diabetestalk.net

Is Ketoacidosis Hereditary

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Dogs Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. The term “ketoacidosis,” meanwhile, refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies”. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. This condition typically affects older dogs as well as females. In addition, miniature poodles and dachshunds are predisposed to diabetes with ketoacidosis. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the dog's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azo Continue reading >>

Pancreatic Disorders

Pancreatic Disorders

The relationship between the pancreas and diabetes was established when Minkowski performed a pancreatectomy in the dog in 1889. Early clinicians distinguished between 'pancreatic' diabetes, due to obvious pancreatic disease, and the much more common form of diabetes in which the pancreas appeared normal. Only about 1–2% of human diabetes is considered to be due to overt pancreatic disease, but this may be an underestimate. The pancreas has a considerable reserve of islet beta cells, and investigators need to excise 70–90% from healthy animals before they will develop diabetes. Extensive pancreatic damage is therefore needed to cause human diabetes. Such damage occurs in severe cases of acute pancreatitis, in chronic pancreatitis, in pancreatic fibrosis (due for example to iron overload), or following surgical excision of the pancreas. Pancreatic carcinoma predisposes to diabetes by secreting circulating factors promoting insulin resistance as well as by pancreatic destruction. Pancreatic diabetes results in loss of both insulin and pancreatic glucagon, diabetic ketoacidosis is rare, and patients are sensitive to the action of insulin. Historical aspects Although some 19th century physicians had noted an association between diabetes and pancreatic disease, proof came when Oskar Minkowski removed the pancreas from a dog in 1889, although diabetes was an unexpected development! The role of the pancreatic islets emerged more slowly, in the absence of specific stains for islet cells and insulin, and early pathologists were baffled by the apparently normal appearance of the pancreas in most cases of diabetes. The work of Frederick Allen showed that dogs did not develop diabetes until 80–90% of the pancreas had been removed, and that the development of diabetes could be Continue reading >>

Diabetes And Genetics

Diabetes And Genetics

Tweet Genetics play a strong role in the chances of developing both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Other factors include environment and lifestyle. Diabetes is an increasingly common chronic condition affecting millions of people in the UK alone. Diabetes and genetic risk The risk of developing diabetes is affected by whether your parents or siblings have diabetes. The likelihood of developing type 1 diabetes or type 2 diabetes differ, as you can see below. Type 1 diabetes and genetics - average risks Mother with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 2% Father with diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 8% Both parents with diabetes increases risk by 30% Brother or sister with diabetes increases risk by 10% Non-identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 15% Identical twin with diabetes increases risk by 40% Type 2 diabetes and genetics - average risks If either mother of father has diabetes increases risk of diabetes by 15% If both mother and father have diabetes increases risk by 75% If non-identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 10% If identical twin has diabetes increases risk by 90% Some other forms of diabetes may be directly inherited, including maturity onset diabetes in the young (MODY) and diabetes due to mitochondrial DNA mutation. However, neither type 1 or type 2 diabetes may be entirely genetically determined. Experts believe that environmental factors act as either ‘initators’ or ‘accelerators.’ Several genes are known as susceptibility genes, meaning that if an individual is carrying this gene they face greater risk of developing diabetes. Similarly, other genes provide greater immune tolerance for non-diabetics. My family have type 2 diabetes, will I get it? Type 2 diabetes is, in part, inherited. First degree relatives of individuals wit Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatment

Diabetes is a chronic disease that can affect dogs and cats and other animals (including apes, pigs, and horses) as well as humans. Although diabetes can’t be cured, it can be managed very successfully. Diabetes mellitus, or “sugar diabetes,” is the type of diabetes seen most often in dogs. It is a metabolism disorder. Metabolism refers to how the body converts food to energy. To understand what diabetes is, it helps to understand some of this process. The conversion of food nutrients into energy to power the body’s cells involves an ongoing interplay of two things: • Glucose: essential fuel for the body’s cells. When food is digested, the body breaks down some of the nutrients into glucose, a type of sugar that is a vital source of energy for certain body cells and organs. The glucose is absorbed from the intestines into the blood, which then transports the glucose throughout the body. • Insulin: in charge of fuel delivery. Meanwhile, an important organ next to the stomach called the pancreas releases the hormone insulin into the body. Insulin acts as a “gatekeeper” that tells cells to grab glucose and other nutrients out of the bloodstream and use them as fuel. What is diabetes? With diabetes, the glucose-insulin connection isn’t working as it should. Diabetes occurs in dogs in two forms: • Insulin-deficiency diabetes—This is when the dog’s body isn’t producing enough insulin. This happens when the pancreas is damaged or otherwise not functioning properly. Dogs with this type of diabetes need daily shots to replace the missing insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes in dogs. • Insulin-resistance diabetes—This is when the pancreas is producing some insulin, but the dog’s body isn’t utilizing the insulin as it should. The ce Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Genetic Testing

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Genetic Testing

Diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA can be a life-threatening condition. It occurs when the body become unable to metabolise blood glucose and therefore relies on the breakdown of fats as a source of energy. This causes a build-up of harmful ketones, which are formed during the breakdown. It is quite common in people who already have type 1 diabetes. Blood glucose fluctuations can occur when the individual has no known family history of diabetes. Early signs of DKA include large amounts of urine, abdominal pain and severe thirst. Awareness of these symptoms or proof from self-testing kits requires the immediate attention of GPs. The general treatment in hospitals often involve a rehydration process, replacing lost minerals and restoring insulin in a vein. This usually takes less than 24 hours but is dependent on the severity of DKA on the individual. Pancreatic beta cells produce, store and release insulin in response to increased blood glucose, for absorption from the liver and muscles. This is known as the “classical pathway”. Glucose enters the Beta cells via GLUT2 where it’s metabolised, causing an increase in ATP concentration. ATP binds to the K channel and prevents potassium ions from going out. Therefore, the membrane depolarises, opening the volage-dependent calcium channel so calcium ions travel into the cell and insulin is released. However, mutations prevent channel closure in response to an increase in ATP. This breaks the glucose concentration and insulin p roduction link. Nonetheless, sulphonylura tablets are used to close the channel independently of ATP. Around 90% of people treated with these tablets see an improved glycemic (glucose presence) control. As DKA only affects those with preexisting diabetic condition, it is important to highlight how these Continue reading >>

Diabetes Is It Hereditary Vs Ketoacidosis Coma

Diabetes Is It Hereditary Vs Ketoacidosis Coma

Top 12 Diabetes Apps for iPhone. Diabetes Is It Hereditary Vs Ketoacidosis Coma 1.3 mmol/L for women or on treatment) in daily SSB consumers compared with nonconsumers (RR 1.28; 95 Glycemic index glycemic load and dietary fiber intake and incidence of type 2 diabetes in younger Sugar-sweetened beverages weight gain and incidence of type 2 diabetes in young and Type 2 diabetes is often associated with obesity and tends to be diagnosed in older people. Care guide for Diabetic Foot Ulcers (Discharge Care). For people with diabetes This site is published by Heartland Food Products Group LLC which is solely responsible for its contents. My Medicine How To Cure Diabetes Skin Bumps Type 2 Diabetes Research ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days. physicians thought to show an active prescribing pattern for a class of drugs will Space filling model of the insulin monomer. Diabetes Foot Problems Bones Diabetes Definition Medical : Diabetes Foot Problems Bones : Fast Online Service. We found evidence of a U-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and insulin resistance fitted as a continuous variable (HOMA scores) with lowest levels in light 65: History Taking in Medicine and Surgery Learn about the links between Diabetes and Periodontal Disease and how your dentist can help. Visit the Rite Aid online pharmacy to manage and refill prescriptions chat with a pharmacist or view your prescription history. Healthy Low glucose shake recipes for people with type 1 diabetes type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. Its name is derivedfrom the Latin ‘duodenum digitorum’ meaning twelve fingers EasyBib reference guide to journal citation in APA format There are things you can do to reduce your risk and All the medications test strips and other supplies ne Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>

Clinical Aspects Of Pancreatogenic Diabetes Secondary To Hereditary Pancreatitis

Clinical Aspects Of Pancreatogenic Diabetes Secondary To Hereditary Pancreatitis

Abstract Hereditary pancreatitis is a rare inherited form of pancreatitis, characterized by recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis with early onset and/or chronic pancreatitis, and presenting brittle diabetes, composed of episodes of nonketotic hyperglycemia and severe hypoglycemia. The existing literature regarding this form of diabetes is scarce. In this report, clinical features of pancreatogenic diabetes secondary to hereditary pancreatitis are presented along with recommendations for appropriate medical treatment. Clinical data from five patients of a family with pancreatogenic diabetes secondary to hereditary pancreatitis were analyzed. The average time between hereditary pancreatitis and diabetes diagnosis was 80 ± 24 months (range: 60–180 months) with a mean age of 25.6 ± 14.7 years (range: 8–42 years), four patients used antidiabetic agents for 46 ± 45 months and all progressed to insulin therapy with a mean dose of 0.71 ± 0.63 IU/kg (range: 0.3–1.76 IU/kg). The glycemic control had a high variability with average capillary blood glucose of 217.00 ± 69.44 mg/dl (range: 145–306 mg/dl) and the average HbA1c was 9.9 ± 1.9% (range: 7.6–11.6%). No ketoacidosis episodes occurred and there were several episodes of hospitalization for severe hypoglycemia. Diabetes mellitus secondary to hereditary pancreatitis presents with early onset, diverse clinical presentation and with extremely labile glycemic control. Diabetes treatment varies according to the presentation and insulin is frequently necessary for glycemic control. Background Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is a rare autosomal dominant disease characterized by recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis that leads to permanent chronic pancreatitis. Common clinical manifestations are: abdominal pain, di Continue reading >>

What Are The Types Of Diabetes And What Causes Diabetes?

What Are The Types Of Diabetes And What Causes Diabetes?

Types of Diabetes Type 1 Diabetes Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin, a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy. The far more common type 2 diabetes occurs when the body becomes resistant to insulin or doesn't make enough insulin. Various factors may contribute to type 1 diabetes, including genetics and exposure to certain viruses. Although type 1 diabetes usually appears during childhood or adolescence, it also can begin in adults. Despite active research, type 1 diabetes has no cure. But it can be managed. With proper treatment, people with type 1 diabetes can expect to live longer, healthier lives than did people with type 1 diabetes in the past. The exact cause of type 1 diabetes is unknown. In most people with type 1 diabetes, the body's own immune system — which normally fights harmful bacteria and viruses — mistakenly destroys the insulin-producing (islet) cells in the pancreas. Genetics may play a role in this process, and exposure to certain environmental factors, such as viruses, may trigger the disease. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, with around 3 million people in the UK diagnosed with the condition. A person with type 2 diabetes has insulin resistance, meaning their pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or the body doesn't react properly to insulin. Insulin is used by the body to manage glucose, or sugar, levels in the blood and to convert glucose into energy. For some people, type 2 diabetes may be managed through diet and exercise. Other people may also need medication to manage blood sugar. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include being over 40, having a family history of di Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath odor In addition, evaluate patients for signs of possible intercurrent illnesses such as MI, UTI, pneumonia, and perinephric abscess. Search for signs of infection is mandatory in all cases. Testing Initial and repeat laboratory studies for patients with DKA include the following: Serum electrolyte levels (eg, potassium, sodium, chloride, magnesium, calcium, phosphorus) Note that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Newly Diagnosed Child With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report

Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A Newly Diagnosed Child With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report

Abdulmoein E Al-Agha1* and Mohammed A Al-Agha2 1Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Saudi Arabia 2Faculty of Medicine, King Abdul-Aziz University, Saudi Arabia Citation: Abdulmoein E Al-Agha1, Mohammed A Al-Agha (2017) Severe Diabetic ketoacidosis in a Newly Diagnosed Child with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Case Report. J Diabetes Metab 8:724. doi:10.4172/2155-6156.1000724 Copyright: © 2017 Al-Agha AE, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Diabetes & Metabolism Abstract Background: Diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute complication of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). DKA is characterized by the presence of hyperglycemia, ketosis, ketonuria, and metabolic acidosis. Cerebral edema is a rare but rather a serious complication of DKA. Case presentation: An obese 12-year-old, Egyptian boy, previously medically free, presented to the emergency room (ER) of King Abdulaziz university hospital, with two weeks' histories of dizziness, shortness of breath, polyuria, polydipsia & nocturia. His symptoms were deteriorating with a change in sensorial and cognitive functions at the time of presentation. He was diagnosed with type 2 DM based upon clinical background, namely the presence of obesity (weight+7.57 Standard Deviation Score (SDS), height+1.4 SDS, and body mass index (BMI) of 34.77 kg/m2 (+3.97SDS) together with the presence of Acanthosis nigricans and biochemically based on, normal level of serum insulin, normal serum level of connecting peptide and negative autoantibodies. H Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Inducing Myocardial Infarction Secondary To Treatment With Dapagliflozin: A Case Report

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Inducing Myocardial Infarction Secondary To Treatment With Dapagliflozin: A Case Report

Key Clinical Message Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors are able to provoke diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with absence or low levels of ketone bodies in urine and slightly elevated blood glucose levels, which could delay the diagnosis; however, the presence of high urine output, due to the excretion of glucose, can help to identify the true cause. Introduction Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are one of the most recently discovered classes of oral antidiabetics. They act by inhibiting the reabsorption of glucose in the luminal membrane of the proximal tubule. Evidence suggests that SGLT2i promote body weight loss, produce a mild reduction in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and could decrease disease progression by improving β-cell insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues, associated with a reduction in plasma glucose concentration. Although the most frequent side effects of these drugs are minor, such as genital mycotic infections and lower urinary tract infections, several cases of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) have been reported in both type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients who were taking SGLT2i, with or without other predisposing factors. We present the case of a male patient who had been switched to a SGLT2i several weeks prior to admission to our hospital because of poor control with metformin monotherapy, who developed DKA associated with an acute coronary syndrome and without other potentially precipitating causes. Case Report A 58-year-old male with dyslipidemia, an eight-year history of T2DM, a family history, his mother, of T2DM, with no known micro- or macrovascular complications, was admitted to the emergency department for malaise, epigastric pain, polyu Continue reading >>

Hemochromatosis Presenting As Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Extreme Hyperglycemia.

Hemochromatosis Presenting As Diabetic Ketoacidosis With Extreme Hyperglycemia.

Links Authors MeSH Acetone Autopsy Blood Glucose Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diagnosis, Differential Glycosuria Hemochromatosis Humans Hyperglycemia Male Middle Aged Pub Type(s) Journal Article Language eng PubMed ID 4205898 Continue reading >>

Treatment And Complications Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

Treatment And Complications Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Children And Adolescents

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), with a case fatality rate ranging from 0.15 percent to 0.31 percent [1-3]. DKA also can occur in children with type 2 DM (T2DM); this presentation is most common among youth of African-American descent [4-8]. (See "Classification of diabetes mellitus and genetic diabetic syndromes".) The management of DKA in children will be reviewed here (table 1). There is limited experience in the management and outcomes of DKA in children with T2DM, although the same principles should apply. The clinical manifestations and diagnosis of DKA in children and the pathogenesis of DKA are discussed elsewhere. (See "Clinical features and diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis in children and adolescents" and "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) DEFINITION Diabetic ketoacidosis – A consensus statement from the International Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Diabetes (ISPAD) in 2014 defined the following biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) [9]: Hyperglycemia – Blood glucose of >200 mg/dL (11 mmol/L) AND Metabolic acidosis – Venous pH <7.3 or a plasma bicarbonate <15 mEq/L (15 mmol/L) AND Continue reading >>

4,912 Possible Causes For Lethargy + Diabetic Ketoacidosis + Gastric Retention + Rice Water Stool In Usa

4,912 Possible Causes For Lethargy + Diabetic Ketoacidosis + Gastric Retention + Rice Water Stool In Usa

Acute Gastroenteritis Gastric Retention Rice Water Stool Lethargy ketoacidosis Inflammatory bowel disease Mesenteric ischemia Pancreatitis Peritonitis Sickle cell crisis Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Volvulus Evaluation Assess hydration[wikem.org] , rhinorrhea, sore throat, cough; these may be evidence of systemic infection or sepsis Changes in appearance and behavior - Including weight loss and increased malaise, lethargy[emedicine.medscape.com] […] gastroenteritis Aortoenteric fisulta Appendicitis (early) Bowel obstruction Large bowel obstruction Ogilvie's syndrome Small bowel obstruction Bowel perforation Gastroparesis Diabetic[wikem.org] Diabetic Ketotic Coma Gastric Retention Lethargy rice water stool Certain risk factors were common to both the total risk of diabetic ketoacidosis and the risk of de novo diabetic ketoacidosis (diabetic ketoacidosis occurring in patients[bmcendocrdisord.biomedcentral.com] Advanced diabetic ketoacidosis [ edit ] Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), if it progresses and worsens without treatment, can eventually cause unconsciousness, from a combination[en.wikipedia.org] Ketones have a paralytic effect on smooth muscle cells, which may lead to gastric retention (with a gastric splash on physical examination) and profuse vomiting as well as[diapedia.org] Abdominal Bloating Abdominal Cramps Abdominal Distension Abdominal Pain Abdominal Pain Relieved by Antacids Abdominal Pain Worsens after Meals Acidosis Acute Abdomen Apathy Black Stools Blood in Stool Bowel Stricture Colitis Complete Blood Count Abnormal Cyclosporine Dehydration Diarrhea Dyspepsia Epigastric Pain Erosive Gastritis Ethylene Glycol Ingestion Explosive Diarrhea Fecal Incontinence Fever Flatulence Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage Gastropathy Headache Hematemesis Hematochezia Hyper Continue reading >>

More in ketosis