Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis: What You Should Know
Despite the similarity in name, ketosis and ketoacidosis are two different things. Ketoacidosis refers to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and is a complication of type 1 diabetes mellitus. It’s a life-threatening condition resulting from dangerously high levels of ketones and blood sugar. This combination makes your blood too acidic, which can change the normal functioning of internal organs like your liver and kidneys. It’s critical that you get prompt treatment. DKA can occur very quickly. It may develop in less than 24 hours. It mostly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes whose bodies do not produce any insulin. Several things can lead to DKA, including illness, improper diet, or not taking an adequate dose of insulin. DKA can also occur in individuals with type 2 diabetes who have little or no insulin production. Ketosis is the presence of ketones. It’s not harmful. You can be in ketosis if you’re on a low-carbohydrate diet or fasting, or if you’ve consumed too much alcohol. If you have ketosis, you have a higher than usual level of ketones in your blood or urine, but not high enough to cause acidosis. Ketones are a chemical your body produces when it burns stored fat. Some people choose a low-carb diet to help with weight loss. While there is some controversy over their safety, low-carb diets are generally fine. Talk to your doctor before beginning any extreme diet plan. DKA is the leading cause of death in people under 24 years old who have diabetes. The overall death rate for ketoacidosis is 2 to 5 percent. People under the age of 30 make up 36 percent of DKA cases. Twenty-seven percent of people with DKA are between the ages of 30 and 50, 23 percent are between the ages of 51 and 70, and 14 percent are over the age of 70. Ketosis may cause bad breath. Ket Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State
The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>
‘i Was 26 And Most Type 1 Diabetics Are Diagnosed In Childhood': The Deadly Danger Too Many Diabetics Aren't Warned About
Hannah Postles discovered she had type 1 diabetes after going to A&E with blurred vision. It wasn’t her only symptom. For the previous three weeks, she’d been thirsty, drinking two bottles of water at lunch, had lost weight and felt run down. Scroll down for video ‘My boss suggested I might have diabetes after looking up my symptoms online, but my GP seemed to dismiss it because of my age,’ says Hannah, a press officer for the University of Sheffield. ‘I was 26 and most type 1 diabetics are diagnosed in childhood.’ Luckily, Hannah spoke to a doctor friend who told her to go to A&E, where she was tested for diabetes, and immediately put on an insulin drip. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose levels in the blood. Typically, people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed around the age of 12 — although occasionally adults are diagnosed in later life. Type 2 diabetes, which can be diagnosed at any age, occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the insulin itself does not work properly. Not only did Hannah have diabetes, her blood sugar levels were so out of control by the time she was diagnosed that she had developed diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition when blood glucose levels remain persistently high for days or weeks. The condition can be caused by illness or infection or by the mismanagement of diabetes — which, as Hannah, now 29, discovered, can be the result of not knowing you have it. Symptoms include vomiting, headaches, abdominal pain and, if left too long, coma and even death. Had Hannah not gone to A&E, she might have died. In July 2012, new mother Nicky Rigby, 26, from the Wirral, did die from undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. She’d assumed her chronic tiredness a Continue reading >>
What Was A Choice You Made That Completely Changed Your Life?
I gave up pitching myself to everyone out there. When I graduated from the university, I had no clue what to do next. As well as thousands of young graduates who have to move to the next stage of their lives, I had to decide where to live, how to make money, and ultimately what direction to move in… I had no idea what decisions would let me not screw up my life. I was still looking for the passion and was still trying to understand what excites me the most. The only thing I felt passionate about was blogging. However, I realized that it wasn’t likely to let me make a living within the first year or two. Another thing I knew is that I have always wanted to be self-employed and run my own business. I had a decent amount of ideas that seemed great to me… however, I had no dedicated team and not enough savings to sustain a startup… Unfortunately, it didn’t seem feasible to launch a business. I had too many questions and no answers at all. I faced a few dilemmas and appeared to be not ready to solve them. Eventually, I kept blogging on a regular basis and as most people out there I decided to look for a job. The next month was all about pitching - every single day I sent resumes to dozens of different companies and tried to convince the editors of the authoritative outlets that my writing is worth sharing. No success. Neither companies were sending me job offers, nor anyone found my articles interesting enough. Over that month I received 37 job rejections and sent 78 unanswered emails asking to feature my articles on different publications and websites. At that point, I realized that my strong unwillingness to work in the corporate sector and my overall uncertainty about the field I want to work at were not likely to help me land a nice job. Moreover, frankly speak Continue reading >>
What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide
Ketoacidosis is lethal. It is responsible for over 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the US with a mortality rate of around 5%. In other words, ketoacidosis is to blame for about 5,000 deaths per year. The cause? A deadly combination of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone body levels in the blood (more on this deadly combination later). Luckily, this lethal triad rarely affects individuals who don’t have diabetes. However, the majority (80%) of cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with a known history of diabetes mellitus (any form of diabetes). Ketoacidosis vs. Diabetic Ketoacidosis — What’s The Difference? At this point, you may have noticed that I used ketoacidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis interchangeably. This is because it is difficult for the body to get into a state of ketoacidosis without the blood sugar control issues that are common in people with diabetes. Hence, the term diabetic ketoacidosis. (However, there is another form of ketoacidosis called alcoholic ketoacidosis. This occurs in alcoholics who had a recent alcohol binge during a period of time when they didn’t eat enough.) Ketoacidosis tends to occur the most in people who have type 1 diabetes. Somewhere between 5 and 8 of every 1,000 people with type 1 diabetes develops diabetic ketoacidosis each year. Type 2 diabetics also run the risk of ketoacidosis under stressful situations, but it is much rarer because type 2 diabetics have some remaining insulin production (type 1 diabetics do not). If you are not part of the 422 million people worldwide that have diabetes, your risk of getting ketoacidosis is negligible. You would have to put yourself through years of stress, inactivity, and unhealthy eating habits before you experience ketoacidosis. ( Continue reading >>
Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis (dka): What Is The Difference?
Let’s break it down so that you can understand exactly what ketosis is and how it differs from ketoacidosis. But the states they refer to are nothing alike. In this case, maybe mistakes are understandable. Many people who believe that ketosis is dangerous are mixing it up with another state called "ketoacidosis." The two words do sound very similar. And some people simply make mistakes. Profit motives tend to muddy up the works when it comes to getting clear, factual information about your health. Well, there are a lot of individuals and companies which all have their own goals and motivations. Where do these misperceptions come from? Here’s the thing though … that is all misinformation. You then Googled something like, "low carb dangerous" and found a list of link-bait articles informing you that low-carb is a ketogenic diet, and ketosis is a dangerous metabolic state which can be fatal. And then maybe someone said something to you like, "What are you thinking? Low-carb is a dangerous diet." If you are thinking about starting a low-carb diet, maybe you have mentioned it to some of your family or friends. By the time you finish reading this article, you will understand why low-carb is a safe diet. Continue reading >>
Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>
Will Obese People Starve To Death Before Their Fat Runs Out?
Treating obesity by total starvation is not advised as it can be very dangerous. There are many reports of total starvation leading to death. Some people have died of heart failure during the fast. Some people have died during the re-feeding period after the fast from lactic acidosis. There was a case of a successful medically managed fast in Scotland in 1965. A 27-year-old man weighing 207 kilograms, described as "grossly obese" turned up at the Department of Medicine at the Royal Infirmary in Dundee. He said he was sick of being fat and wanted to lose weight by eating nothing and living off his body fat. Doctors advised against this but told them he was going to fast flat out, whatever they said, so they may as well monitor him along the way. The staff gave him yeast tablets, multi-vitamins and essential minerals. Potassium is essential for the proper working of the heart, and when his potassium levels got a little low around the 100-day mark, he was given potassium tablets for about 70 days. He defecated infrequently, roughly every 40 to 50 days. He ended up fasting for one year and 17 days. Apart from water and the vitamin and mineral supplements he lived entirely off his copious body fat. He lost about 125 kilograms of weight over 382 days. Link below to paper about the case from BMJ Publishing Group: Features of a successful therapeutic fast of 382 days' duration: Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes: Ketoacidosis
What is ketoacidosis, and how do you treat it? Ketoacidosis -- also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA -- occurs when harmfully high levels of ketones build up in the blood. Ketones are an acid produced when there's a shortage of insulin in the blood and the body is forced to break down fat, rather than glucose, for energy. Ketones can spill over into the urine when the body doesn't have enough insulin, and the effects can be deadly. The symptoms of ketoacidosis Blood sugar level higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) Difficulty breathing, rapid breath, or shortness of breath Breath that smells fruity A very dry mouth Nausea and vomiting Difficulty concentrating Extreme fatigue, drowsiness, or weakness Rapid heartbeat and low blood pressure How to treat ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is an emergency condition that requires immediate attention. Call 911 or take the person you're caring for to the nearest hospital. How to prevent ketoacidosis Make sure the person you're caring for drinks plenty of water so he stays hydrated and can flush the ketones out of his system. Check for ketones by doing a simple urine test. Test strips are available over the counter. Tell him to refrain from exercise if his blood glucose is 250 mg/dL or higher and ketones are present in his urine. Remind him to check his blood glucose often and to immediately report any sky-high readings to his main diabetes care provider. Sarah Henry has covered health stories for most of her more than two decades as a writer, from her ten-year stint at the award-winning Center for Investigative Reporting to her staff writer position with Hippocrates magazine to her most recent Web work for online sites, including WebMD, Babycenter. See full bio Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis
Some medical professionals confuse ketoacidosis, an extremely abnormal form of ketosis, with the normal benign ketosis associated with ketogenic diets and fasting states in the body. They will then tell you that ketosis is dangerous. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com Ketosis is NOT Ketoacidosis The difference between the two conditions is a matter of volume and flow rate*: Benign nutritional ketosis is a controlled, insulin regulated process which results in a mild release of fatty acids and ketone body production in response to either a fast from food, or a reduction in carbohydrate intake. Ketoacidosis is driven by a lack of insulin in the body. Without insulin, blood sugar rises to high levels and stored fat streams from fat cells. This excess amount of fat metabolism results in the production of abnormal quantities of ketones. The combination of high blood sugar and high ketone levels can upset the normal acid/base balance in the blood and become dangerous. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, insulin levels must be so low that the regulation of blood sugar and fatty acid flow is impaired. *See this reference paper. Here's a table of the actual numbers to show the differences in magnitude: Body Condition Quantity of Ketones Being Produced After a meal: 0.1 mmol/L Overnight Fast: 0.3 mmol/L Ketogenic Diet (Nutritional ketosis): 1-8 mmol/L >20 Days Fasting: 10 mmol/L Uncontrolled Diabetes (Ketoacidosis): >20 mmol/L Here's a more detailed explanation: Fact 1: Every human body maintains the blood and cellular fluids within a very narrow range between being too acidic (low pH) and too basic (high pH). If the blood pH gets out of the normal range, either too low or too high, big problems happen. Fact 2: The Continue reading >>
Is It Really Required To Control Blood Sugar In Type 1 Diabetes?
If you don’t control your blood sugar with Type 1 Diabetes, you will die much sooner than is normal. That is a fact, not advice. If you are willing to die much earlier than anticipated, then of course you can choose to not control your blood sugar. It’s your choice and you have the ability to commit suicide very slowly. If you have no one in your life who cares about you or depends on you, I see nothing wrong with your choice. If you have family and friends who will miss you, I think you’re being silly. If you have dependents such as children or pets, I think you’re being irresponsible and childish. It is entirely possible to use a fixed dosage of insulin and survive because that’s exactly what people did for a long time. They ate carefully chosen meals and that went fine. If you’re willing to consume the exact same grams of carbs at the same time each day and not exercise, that might be an option for you. Presumably your food will get boring and your lifestyle may suffer but it’s technically feasible, just not recommended because of how constricting it is. However, there is no method of living that will save you from having to dedicate any thought to the management of your disease and not die an early death. Even with a fixed dosage, you will need to work with your healthcare provider to determine what that dosage is and what food and activity you can handle. You are correct that diabetes management complicates your life. I myself dedicate multiple spreadsheets to my healthcare management and I visit my endocrinologist three times a year. I count my carb consumption and monitor my insulin usage so that I can adjust it appropriately. This allows me to eat whatever I want, exercise as much as I want, and not worry about the short- and long-term effects of h Continue reading >>
Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis: What You Need To Know
Diabetes can be hard to manage, but not properly controlling the disease can have dangerous and potentially deadly consequences. Ketoacidosis is one of them. This condition happens in people who don’t have enough insulin in their body, perhaps because they have not taken some of their insulin shots. The U.S. National Library of Medicine explains that when insulin is lacking, and the body cannot use ingested sugar as a fuel source, it starts to break down fat, which releases acids called ketones into the bloodstream. In large numbers, those ketones are poisonous and can cause deep, rapid breathing, dry skin and mouth, frequent thirst, a flushed face, headache, nausea, stomach pain, muscle stiffness, muscle aches, frequent urination, difficulty concentrating and fruity-smelling breath. If left untreated, the condition can be fatal, in part because it can eventually cause fluid to build up in the brain and for the heart and kidneys to stop working. There are ways to tell whether you have the condition or are approaching it, the Mayo Clinic says. A routine blood sugar test like the kind diabetics take all the time will show high blood sugar, and there are tests to measure the ketone levels in urine. The American Diabetes Association says that experts usually recommend using a urine test strip to check for ketones when blood glucose levels reach higher than 240 milligrams per deciliter. And when sick with a cold or flu, a person should “check for ketones every four to six hours” to be safe. That’s because infections or other illnesses can increase hormones like adrenaline and cortisol in the body, which then counter the work of insulin — “pneumonia and urinary tract infections are common culprits,” the Mayo Clinic warns. In addition to missed insulin shots and Continue reading >>
Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>
Who Is Managing Type 1 Diabetes Holistically Without Medication?
When I was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 22, I asked that exact same question. The year was 2002, and no matter where I turned, all signs pointed towards eating a low-carbohydrate diet as the only solution to managing blood glucose and insulin use in type 1 diabetes. So began my journey into understanding the optimal diet for people living with type 1 diabetes, type 1.5 diabetes, pre diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. At the age of 22, I was the first to admit that I didn’t know anything about diabetes, only that it had something to do with old people and chocolate cake. For the first time in my life, I was faced with a series of challenging questions for which I had no answers: How do I inject insulin? How much insulin do I need? How often should I inject insulin? What is an appropriate amount of insulin? What are the dangers of too much insulin? What are the dangers of too little insulin? What should I eat to control my blood glucose? What should I NOT eat? When should I eat? Can I still exercise? How much should I exercise? What happens if I don't eat? What's going to happen to me in 5 years? 10 years? 20 years? Am I destined for a heart attack? Am I going to gain weight on a low-carbohydrate diet? Plagued with chronically high blood glucose, excessive thirst, low energy, bad breath and constant anxiety, I listened to everything that my doctors and nutritionist told me at the time. Without reservation, they recommended that I eat a low-carbohydrate diet, because that was “the only way to manage blood glucose.” So I did. I minimized my carbohydrate intake, and did my best to avoid fruits, breads, cereals, pastas and rice. Instead, I increased my intake of foods containing fat and protein, including peanut butter, cheese, milk, fis Continue reading >>
What Is Ketosis?
"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>