diabetestalk.net

Is Ketoacidosis Hyposecretion Or Hypersecretion

Endocrine System Diseases And Disorders - Advanced

Endocrine System Diseases And Disorders - Advanced

How tall can a person become? This may be an exaggeration, but the world's tallest person, Robert Pershing Wadlow, stood almost nine feet tall when he died at the age of 22. Is growing that tall due to a problem with the endocrine system? Diseases of the endocrine system are common and include diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease, and obesity. An endocrine disease is usually characterized by hyposecretion or hypersecretion of hormones and an inappropriate response to hormone signaling by cells. Cancer can occur in endocrine glands, such as the thyroid, and some hormones are involved in signaling distant cancer cells to multiply. For example, the estrogen receptor has been shown to be involved in certain types of breast cancers. Hyposecretion Hyposecretion is the production of no hormone or too little of a hormone. It can be caused by the destruction of hormone-secreting cells, such as in Type 1 diabetes, or by a deficiency in a nutrient that is important for hormone synthesis. Hyposecretion can be treated with hormone-replacement therapies. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease that results in the destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas. A person with Type 1 diabetes needs insulin replacement therapy, usually by injection or an insulin pump, in order to stay alive. An insulin pump is shown in Figure below. [Figure2] Diabetes insipidus is characterized by the excretion of large amounts of very dilute urine, even if liquid intake is reduced. It is caused either by an inability of the kidneys to concentrate urine due to a lack of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), also called vasopressin, or by an insensitivity of the kidneys to that hormone. Blood glucose levels are not affected in diabetes insipidus. Growth hormone deficiency is caused by a lack Continue reading >>

Regulation Of Hormone Secretion

Regulation Of Hormone Secretion

Homeostasis & Controls Successful compensation Homeostasis reestablished Failure to compensate Pathophysiology Illness Death Figure 1-5: Homeostasis Sensing and signaling: a biological need is sensed, the endocrine system sends out a signal to a target cell whose action addresses the biological need. Key features of this stimulus response system are: ·       receipt of stimulus ·       synthesis and secretion of hormone ·       delivery of hormone to target cell ·       evoking target cell response ·       degradation of hormone Target tissue response will generally be determined by two factors: Plasma Concentrations Normally, the greater the concentration, the greater the response (up to receptor saturation). • The number of cell membrane receptors More receptors obviously result in a greater response. Control of Endocrine Activity Concentration of hormone in blood and extracellular fluid. Almost inevitably, disease results when hormone concentrations are either too high or too low, and precise control over circulating concentrations of hormones is therefore crucial. Control of hormone concentration: Synthesis and secretion of hormones are the most highly regulated aspect of endocrine control. Such control is mediated by positive and negative feedback circuits. Negative Feedback Negative feedback is the primary mechanism through which your endocrine system maintains homeostasis Secretion of a specific hormone is turned on or off by specific physiological changes (similar to a thermostat) EXAMPLE: plasma glucose levels and insulin response Receptor numbers are usually increased when hormone secretion is low and decreased when hormone secretion is high. Also, some hormonal response Continue reading >>

44 What Is A Goiter Explain How Goiters Can Develop

44 What Is A Goiter Explain How Goiters Can Develop

Unformatted text preview: 44) What is a goiter? Explain how goiters can develop in both hyposecretion and hypersecretion disorders. In these hyposecretion and hypersecretion disorders, would you expect the levels of other regulatory hormones involved in control of thyroid hormone secretion to be high or low? Why? Answer: Difficulty: Medium Learning Objective 1: 18.7 Describe the location, histology, hormones, and functions of the thyroid gland. Section Reference 1: 18.7 Thyroid Gland Solution: A goiter is an enlarged thyroid gland. Hyposecretion goiters are usually due to insufficient iodide in the diet. Resulting low levels of thyroid hormones cause increased TRH and TSH until adequate thyroid activity is restored. Graves' disease causes hyperthyroidism by producing an antibody that mimics TSH. Thyroid enlargement occurs, and production of thyroid hormones increases. TRH and natural TSH remain low due to negative feedback, but TSH- mimicking antibody stimulates increased thyroid hormone production and secretion. 45) Compare the metabolic changes that occur during starvation with those that occur in diabetes mellitus. Answer: Difficulty: Hard Learning Objective 1: 18.10 Describe the location, histology, hormones, and functions of the pancreatic islets. Section Reference 1: 18.10 Pancreatic Islets Solution: A starving person is lacking energy-providing nutrient sources, and so, must use structural components of the body as energy sources. The diabetic consumes adequate nutrients, but due to the lack of insulin, is unable to move glucose into cells, and so, cannot use the glucose as an energy source. In both cases, energy generation becomes dependent on non-glucose sources, such as fatty acids and amino acids. Mobilization and metabolism of fats and proteins for energy pr Continue reading >>

Common Disorders Of The Pituitary Gland: Hyposecretion Versus Hypersecretion.

Common Disorders Of The Pituitary Gland: Hyposecretion Versus Hypersecretion.

Abstract An understanding of pituitary disorders requires much more than a knowledge of the definitions associated with them. To grasp fully their complexity, one must recognize not only the powerful role the pituitary gland plays in the endocrine system, but also its effects on homeostasis throughout the entire human body, its association with the hypothalamus, and ultimately its associated end organs. Because of the many hormones stored or produced by the pituitary, associated disorders often are confusing and challenging. However, by simplifying the classification of these disorders into the categories of hyposecretion and hypersecretion, the understanding of pituitary disorders is made simple, and the associated interventions become apparent. Continue reading >>

Shared Flashcard Set

Shared Flashcard Set

Details Title Endocrine Module Description Endocrine Module Total Cards 72 Subject Medical Level Undergraduate 3 Created 04/10/2012 Click here to study/print these flashcards. Create your own flash cards! Sign up here. Additional Medical Flashcards Cards Term Anterior Pituitary Definition 1. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH or thyrotropin) 2. Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH, a gonadotropin) 3. Luteinizing Hormone (LH, a gonadotropin) 4. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH, or corticotropin) 5. Growth Hormone (GH) 6. Prolactin (PRL) Term Targets and Functions of the Anterior Pituitary Hormones Definition 1. TSH – target thyroid gland and stimulates secretion of thyroid hormone (TH). 2. FSH – targets follicles in the ovaries of females and stimulates growth of follicle and production of estrogen. In males it targets the testes and stimulates sperm cell production. 3. LH – targets follicle, triggers ovulation and increases secretion of progesterone. In males, it stimulates testosterone production. 4. ACTH – targets the adrenal cortex and causes the secretion of glucocorticoids. 5. GH - targets most bodily tissues and stimulates metabolism and growth of those tissues. 6. PRL - targets the breasts in females. Stimulates breast development and lactation. Of the six anterior pituitary hormones, four directly stimulate other endocrine glands and are known as tropic hormones (TSH, ACTH, FSH, LH). Term Posterior Pituitary Definition Targets and Functions of the Posterior Pituitary Hormones 1. ADH- antidiuretic hormone (vasopressin) – stimulates water reabsorption by kidneys. 2. Oxytocin – stimulates labor contractions during birth. Term Hormonal Regulation Definition Hypothalamic-Pituitary (hypophysis) Regulation • Controls many functions of several endocrine glands Continue reading >>

12 Endocrine

12 Endocrine

A B diabetes insipidus condition caused by insufficient production of antidiuretic hormone or failure of the kidneys to respond to the hormone cretinism congenital hypothyroidism which can cause arrested physical and mental development myxedema severe adult hypothyroidism due to atrophy of the thyroid gland; causes edema with a mucus-like material, dry puffy skin and atherosclerosis thyrotoxicosis severe, potentially life-threatening hyperthyroidism that can lead to congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema Cushing syndrome (hypercortisolism) caused by prolonged exposure to excessive cortisol due to overproduction of the hormone or taking glucocorticoid medication for extended periods of time; moon-shaped face addison disease deficiency of cortisol and aldosterone, most likely due to autoimmune adrenalitis hyperglycemia abnormally high levels of sugar in the blood hypoglycemia abnormally low levels of sugar in the blood; may be due to hyperinsulinism gestational diabetes diabetes that occurs during pregnancy; but usually disappears after delivery thyroid scan visualization of the thyroid by scanning for radiation after the administration of radioactive iodine antithyroid drugs medications that relieve symptoms of hyperthyroidism chemical thyroidectomy administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells hypersecretion excessive production and secretion of a hormone hyposecretion deficient production and secretion of a hormone hypothyroidism underactivity of the thyroid; fatigue, sluggishness, weight gain, fluid retention, low body temperature, constipation, slow heart rate acromegaly enlargement of the extremities caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone after puberty gigantism abnormal overgrowth of body tissues caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone Continue reading >>

Hypersecretion Of Insulin

Hypersecretion Of Insulin

Transcript of Hypersecretion of Insulin Secretion Regulated Can regulate blood glucose and the body senses and responds to rise in blood glucose by secreting insulin. Stimuli like sight and taste of food, nerve stimulation and increased blood concentrations of other fuel molecules, including amino acids and fatty acids, also promote insulin secretion. Hyposecretion of Insulin (lack of insulin from non functioning beta cells) Symptoms: Anxiety and sweating Body tumors and disorientation High body temperature Shock due to brain hypoglycemia coma or death Commercially Used Genes for making human insulin is transferred into simple cells (bacteria or baker’s yeast). The insulin made from the cells is identical to insulin made by the human pancreas. Hypersecreation of Insulin Causes: Genetics and Obesity No physical activity and aging Medications Symptoms: Hyperglycemia Polyuria, polydipsia and polyphagia Ketoacidosis which can lead to diabetic coma and death Diseases: Type 1 Diabetes: pancreas fails to produce insulin; autoimmune disorder (immune system attacks insulin. Treatment: Take insulin and monitor diet Type 2 Diabetes: Body can't use insulin efficiently, either because there isn't enough insulin or cells do not respond well to it. Treatment: Exercise, Weight Loss, Diet Modifications, and Medication Diseases: Hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) Treatment: Ingesting simple sugars, followed by intake of complex CHOs and proteins Causes: Your body's sugar (glucose) is used up too quickly Glucose is released into the bloodstream too slowly Too much insulin is released into the bloodstream Sources "Diabetes mellitus." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2007. Science in Context. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. Articles: "Insulin." World of Scientific Discovery. Gale, 2007. Science in Con Continue reading >>

Disorders Of Endocrine System

Disorders Of Endocrine System

Responsiveness of target cell to hormone depends on: 1- Plasma concentrations *Feedback mechanisms - hypo- and hyper-secretion of hormone (ex: thyroid) 2- Number of receptors *Down-regulation - desensitization – prolonged exposure of high levels of hormone -example: Grave’s disease (autoimmune – thyroid) *Up-regulation - Disorders of the Endocrine System Addison's disease Caused by hyposecretion of the hormones produced by the cortex of the adrenal gland Cretinism Condition resulting from a congenital deficiency of thyroid secretion or hypothyroidism Cushing’s syndrome Disorder that causes hyperactivity of the adrenal glands, which is triggered by the oversecretion of the pituitary hormone ACTH Diabetes insipidus From an acquired or inherited decrease in the antidiuretic hormone secreted by the pituitary Diabetes mellitus A disorder of carbohydrate, fat, and protein metabolism resulting from insufficient insulin production by the pancreas Dwarfism Results from hyposecretion of the growth hormone of the pituitary gland, which has been caused by a tumor, infection, genetic factors, or trauma Gigantism An excessive growth of the long bones caused by hypersecretion of the somatotropic hormone Graves’ disease Caused by hyperthyroidism or thyrotoxicosis Hyperparathyroidism Causes hypercalcemia, an increased calcium blood level Hypoglycemia Results from increased insulin production by the pancreas Hypoparathyroidism A decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone that causes tetany Hypothyroidism Also called Hashimoto's disease, results from an insufficient production of thyroxine I. Alterations of the hypothalamic - pituitary system Deficiency of hypothalamic hormones Variety of manifestations can be seen: - In adult women: menses cease- absenc Continue reading >>

Med Term Quiz4

Med Term Quiz4

Home > Preview Hormone produced by pancreatic alpha cells that increases the blood glucose level by stimulating the liver to change stored glycogen (a starch form of sugar) to glucose Relative constancy or balance in the internal environment of the body, maintained by processes of feedback and adjustment in response to external or internal changes Hormone produced by pancreatic beta cells that acts to remove sugar (glucose) from the blood by promoting its storage in tissues as carbohydrates (glycogen) * Ovaries - in females, stimulates egg production; increases secretion of estrogen * Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation * Testes - in males, stimulates sperm production * Hypersecretion has no known significant effects * Bone, cartilage, liver, muscle, and other tissues - stimulates somatic growth; increases use of fats for energy * Hyposecretion in children causes pituitary dwarfism * Hypersecretion in children causes gigantism; hypersecretion in adults causes acromegaly * Ovaries - in females, promotes ovulation; stimulates production of estrogen and prgesterone * Testes - in males, promotes secretion of testosterone * Hyposecretion causes failure of sexual maturation * Hypersecretion has no known significant effects * Hyposecretion in nursing mothers causes poor lactation * Regulates calcium levels in the blood in conjunction with parathyroid hormone * Secreted when calcium levels in the blood are high in order to maintain homeostasis * The most significant effects are exerted in childhood when bones are growing and changing dramatically in mass, size, and shape * At best, calcitonin is a weak hypocalcemic agent in adults * Increases energy production from all food types * Increases rate of protein synthesis * Hyposecretion in infants causes cretinism; hy Continue reading >>

Endocrine Disorders – Outline Notes

Endocrine Disorders – Outline Notes

Hormones are chemical messengers. They are a major way in which our body communicates with itself. If our messages are unable to do their job, i.e. too much *hypersecretion or too little *hyposecretion, serious problems can result. The following are common endocrine disorders. Diabetes Mellitus (DM) -hyposecretion / hypoactivity of insulin -without insulin, glucose cannot enter most cells -without glucose in cells, the cells will turn to lipids for fuel -lipidemia – high lipid in blood -cells use lipids for fuel — byproduct is ketones (organic acids) -Ketoacidosis – high ketones will decrease pH – also see ketones in urine (ketonuria) 3 signs of Diabetes Mellitus 1. Polyuria – increased urine output -loss of electrolytes can lead to abdominal cramping 2. Polydipsia – increased thirst 3. polyphagia – increased hunger 2 types of DM 1. Type I diabetes mellitus / insulin-dependent DM / juvenile onset -symptoms appear suddenly before age 15 -autoimmune response destroying B-cells of pancreas for long period -no insulin produced -because of high lipidemia and cholesterol –vascular problems —atherosclerosis, strokes, MI, gangrene, blindness -neuropathies – loss of sensation, bladder functions, impotence 2. Type II diabetes mellitus / non-insulin DM / mature onset -after age of 40 usually -familial predisposition – hereditary -usually insulin receptors are not responding -obesity can also bring this on HORMONE Growth Hormone HYPOSECRETION (not enough); Dwarfism – children, HYPERSECRETION (too much); Gigantism – children; Acromegaly – adults; thickening of bony areas still sensitive to GH (hands, feet, face) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone and Thyroid Hormones HYPOSECRETION; Myxedema – aldults; decreased metabolism, lethargy; goiter – if from lack of Continue reading >>

Kapital 10

Kapital 10

Question Answer Name Endocrine organs that produce following hormones Insulin pancreas aldosterone adrenal cortex cortisol adrenal cortex vasopressin Posterior Pituitary epinephrine adrenal medulla estradiol ovaries follicle stimulating hormone growth hormone anterior Pituitary thyroxine thyroid progesterone ovaries ACTH Adrenocorticotrophic Hormone T Thyroxine ADH Antidiiretic Hormone T Triiodothyronine (Thyroid Hormone TSH Thyroid Stimulating Hormone LH Luteinizing Hormone PTH Parathyroid Hormone GH Growth Hormone Sympathomimetic; elevates heart rate, blood pressure epinephrine Promotes growth and maintenance of male sex characteristics testosterone Stimulates water reabsorption by kidney tubules; decreases urine ADH Increases metabolism in body cells thyroxine Raises blood calcium parathyroid hormone Increases reabsorption of sodium by kidney tubules aldosterone Stimulates secretion of hormones from adrenal cortex ACTH Increases blood sugar cortisol Helps transport glucose to cells and decreases blood sugar insulin Develops and maintains female sex characteristics estradiol abnormal condition (hypersecretion of the thyroid gland) hyperthyroidism removal of the pancreas pancreatectomy condition of deficiency or underdevelopment of sex organs hypogonadism pertaining to producing female characteristics estrogenic removal of the pituitary gland hypophysectomy deficiency of calcium in the blood hypocalcemia excessive sugar in the blood hypercalcemia acromegaly Hypersection / Pituitary Gland tetany Hyposecretion/ Thyroid diabetes mellitus Hypersecretion/ Pancreas Graves disease Hypersecretion/Thyroid myxedema hyposecretion/ Thyroid Cushing syndrome hypersecretion/ Adrenal Cortex cretinism hyposecretion/ Thyroid Gland hyponatremia condition where one has low blood sodium po Continue reading >>

Chapter 18. Dysfunction Initially Described Excessive – Hypersecretion Insufficient - Hyposecretion Today Abnormal Receptor Function Altered Intracellular.

Chapter 18. Dysfunction Initially Described Excessive – Hypersecretion Insufficient - Hyposecretion Today Abnormal Receptor Function Altered Intracellular.

Presentation on theme: "Chapter 18. Dysfunction Initially described Excessive – hypersecretion Insufficient - hyposecretion Today Abnormal receptor function Altered intracellular."— Presentation transcript: 2 Dysfunction Initially described Excessive – hypersecretion Insufficient - hyposecretion Today Abnormal receptor function Altered intracellular response Circulating inhibitors * water-soluble hormones (not steroids – lipid- soluble) 4 Alterations of the Hypothalamic – Pituitary System “ interruption of the pituitary stalk ” Destructive lesions Rupture after head injury Surgical transaction Stem tumor 6 Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) Hypersecretion of ADH Ectopically produced (small cell carcinoma) Brain injury or infection (pulmonary disease) Psychiatric/drugs Water intoxication ( ↓ Na +, hypo- osmolality) 7 Diseases of the Posterior Pituitary Diabetes insipidus Insufficiency of ADH Polyuria and polydipsia Partial or total inability to concentrate urine Neurogenic Insufficient amounts of ADH Nephrogenic Inadequate response to ADH Psychogenic 9 Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary Hypopituitarism – “spectrum” Pituitary infarction Sheehan syndrome ( pituitary necrosis) Hemorrhage Shock Other: head trauma, infections and tumors 14 Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary Hyperpituitarism Commonly caused by a benign slow- growing pituitary adenoma Manifestation Headache and fatigue Visual changes Hyposecretion of neighboring anterior pituitary hormones 15 Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary Hypersecretion of growth hormone (GH) Acromegaly Hypersecretion of GH during adulthood Gigantism Hypersecretion of GH in children and adolescents 21 Diseases of the Anterior Pituitary Hypersecretion o Continue reading >>

Endocrine Disease

Endocrine Disease

Endocrine diseases are disorders of the endocrine system. The branch of medicine associated with endocrine disorders is known as endocrinology. Types of disease[edit] Broadly speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups:[1] Endocrine gland hyposecretion (leading to hormone deficiency) Endocrine gland hypersecretion (leading to hormone excess) Tumours (benign or malignant) of endocrine glands Endocrine disorders are often quite complex, involving a mixed picture of hyposecretion and hypersecretion because of the feedback mechanisms involved in the endocrine system. For example, most forms of hyperthyroidism are associated with an excess of thyroid hormone and a low level of thyroid stimulating hormone.[2] List of diseases[edit] Glucose homeostasis disorders[edit] Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 2 Diabetes Gestational Diabetes Mature Onset Diabetes of the Young Hypoglycemia Idiopathic hypoglycemia Insulinoma Glucagonoma Thyroid disorders[edit] Goiter Hyperthyroidism Graves-Basedow disease Toxic multinodular goitre Hypothyroidism Thyroiditis Hashimoto's thyroiditis Thyroid cancer Thyroid hormone resistance Calcium homeostasis disorders and Metabolic bone disease[edit] Parathyroid gland disorders Primary hyperparathyroidism Secondary hyperparathyroidism Tertiary hyperparathyroidism Hypoparathyroidism Pseudohypoparathyroidism Osteoporosis Osteitis deformans (Paget's disease of bone) Rickets and osteomalacia Pituitary gland disorders[edit] Posterior pituitary[edit] Diabetes insipidus Anterior pituitary[edit] Hypopituitarism (or Panhypopituitarism) Pituitary tumors Pituitary adenomas Prolactinoma (or Hyperprolactinemia) Acromegaly, gigantism, dwarfism Cushing's disease Sex hormone disorders[edit] Disorders of sex development or intersex disorders Hermaphrodi Continue reading >>

Human Anatomy & Physiology Ninth Edition

Human Anatomy & Physiology Ninth Edition

PowerPoint® Lecture Slides prepared by Barbara Heard, Atlantic Cape Community College © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. © Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images C H A P T E R 16 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Endocrine System: Overview Acts with nervous system to coordinate and integrate activity of body cells Influences metabolic activities via hormones transported in blood Response slower but longer lasting than nervous system Endocrinology Study of hormones and endocrine organs © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Endocrine System: Overview Controls and integrates Reproduction Growth and development Maintenance of electrolyte, water, and nutrient balance of blood Regulation of cellular metabolism and energy balance Mobilization of body defenses © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Endocrine System: Overview Exocrine glands Nonhormonal substances (sweat, saliva) Have ducts to carry secretion to membrane surface Endocrine glands Produce hormones Lack ducts © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Endocrine System: Overview Endocrine glands: pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, and pineal glands Hypothalamus is neuroendocrine organ Some have exocrine and endocrine functions Pancreas, gonads, placenta Other tissues and organs that produce hormones Adipose cells, thymus, and cells in walls of small intestine, stomach, kidneys, and heart © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 16.1 Location of selected endocrine organs of the body. Pineal gland Hypothalamus Pituitary gland Thyroid gland Parathyroid glands (on dorsal aspect of thyroid gland) Thymus Adrenal glands Pancreas Gonads • Testis (male) • Ovary (female) © 2013 Pearson Continue reading >>

Chapter 14

Chapter 14

hormones affect although hormones travel throughout the body in blood and lymph, they only go to the target tissues or organs that have specific receptors for the hormone adenohypophysis hormones adrenocorticotropic hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and thyroid-stimulating hormone FSH ovaries- stimulates egg production and increases secretion of estrogen; testes- stimulates sperm production (follicle-stimulating hormone) TH function increases the rate of oxygen consumption and, thus, the rate at which carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are metabolized; also influences growth hormone and plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure calcitonin disorders the most significant effects are exerted in childhood when bones are growing and changing dramatically in mass, size, and shape; and also a hypocalcemic agent in adults sex hormones help maintain secondary sex characteristics, such as the development of the breasts in females and distribution of body hair in adults; includes androgens, estrogens, and progestins dysfunction not caused by a deficiency in the secretion of the adrenal medulla hormones because they merely intensify activities set into motion by the sympathetic nervous system insulin clears glucose molecules from the body by promoting their storage in tissues as carbohydrates when blood glucose levels are high (hyperglycemia), thereby lowering the blood glucose level and enabling the cells to use glucose for energy treatment for hyperthyroidism may involve drug therapy to block the production of thyroid hormones or surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland; administer a sufficient amount of radioactive iodine to destroy the thyroid secretory cells Addison disease clinical manifestations incl Continue reading >>

More in ketosis