved: – ACTH and TSH • Panhypopituitarism: – All hormones are deficient 6. Hypopituitarism • S/S: varies with hormone deficiency and age of disease onset – In childhood: S/S are dwarfism and delayed development of 2ndary sexual characteristics – In adults: S/S are amenorrhea, infertility, lowering of testosterone levels, libidy, hair loss. – ACTH & TSH deficiency: general S/S: fatigue, pallor, anorexia, poor stress response 7. Hypopituitarism: • Treatment: hormone replacement 8. Diabetes Insipidus • Hyposecretion of vasopressin – ADH (antidiuretic hormone) • S/S: extreme polyuria, thirst, very dilute urine produced, leads to dehydration • Etiology: anything that destroys the pituitary or idiopathic • Treatment: fluid replacement, hormone replacement (tablet, nasal spray) 9. Thyroid Glan Continue reading >>

Unit 8 Pathophys

Unit 8 Pathophys

Endocrine Alterations - Learning Objectives Question Answer What are the mechanisms of hormonal alterations? Hypersecretion or hyposecretion of various hormones; target cells failing to respond to hormones What are the causes of hypersecretion or hyposecretion of various hormones? Faulty feedback system, dysfunction of an endocrine gland, altered metabolism of hormones, or hormones are produced by nonendocrine tissues causing elevated levels What do alpha cells secrete? Glucagon What do beta cells secrete? Insulin Which hormone promotes glucose uptake (lowers glucose level in the blood)? Insulin Which hormone increases blood glucose by stimulating muscle glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and adipose tissue lipolysis? Glucagon What are classic symptoms of Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus? Polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia How do cells compensate when they are not receiving glucose (due to insulin deficiency)? Lack of glucose in cells results in catabolism of fats and proteins. What usually results from cells catabolizing fats and proteins when they lack glucose? Leads to excessive amounts of fatty acids and their metabolites, known as ketones, in the blood (ketoacidosis). Diabetic ketoacidosis can result and is life-threatening. What type of diabetes has the possible complication of diabetic ketoacidosis? Type 1 What type of diabetes does hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome most often occur in? Type 2 The Somogyi effect is thought to be caused by what? Too much medication in the system at the wrong time (counterregulatory hormones are released in response to detected hypoglycemia, resulting in hyperglycemia). Describe the Dawn Phenomenon. Early morning rise in blood glucose concentration with no hypoglycemia during the night. It is related to nocturnal elev Continue reading >>

Kapital 10

Kapital 10

Question Answer Name Endocrine organs that produce following hormones Insulin pancreas aldosterone adrenal cortex cortisol adrenal cortex vasopressin Posterior Pituitary epinephrine adrenal medulla estradiol ovaries follicle stimulating hormone growth hormone anterior Pituitary thyroxine thyroid progesterone ovaries ACTH Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone T Thyroxine ADH Antidiiretic Hormone T Triiodothyronine (Thyroid Hormone TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone LH Luteinizing Hormone PTH Parathyroid Hormone GH Growth Hormone Sympathomimetic; elevates heart rate, blood pressure epinephrine Promotes growth and maintenance of male sex characteristics testosterone Stimulates water reabsorption by kidney tubules; decreases urine ADH Increases metabolism in body cells thyroxine Raises blood calcium parathyroid hormone Increases reabsorption of sodium by kidney tubules aldosterone Stimulates secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex ACTH Increases blood sugar cortisol Helps transport glucose to cells and decreases blood sugar insulin Develops and maintains female sex characteristics estradiol abnormal condition (hypersecretion of the thyroid gland) hyperthyroidism removal of the pancreas pancreatectomy condition of deficiency or underdevelopment of sex organs hypogonadism pertaining to producing female characteristics estrogenic removal of the pituitary gland hypophysectomy deficiency of calcium in the blood hypocalcemia excessive sugar in the blood hypercalcemia acromegaly Hypersection / Pituitary Gland tetany Hyposecretion/ Thyroid diabetes mellitus Hypersecretion/ Pancreas Graves disease Hypersecretion/Thyroid myxedema hyposecretion/ Thyroid Cushing syndrome hypersecretion/ Adrenal Cortex cretinism hyposecretion/ Thyroid Gland hyponatremia condition where one has low blood sodium po Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Hormone Secretion

Regulation Of Hormone Secretion

Homeostasis & Controls Successful compensation Homeostasis reestablished Failure to compensate Pathophysiology Illness Death Figure 1-5: Homeostasis Sensing and signaling: a biological need is sensed, the endocrine system sends out a signal to a target cell whose action addresses the biological need. Key features of this stimulus response system are: ·       receipt of stimulus ·       synthesis and secretion of hormone ·       delivery of hormone to target cell ·       evoking target cell response ·       degradation of hormone Target tissue response will generally be determined by two factors: Plasma Concentrations Normally, the greater the concentration, the greater the response (up to receptor saturation). • The number of cell membrane receptors More receptors obviously result in a greater response. Control of Endocrine Activity Concentration of hormone in blood and extracellular fluid. Almost inevitably, disease results when hormone concentrations are either too high or too low, and precise control over circulating concentrations of hormones is therefore crucial. Control of hormone concentration: Synthesis and secretion of hormones are the most highly regulated aspect of endocrine control. Such control is mediated by positive and negative feedback circuits. Negative Feedback Negative feedback is the primary mechanism through which your endocrine system maintains homeostasis Secretion of a specific hormone is turned on or off by specific physiological changes (similar to a thermostat) EXAMPLE: plasma glucose levels and insulin response Receptor numbers are usually increased when hormone secretion is low and decreased when hormone secretion is high. Also, some hormonal response Continue reading >>

Chapter 13 Endocrine System

Chapter 13 Endocrine System

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) Stimulates thyroid gland to produce & secrete its own hormones, thyroxine & thriiodothyronine Target-Thyroid gland to stimulate secretion of thyroid hormone Hyposecretion- cretinism (infants) Hyposecrecretion- myxedema (Adults) Hypersecretion0- Graves Disease ANTERIOR PITUITARY Cretinism (TSH) Infants Mental retardation Impaired growth Low body temperature Abnormal bone formation Etiology: Hyposecretion of TSH (Anterior Pituitary Gland) I. Missing or poorly developed thyroid gland II. Pituitary gland does not stimulate the thyroid gland III. Thyroid hormones poorly formed or do not work STATE REQUIRES BLOOD WORK & REPORTS Myxedema (TSH) Hypothyroidism in adults Edema Low blood levels of T3 & T4 Weight gain Cold intolerance Fatigue Depression Muscle/joint pain Sluggishness (Name due to edemenous appearance of individual) ANTERIOR PITUITARY Graves Disease (TSH) Hyperthyroidism Excessive secretion of T3, T4 or both Elevated metabolic rate Abnormal weight loss Excessive perspiration Muscle weakness Emotional instability Exophthalmos- eyes protrude due to edema in the tissues behind the eyes ANTERIOR PITUITARY Cushing Disease Increases amount of cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone or both in blood Long-term steroid use Adrenal tumor Alters carbohydrate and protein metabolism Electrolyte imbalances Hyperglycemia Sodium retention Edema Weight gain Moon-shaped face Large abdomen and thin extremities Hypertension *Hirsutism* Tx: medications, radiation, surgery Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) or Vasopressin Prevents excessive water loss Target- kidney to increase water reabsorption Hyposecretion: Diabetes Insipidus- decrease ADH causes increased urine output (NOT DIABETES I or II!) SOMETIMES CAUSED BY HEAD INJURY/INFECTION/TRAUMA/SURGERIES/MEDICATIO Continue reading >>

Disorders Of Endocrine System

Disorders Of Endocrine System

Responsiveness of target cell to hormone depends on: 1- Plasma concentrations *Feedback mechanisms - hypo- and hyper-secretion of hormone (ex: thyroid) 2- Number of receptors *Down-regulation - desensitization – prolonged exposure of high levels of hormone -example: Grave’s disease (autoimmune – thyroid) *Up-regulation - Disorders of the Endocrine System Addison's disease Caused by hyposecretion of the hormones produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland Cretinism Condition resulting from a congenital deficiency of thyroid secretion or hypothyroidism Cushing’s syndrome Disorder that causes hyperactivity of the adrenal glands, which is triggered by the oversecretion of the pituitary hormone ACTH Diabetes insipidus From an acquired or inherited decrease in the antidiuretic hormone secreted by the pituitary Diabetes mellitus A disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from insufficient insulin production by the pancreas Dwarfism Results from hyposecretion of the growth hormone of the pituitary gland, which has been caused by a tumor, infection, genetic factors, or trauma Gigantism An excessive growth of the long bones caused by hypersecretion of the somatotropic hormone Graves’ disease Caused by hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis Hyperparathyroidism Causes hypercalcemia, an increased calcium blood level Hypoglycemia Results from increased insulin production by the pancreas Hypoparathyroidism A decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone that causes tetany Hypothyroidism Also called Hashimoto's disease, results from an insufficient production of thyroxine I. Alterations of the hypothalamic - pituitary system Deficiency of hypothalamic hormones Variety of manifestations can be seen: - In adult women: menses cease- absenc Continue reading >>

Hyper And Hypo Function Of The Pancreas

Hyper And Hypo Function Of The Pancreas

Transcript of Hyper and Hypo Function of the Pancreas Hyper and Hypo Function of the Pancreas Hypoglycemia, Hyperglycemia, Diabetes. Pancreas α - alpha cells - glucagon (increases the glucose in the blood β - beta cells - insulin (decreases the glucose in the blood) γ - gamma cells - PP (pancreatic polypeptide) Δ - delta cells - somatostatin (regulates/stops the α and β cells) There are four main types of cells that can be classified by their secretion. Hyper and Hypo function Hyper function - high secretion of hormones by some cell types. Hypo function - low secretion of hormones by some cell types. There are some conditions that might occur if the pancreas is not working properly. Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia - abnormal diminished content of glucose in the blood. What it can cause: mild dysphoria seizures unconsciousness neuroglycopenia death Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia - higher than normal blood glucose level. Chronic hyperglycemia can lead to: neurological damage cardiovascular damage damage of the retina damage of the feet and legs kidney damage diabetic neuropathy Diabetes Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disease in which a person has high blood sugar. Complications : diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) fatty acids ketone bodies acetoacetic acid acetone Type 1 It results from the body's failure to produce insulin. a) "juvenile diabetes" usually appears in childhood; b) "Brittle" diabetes (unstable diabetes). Symptoms: vomiting dehydration confusion deep gasping breathing coma hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) results: dehydration, increases of osmolarity, coma, death. It can be accomplished by some other serious cases. Type 2 It is characterized by insulin resistance which can be combined with relatively reduced insulin secretion. Early stag Continue reading >>

8.01 Identify The General Functions Of The Endocrine System.

8.01 Identify The General Functions Of The Endocrine System.

The endocrine system is responsible for coordinating and regulating body cells, tissues, organs, and systems to maintain homeostasis by secreting chemicals known as hormones. Unlike the nervous system, the effects of the endocrine system are sustained and work for longer periods of time. The endocrine system works primarily on negative feedback mechanisms. 8.02 Describe a “hormone†and how it functions in the body. Hormones are chemical messengers released by one tissue (gland) and transported by the bloodstream to reach the target tissues. The target tissue is where the effect of the hormone actually occurs. Over 50 different hormones 8.02 Describe a “hormone†and how it functions in the body. Regulates chemical and volume of the body’s internal environment Regulates metabolism and energy balance Regulates contraction of cardiac and smooth muscle Regulates certain activities of the immune system Maintains homeostasis despite emergency environmental interruptions infection - trauma - starvation dehydration - hemorrhage emotional stress - temperature extremes Plays a role in normal growth and sequential development Contributes to the process of reproduction 8.03 Describe the locations, secretions, and functions of the major endocrine glands. Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid Parathyroid Thymus Pancreas Adrenals Gonads Testes Ovaries Pineal Thalamus Kidneys Liver Stomach Lungs Heart Small Intestine Skin Placenta 8.03 Hypothalamus Coordinates the Endocrine System activities to maintain Homeostasis A small portion of the diencephalon located below the thalamus partially protected by the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone One of the main regulators of homeostasis in the body production and secretion of hormones that control other Endocrine Glands Lack Continue reading >>

12 Endocrine

12 Endocrine

A B diabetes insipidus condition caused by insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone or failure of the kidneys to respond to the hormone cretinism congenital hypothyroidism which can cause arrested physical and mental development myxedema severe adult hypothyroidism due to atrophy of the thyroid gland; causes edema with a mucus-like material, dry puffy skin and atherosclerosis thyrotoxicosis severe, potentially life-threatening hyperthyroidism that can lead to congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema Cushing syndrome (hypercortisolism) caused by prolonged exposure to excessive cortisol due to overproduction of the hormone or taking glucocorticoid medication for extended periods of time; moon-shaped face addison disease deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone, most likely due to autoimmune adrenalitis hyperglycemia abnormally high levels of sugar in the blood hypoglycemia abnormally low levels of sugar in the blood; may be due to hyperinsulinism gestational diabetes diabetes that occurs during pregnancy; but usually disappears after delivery thyroid scan visualization of the thyroid by scanning for radiation after the administration of radioactive iodine antithyroid drugs medications that relieve symptoms of hyperthyroidism chemical thyroidectomy administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells hypersecretion excessive production and secretion of a hormone hyposecretion deficient production and secretion of a hormone hypothyroidism underactivity of the thyroid; fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, fluid retention, low body temperature, constipation, slow heart rate acromegaly enlargement of the extremities caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone after puberty gigantism abnormal overgrowth of body tissues caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone Continue reading >>

Med Term Quiz4

Med Term Quiz4

Home > Preview Hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes Hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen) * Ovaries - in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen * Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation * Testes - in males, stimulates sperm production * Hypersecretion has no known significant effects * Bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues - stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy * Hyposecretion in children causes pituitary dwarfism * Hypersecretion in children causes gigantism; hypersecretion in adults causes acromegaly * Ovaries - in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and prgesterone * Testes - in males, promotes secretion of testosterone * Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation * Hypersecretion has no known significant effects * Hyposecretion in nursing mothers causes poor lactation * Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone * Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis * The most significant effects are exerted in childhood when bones are growing and changing dramatically in mass, size, and shape * At best, calcitonin is a weak hypocalcemic agent in adults * Increases energy production from all food types * Increases rate of protein synthesis * Hyposecretion in infants causes cretinism; hy Continue reading >>

Natural Course Of Growth Hormone Hypersecretion In Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

Natural Course Of Growth Hormone Hypersecretion In Insulin-dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

Abstract High growth hormone levels in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes were recognised 25 years ago. For many years this has been explained as an epiphenomenon of poor metabolic control. The natural course of the disease is characterised by gradual loss of residual beta-cell function and parallel elevations of plasma growth hormone and can be divided into three consecutive phases. It appears that the hormonal changes observed are determined by the IGF-1 generating capacity of the liver which, in turn, is dependent on the synergistic stimulating action of growth hormone and portal insulin. The first (initial) phase of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus is characterised by the absence of insulin, high growth hormone levels and low plasma IGF-1. The pituitary growth hormone response to exercise and other stimuli is pathological. The second phase of disease ('C-peptide positive phase') is characterised by the return of some residual beta-cell insulin secretion, increased levels of growth hormone compared to non-diabetic subjects, physiological IGF-1 levels and near normal pituitary growth hormone responses to different agents. The third phase of the disease is characterised by complete loss of endogenous insulin secretion, very high plasma growth hormone levels, low normal plasma IGF-1 but impaired hepatic IGF-1 generating capacity. The control mechanisms of pituitary growth hormone secretion (long loop negative feedback and auto-feedback), are disturbed. Continue reading >>

Hypersecretion Of Insulin

Hypersecretion Of Insulin

Transcript of Hypersecretion of Insulin Secretion Regulated Can regulate blood glucose and the body senses and responds to rise in blood glucose by secreting insulin. Stimuli like sight and taste of food, nerve stimulation and increased blood concentrations of other fuel molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids, also promote insulin secretion. Hyposecretion of Insulin (lack of insulin from non functioning beta cells) Symptoms: Anxiety and sweating Body tumors and disorientation High body temperature Shock due to brain hypoglycemia coma or death Commercially Used Genes for making human insulin is transferred into simple cells (bacteria or baker’s yeast). The insulin made from the cells is identical to insulin made by the human pancreas. Hypersecreation of Insulin Causes: Genetics and Obesity No physical activity and aging Medications Symptoms: Hyperglycemia Polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia Ketoacidosis which can lead to diabetic coma and death Diseases: Type 1 Diabetes: pancreas fails to produce insulin; autoimmune disorder (immune system attacks insulin. Treatment: Take insulin and monitor diet Type 2 Diabetes: Body can't use insulin efficiently, either because there isn't enough insulin or cells do not respond well to it. Treatment: Exercise, Weight Loss, Diet Modifications, and Medication Diseases: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Treatment: Ingesting simple sugars, followed by intake of complex CHOs and proteins Causes: Your body's sugar (glucose) is used up too quickly Glucose is released into the bloodstream too slowly Too much insulin is released into the bloodstream Sources "Diabetes mellitus." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2007. Science in Context. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. Articles: "Insulin." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2007. Science in Con Continue reading >>

Endocrine System

Endocrine System

Introduction The endocrine system consists of glands, specialized cell clusters, and hormones, which are chemical transmitters secreted by the glands in response to stimulation. ES & CNS regulates and integrates the body’s metabolic activities and maintains homeostasis. Hypothalamus: is the heart of the endocrine system It helps control some endocrine glands by neural and hormonal pathways. On the path to the posterior pituitary gland Neural stimulation of the posterior pituitary gland in turn causes the secretion of two effector hormones— antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. Please release me Hypothalamic hormones stimulate the anterior pituitary gland to release four types of trophic (gland-stimulating) hormones: adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) luteinizing hormone (LH) follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). The secretion of trophic hormones stimulates their respective target glands. Hypothalamic hormones also control the release of effector hormones from the pituitary gland. Examples are growth hormone (GH) and prolactin. Getting feedback A negative feedback system regulates the endocrine system by inhibiting hormone overproduction. A patient with a possible endocrine disorder needs careful assessment to identify the cause of the dysfunction. Dysfunction may result from defects: • in the gland • in the release of trophic or effector hormones • in hormone transport • of the target tissue. How do you end up with an endocrine disorder? Endocrine disorders may be caused by: • hypersecretion or hyposecretion of hormones • hyporesponsiveness of hormone receptors • inflammation of glands • gland tumors. Dysfunctional Hypersecretion or hyposecretion may originate in the hypotha Continue reading >>

Endocrine Disease

Endocrine Disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology. Types of disease[edit] Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:[1] Endocrine gland hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency) Endocrine gland hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess) Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.[2] List of diseases[edit] Glucose homeostasis disorders[edit] Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Gestational Diabetes Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Glucagonoma Thyroid disorders[edit] Goiter Hyperthyroidism Graves-Basedow disease Toxic multinodular goitre Hypothyroidism Thyroiditis Hashimoto's thyroiditis Thyroid cancer Thyroid hormone resistance Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease[edit] Parathyroid gland disorders Primary hyperparathyroidism Secondary hyperparathyroidism Tertiary hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Pseudohypoparathyroidism Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone) Rickets and osteomalacia Pituitary gland disorders[edit] Posterior pituitary[edit] Diabetes insipidus Anterior pituitary[edit] Hypopituitarism (or Panhypopituitarism) Pituitary tumors Pituitary adenomas Prolactinoma (or Hyperprolactinemia) Acromegaly, gigantism, dwarfism Cushing's disease Sex hormone disorders[edit] Disorders of sex development or intersex disorders Hermaphrodi Continue reading >>

More in ketosis