What Is To Be Done If Someone Has A Diabetic Attack Due To High Blood Sugar?
If you think someone is having a diabetic emergency, you need to check against the symptoms listed below to decide if their blood sugar is too high or too low. High blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) • Warm, dry skin • Rapid pulse and breathing • Fruity sweet breath • Really thirsty • Drowsiness, leading to unresponsiveness if not treated Low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) • Weakness, faintness or hunger • Confusion and irrational behaviour • Sweating with cold, clammy skin • Rapid pulse • Trembling • Deteriorating level of response • Medical warning bracelet or necklace and glucose gel or sweets • Medication such as an insulin pen or tablets and a glucose testing kit What you need to do ‒ for high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) Call an ambulance straight away for medical help and say that you suspect hyperglycaemia. While you wait for help to arrive, keep checking their breathing, pulse and level of response. If they lose responsiveness at any point, open their airway, check their breathing and prepare to treat someone who’s become unresponsive. What you need to do ‒ for low blood sugar (hypoglycaemia) Help them sit down. If they have their own glucose gel, help them take it. If not, you need to give them something sugary like fruit juice, a fizzy drink, three teaspoons of sugar, or sugary sweets. If they improve quickly, give them more sugary food or drink and let them rest. If they have their glucose testing kit with them, help them use it to check their glucose level. Stay with them until they feel completely better. If they do not improve quickly, look for any other causes and then call an ambulance for medical help. While waiting, keep checking their responsiveness, breathing and pulse. What you need to do ‒ if you’re unsure whether their Continue reading >>
Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>
‘i Was 26 And Most Type 1 Diabetics Are Diagnosed In Childhood': The Deadly Danger Too Many Diabetics Aren't Warned About
Hannah Postles discovered she had type 1 diabetes after going to A&E with blurred vision. It wasn’t her only symptom. For the previous three weeks, she’d been thirsty, drinking two bottles of water at lunch, had lost weight and felt run down. Scroll down for video ‘My boss suggested I might have diabetes after looking up my symptoms online, but my GP seemed to dismiss it because of my age,’ says Hannah, a press officer for the University of Sheffield. ‘I was 26 and most type 1 diabetics are diagnosed in childhood.’ Luckily, Hannah spoke to a doctor friend who told her to go to A&E, where she was tested for diabetes, and immediately put on an insulin drip. Type 1 diabetes occurs when the body doesn’t make insulin, the hormone that regulates glucose levels in the blood. Typically, people with type 1 diabetes are diagnosed around the age of 12 — although occasionally adults are diagnosed in later life. Type 2 diabetes, which can be diagnosed at any age, occurs when the body doesn’t produce enough insulin, or the insulin itself does not work properly. Not only did Hannah have diabetes, her blood sugar levels were so out of control by the time she was diagnosed that she had developed diabetic ketoacidosis, a life-threatening condition when blood glucose levels remain persistently high for days or weeks. The condition can be caused by illness or infection or by the mismanagement of diabetes — which, as Hannah, now 29, discovered, can be the result of not knowing you have it. Symptoms include vomiting, headaches, abdominal pain and, if left too long, coma and even death. Had Hannah not gone to A&E, she might have died. In July 2012, new mother Nicky Rigby, 26, from the Wirral, did die from undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. She’d assumed her chronic tiredness a Continue reading >>
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious problem that can occur in people with diabetes if their body starts to run out of insulin. This causes harmful substances called ketones to build up in the body, which can be life-threatening if not spotted and treated quickly. DKA mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but can sometimes occur in people with type 2 diabetes. If you have diabetes, it's important to be aware of the risk and know what to do if DKA occurs. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis Signs of DKA include: needing to pee more than usual being sick breath that smells fruity (like pear drop sweets or nail varnish) deep or fast breathing feeling very tired or sleepy passing out DKA can also cause high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) and a high level of ketones in your blood or urine, which you can check for using home-testing kits. Symptoms usually develop over 24 hours, but can come on faster. Check your blood sugar and ketone levels Check your blood sugar level if you have symptoms of DKA. If your blood sugar is 11mmol/L or over and you have a blood or urine ketone testing kit, check your ketone level. If you do a blood ketone test: lower than 0.6mmol/L is a normal reading 0.6 to 1.5mmol/L means you're at a slightly increased risk of DKA and should test again in a couple of hours 1.6 to 2.9mmol/L means you're at an increased risk of DKA and should contact your diabetes team or GP as soon as possible 3mmol/L or over means you have a very high risk of DKA and should get medical help immediately If you do a urine ketone test, a result of more than 2+ means there's a high chance you have DKA. When to get medical help Go to your nearest accident and emergency (A&E) department straight away if you think you have DKA, especially if you have a high level of ketones in Continue reading >>
Would You Eat Food That Was Genetically Modified?
Not only do I eat GMOs, I willingly inject myself with GMOs 5–8 times a day! It is my secret to a long life. “What?” I can hear your gasping disbelief from here. “Why would you do something so harmful to yourself? Don't you realize how BAD GMOS are?” I have Type 1 diabetes. For those of you who don't know, it is an autoimmune disease that causes the islet cells of the pancreas (they are responsible for producing insulin) to die off. When your body cannot produce its own insulin, you must inject man made insulin several times a day. If you don't, your blood glucose levels will rise to dangerous levels and your blood chemistry goes wonky (scientific medical term). Without insulin, your blood begins burning fat and muscle for fuel instead of carbs. The acidic byproduct is called ketones. You may have heard of low-carb diets that suggest you check your urine for ketones and applaud you if you manage to get a pink square on the ketone strip. However, with Type 1, that pink square is terrifying. It means you are going into ketoacidosis, which is a life threatening emergency. Without treatment, you will die. Quickly. If you have Type 1 diabetes (only loosely related to Type 2 diabetes, which is what most people recognize as diabetes) you must be on insulin. No matter how healthy your diet. No matter how few carbs you eat. No matter how thin and fit you are. You must be on insulin. Commercially produced insulin used to be made from cows and pigs. Now it is created in a lab, by genetically modifying yeast spores. Lab created insulin is the perfect example of a genetically modified organism. Without GMOS, I would be dead within a week or two. Yes, I allow GMOS into my body. Gladly. Continue reading >>
Is Type One Diabetes As Serious An Illness As Type 2?
Type 1 diabetes is arguably MORE serious than Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disorder. That means that it is chronic and incurable. Type 1 diabetics do not produce insulin at all. Type 2 is caused by overexposure and thus developed resistance to the insulin. You can, if you are vigilant, recover insulin sensitivity. Like Type 2 diabetes going into remission, to use familiar terms. Type 1 diabetics do not have that chance. Type 2 diabetes is sometimes treated with insulin in vet serious cases, but can usually be controlled with oral medications, diet, and exercise. Type 1 diabetes can ONLY be controlled with artificial insulin injections. Since Type 1 usually emerges in childhood, Type 1 diabetics get to look forward to life as a pincushion. Forever. Both are considered diabetes, but Type 1 and Type 2 are completely and utterly unrelated diseases that just happen to share a set of symptoms. It’s like comparing a child born without a leg to an adult who broke their leg in an accident. Sure, neither of them can walk, but the reasons that neither can walk are completely different, treated differently, and only one of the two ever has the chance to walk unaided in the future. As another comparison, I present US Coast Guard regulations. If you develop Type 1 diabetes, you’ll get medically separated from the military. Yes, the military can fire an employee for having a Type 1 diabetes. If you develop Type 2, you can stay in the military. I wonder which one the Coast Guard considers a greater liability? Continue reading >>
Who Is Managing Type 1 Diabetes Holistically Without Medication?
When I was diagnosed with type 1 diabetes at the age of 22, I asked that exact same question. The year was 2002, and no matter where I turned, all signs pointed towards eating a low-carbohydrate diet as the only solution to managing blood glucose and insulin use in type 1 diabetes. So began my journey into understanding the optimal diet for people living with type 1 diabetes, type 1.5 diabetes, pre diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. At the age of 22, I was the first to admit that I didn’t know anything about diabetes, only that it had something to do with old people and chocolate cake. For the first time in my life, I was faced with a series of challenging questions for which I had no answers: How do I inject insulin? How much insulin do I need? How often should I inject insulin? What is an appropriate amount of insulin? What are the dangers of too much insulin? What are the dangers of too little insulin? What should I eat to control my blood glucose? What should I NOT eat? When should I eat? Can I still exercise? How much should I exercise? What happens if I don't eat? What's going to happen to me in 5 years? 10 years? 20 years? Am I destined for a heart attack? Am I going to gain weight on a low-carbohydrate diet? Plagued with chronically high blood glucose, excessive thirst, low energy, bad breath and constant anxiety, I listened to everything that my doctors and nutritionist told me at the time. Without reservation, they recommended that I eat a low-carbohydrate diet, because that was “the only way to manage blood glucose.” So I did. I minimized my carbohydrate intake, and did my best to avoid fruits, breads, cereals, pastas and rice. Instead, I increased my intake of foods containing fat and protein, including peanut butter, cheese, milk, fis Continue reading >>
What Is Ketoacidosis? A Comprehensive Guide
Ketoacidosis is lethal. It is responsible for over 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the US with a mortality rate of around 5%. In other words, ketoacidosis is to blame for about 5,000 deaths per year. The cause? A deadly combination of uncontrolled hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis, and increased ketone body levels in the blood (more on this deadly combination later). Luckily, this lethal triad rarely affects individuals who don’t have diabetes. However, the majority (80%) of cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with a known history of diabetes mellitus (any form of diabetes). Ketoacidosis vs. Diabetic Ketoacidosis — What’s The Difference? At this point, you may have noticed that I used ketoacidosis and diabetic ketoacidosis interchangeably. This is because it is difficult for the body to get into a state of ketoacidosis without the blood sugar control issues that are common in people with diabetes. Hence, the term diabetic ketoacidosis. (However, there is another form of ketoacidosis called alcoholic ketoacidosis. This occurs in alcoholics who had a recent alcohol binge during a period of time when they didn’t eat enough.) Ketoacidosis tends to occur the most in people who have type 1 diabetes. Somewhere between 5 and 8 of every 1,000 people with type 1 diabetes develops diabetic ketoacidosis each year. Type 2 diabetics also run the risk of ketoacidosis under stressful situations, but it is much rarer because type 2 diabetics have some remaining insulin production (type 1 diabetics do not). If you are not part of the 422 million people worldwide that have diabetes, your risk of getting ketoacidosis is negligible. You would have to put yourself through years of stress, inactivity, and unhealthy eating habits before you experience ketoacidosis. ( Continue reading >>
Type 2 Diabetes: Ketoacidosis
What is ketoacidosis, and how do you treat it? Ketoacidosis -- also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA -- occurs when harmfully high levels of ketones build up in the blood. Ketones are an acid produced when there's a shortage of insulin in the blood and the body is forced to break down fat, rather than glucose, for energy. Ketones can spill over into the urine when the body doesn't have enough insulin, and the effects can be deadly. The symptoms of ketoacidosis Blood sugar level higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) Difficulty breathing, rapid breath, or shortness of breath Breath that smells fruity A very dry mouth Nausea and vomiting Difficulty concentrating Extreme fatigue, drowsiness, or weakness Rapid heartbeat and low blood pressure How to treat ketoacidosis Ketoacidosis is an emergency condition that requires immediate attention. Call 911 or take the person you're caring for to the nearest hospital. How to prevent ketoacidosis Make sure the person you're caring for drinks plenty of water so he stays hydrated and can flush the ketones out of his system. Check for ketones by doing a simple urine test. Test strips are available over the counter. Tell him to refrain from exercise if his blood glucose is 250 mg/dL or higher and ketones are present in his urine. Remind him to check his blood glucose often and to immediately report any sky-high readings to his main diabetes care provider. Sarah Henry has covered health stories for most of her more than two decades as a writer, from her ten-year stint at the award-winning Center for Investigative Reporting to her staff writer position with Hippocrates magazine to her most recent Web work for online sites, including WebMD, Babycenter. See full bio Continue reading >>
Is It Really Required To Control Blood Sugar In Type 1 Diabetes?
If you don’t control your blood sugar with Type 1 Diabetes, you will die much sooner than is normal. That is a fact, not advice. If you are willing to die much earlier than anticipated, then of course you can choose to not control your blood sugar. It’s your choice and you have the ability to commit suicide very slowly. If you have no one in your life who cares about you or depends on you, I see nothing wrong with your choice. If you have family and friends who will miss you, I think you’re being silly. If you have dependents such as children or pets, I think you’re being irresponsible and childish. It is entirely possible to use a fixed dosage of insulin and survive because that’s exactly what people did for a long time. They ate carefully chosen meals and that went fine. If you’re willing to consume the exact same grams of carbs at the same time each day and not exercise, that might be an option for you. Presumably your food will get boring and your lifestyle may suffer but it’s technically feasible, just not recommended because of how constricting it is. However, there is no method of living that will save you from having to dedicate any thought to the management of your disease and not die an early death. Even with a fixed dosage, you will need to work with your healthcare provider to determine what that dosage is and what food and activity you can handle. You are correct that diabetes management complicates your life. I myself dedicate multiple spreadsheets to my healthcare management and I visit my endocrinologist three times a year. I count my carb consumption and monitor my insulin usage so that I can adjust it appropriately. This allows me to eat whatever I want, exercise as much as I want, and not worry about the short- and long-term effects of h Continue reading >>
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Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
Dr. Richard Hellman, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists, remembers once seeing a man whose blood glucose level was 2,400 mg/dl. “Basically,” he said, “his blood looked like syrup.” However, the man was not experiencing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Instead, he had a condition called hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state, or HHS. Like DKA, HHS is characterized by very high blood glucose levels, but unlike in DKA, people with HHS do not generally have ketones in their blood or urine. Nonetheless, HHS can be deadly. According to the American Diabetes Association (ADA), while DKA has a death rate of less than 5%, that figure can reach around 15% for HHS. Luckily, HHS is rare. The ADA says the annual rate for DKA ranges from 4.6 to 8 episodes per 1,000 people admitted to the hospital. HHS accounts for less than 1% of hospital admissions related primarily to diabetes. HHS is most common in elderly people with new-onset Type 2 diabetes, particularly those who live in nursing homes, or in older people who have been diagnosed with Type 2 diabetes but who are unaware that their blood glucose is high or who haven’t had enough fluid intake. Compounding the problem is that the thirst mechanism can be impaired in older people, and they’re more apt to have kidney problems, Dr. Hellman says. When a person’s thirst mechanism is impaired, the kidneys — which normally work to remove excess glucose from the blood — begin to conserve water. That leads to a higher glucose concentration in the bloodstream. In many people, HHS begins with an infection, such as a urinary tract infection or pneumonia. Unlike DKA, which develops relatively quickly, HHS develops over several days, or even weeks. “Diagnosis is sometimes a problem,” Dr. Hellman sa Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Can Be Deadly!
If you have diabetes, one of the serious problems you may face is ketoacidosis. In diabetic ketoacidosis, chemicals known as ketones build up in your blood and could eventually lead to diabetic coma or loss of life. But by carefully handling your blood glucose levels and watching for beginning signs of ketoacidosis, you can avoid it to a great extend. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis? When blood glucose levels get raised and there is not enough blood insulin, your fat cells start to crack down their storage sites of power, which are known as ketones. Ketones are acid, and that acid builds up in your system. Diabetic ketoacidosis is discovered more often in younger individuals than senior citizens, and more often in women than in men. At least 20 % of individuals learn they have diabetes when they seek medical help for complaints that turn out to be warning signs of ketoacidosis. Common Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis The three typical causes of ketoacidosis are: Not enough insulin: This can happen if you do not provide enough insulin to your blood stream or if your blood insulin needs improvement in reaction to an illness such as a cold or the flu. Blood glucose cannot be converted to energy without enough insulin to help in the process, so our bodies smashes down fat for energy and results in high ketone levels. Not enough food intakes: If you do not eat enough, your system has to crack down fat for energy, releasing ketones to your blood. This is particularly common in people who are sick and don't feel like eating. Low blood sugar levels: This situation can force your body to crack down fat to use as energy, leading to ketone production. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms Symptoms of ketoacidosis progress relatively slowly. But since ketoacidosis can be a life-threatening s Continue reading >>
Ketoacidosis Versus Ketosis
Some medical professionals confuse ketoacidosis, an extremely abnormal form of ketosis, with the normal benign ketosis associated with ketogenic diets and fasting states in the body. They will then tell you that ketosis is dangerous. Testing Laboratory Microbiology - Air Quality - Mold Asbestos - Environmental - Lead emsl.com Ketosis is NOT Ketoacidosis The difference between the two conditions is a matter of volume and flow rate*: Benign nutritional ketosis is a controlled, insulin regulated process which results in a mild release of fatty acids and ketone body production in response to either a fast from food, or a reduction in carbohydrate intake. Ketoacidosis is driven by a lack of insulin in the body. Without insulin, blood sugar rises to high levels and stored fat streams from fat cells. This excess amount of fat metabolism results in the production of abnormal quantities of ketones. The combination of high blood sugar and high ketone levels can upset the normal acid/base balance in the blood and become dangerous. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, insulin levels must be so low that the regulation of blood sugar and fatty acid flow is impaired. *See this reference paper. Here's a table of the actual numbers to show the differences in magnitude: Body Condition Quantity of Ketones Being Produced After a meal: 0.1 mmol/L Overnight Fast: 0.3 mmol/L Ketogenic Diet (Nutritional ketosis): 1-8 mmol/L >20 Days Fasting: 10 mmol/L Uncontrolled Diabetes (Ketoacidosis): >20 mmol/L Here's a more detailed explanation: Fact 1: Every human body maintains the blood and cellular fluids within a very narrow range between being too acidic (low pH) and too basic (high pH). If the blood pH gets out of the normal range, either too low or too high, big problems happen. Fact 2: The Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycaemic Hyperosmolar State
The hallmark of diabetes is a raised plasma glucose resulting from an absolute or relative lack of insulin action. Untreated, this can lead to two distinct yet overlapping life-threatening emergencies. Near-complete lack of insulin will result in diabetic ketoacidosis, which is therefore more characteristic of type 1 diabetes, whereas partial insulin deficiency will suppress hepatic ketogenesis but not hepatic glucose output, resulting in hyperglycaemia and dehydration, and culminating in the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. Hyperglycaemia is characteristic of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly in the previously undiagnosed, but it is the acidosis and the associated electrolyte disorders that make this a life-threatening condition. Hyperglycaemia is the dominant feature of the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state, causing severe polyuria and fluid loss and leading to cellular dehydration. Progression from uncontrolled diabetes to a metabolic emergency may result from unrecognised diabetes, sometimes aggravated by glucose containing drinks, or metabolic stress due to infection or intercurrent illness and associated with increased levels of counter-regulatory hormones. Since diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state have a similar underlying pathophysiology the principles of treatment are similar (but not identical), and the conditions may be considered two extremes of a spectrum of disease, with individual patients often showing aspects of both. Pathogenesis of DKA and HHS Insulin is a powerful anabolic hormone which helps nutrients to enter the cells, where these nutrients can be used either as fuel or as building blocks for cell growth and expansion. The complementary action of insulin is to antagonise the breakdown of fuel stores. Thus, the relea Continue reading >>
Ketosis Vs. Ketoacidosis (dka): What Is The Difference?
Let’s break it down so that you can understand exactly what ketosis is and how it differs from ketoacidosis. But the states they refer to are nothing alike. In this case, maybe mistakes are understandable. Many people who believe that ketosis is dangerous are mixing it up with another state called "ketoacidosis." The two words do sound very similar. And some people simply make mistakes. Profit motives tend to muddy up the works when it comes to getting clear, factual information about your health. Well, there are a lot of individuals and companies which all have their own goals and motivations. Where do these misperceptions come from? Here’s the thing though … that is all misinformation. You then Googled something like, "low carb dangerous" and found a list of link-bait articles informing you that low-carb is a ketogenic diet, and ketosis is a dangerous metabolic state which can be fatal. And then maybe someone said something to you like, "What are you thinking? Low-carb is a dangerous diet." If you are thinking about starting a low-carb diet, maybe you have mentioned it to some of your family or friends. By the time you finish reading this article, you will understand why low-carb is a safe diet. Continue reading >>