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Is Hyperglycemia Type 1 Diabetes?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Wondering about the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia—or high blood sugar? High blood sugar occurs in type 1 diabetes when the body has too much glucose/food or not enough insulin. Having hyperglycemia symptoms doesn’t immediately put you in danger but regular high blood-sugar levels over time does. That’s because they can lead to complications including blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and amputation. What are the symptoms of high blood sugar? – Thirst – Frequent urination – Stomach pain – Blurry vision – Increased Hunger Other signs of hyperglycemia With high blood sugar, you may also experience drowsiness, exhaustion, nausea or vomiting, confusion, fruity or sweet-smelling breath, impaired concentration and sweating. And, having very high blood-glucose levels for an extended period can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA happens when the body starts to burn fat and body tissue for energy. This releases toxic acids called ketones that build up in the blood and urine—and can lead to a diabetic coma. So if you’re experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, it’s important to get checked out by your doctor. The earlier high blood-sugar issues are treated, the better. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Externalizing Behavior In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Externalizing Behavior In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract OBJECTIVE—Ancedotally, parents report behavioral changes in their diabetic children who have fluctuating blood glucose levels. This study aimed to test associations between intercurrent glycemia and child behavior in an ambulant setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Prepubertal children attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, with type 1 diabetes received glycemic assessment and simultaneous behavioral assessment on two occasions 6 months apart. Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitor over a 72-h period, and parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children at the two study time points. RESULTS—There was a high correlation between intra-individual externalizing and internalizing behavior scores (r = 0.88, P < 0.001 and r = 0.81, P < 0.001, respectively) at the two time points. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was significantly associated with the mean externalizing behavior score (β = 1.7 [95% CI 0.6–2.8], adjusted r2 = 0.088). Percentage of time in the normal (r = −0.2 [−0.3 to −0.5], adjusted r2 = 0.068) and high (r = 0.2 [0.07–0.3], adjusted r2 = 0.089) glycemic ranges were significantly associated with the mean externalizing behavior score. For every 5% increase in time in the normal glycemic range, there was a decrease in the externalizing behavior score of 1.0, and for every 5% increase in time in the high glycemic range there was an increase in the externalizing behavior score of 1.0. There was no significant association between MBG and the mean internalizing behavior score. CONCLUSIONS—Externalizing behaviors were associated with intercurrent glycemic status. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the mechanisms of this association and how it might impact ultimate diabetes outcomes. Pare Continue reading >>

Chronic Fatigue In Type 1 Diabetes: Highly Prevalent But Not Explained By Hyperglycemia Or Glucose Variability

Chronic Fatigue In Type 1 Diabetes: Highly Prevalent But Not Explained By Hyperglycemia Or Glucose Variability

OBJECTIVE Fatigue is a classical symptom of hyperglycemia, but the relationship between chronic fatigue and diabetes has not been systematically studied. We investigated prevalence, impact, and potential determinants of chronic fatigue in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Out of 324 randomly selected T1DM outpatients, 214 participated in this cross-sectional observational study. Participants were compared with age- and sex-matched population-based controls. Chronic fatigue, functional impairments, current health status, comorbidity, diabetes-related factors, and fatigue-related cognitions and behaviors were assessed with questionnaires, and HbA1c values and comorbidity were assessed with medical records. Sixty-six patients underwent continuous glucose monitoring combined with an electronic fatigue diary for 5 days. Acute fatigue and four glucose parameters were determined: mean, variability, and relative time spent in hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. RESULTS T1DM patients were significantly more often chronically fatigued (40%; 95% CI 34–47%) compared with matched controls (7%; 95% CI 3–10%; P < 0.001). Chronically fatigued patients had significantly more functional impairments. Fatigue was the most troublesome symptom. Age, depression, pain, sleeping problems, low self-efficacy concerning fatigue, and physical inactivity were significantly associated with chronic fatigue. Chronically fatigued patients spent slightly less time in hypoglycemia (proportion 0.07 ± 0.06 vs. 0.12 ± 0.10; P = 0.025). Glucose parameters were not related to acute fatigue. CONCLUSIONS Chronic fatigue is highly prevalent and clinically relevant in T1DM. Its significant relationship with cognitive behavioral variables and weak association with blood gl Continue reading >>

10 Reasons For Hyperglycemia During Training

10 Reasons For Hyperglycemia During Training

Editor’s Note: Phil Graham (BSc, CISSN) is a certified sports nutritionist and competitive body builder. Learn more of his training tips on his site Diabetic Muscle and Fitness. High blood sugar is one of the biggest hurdles to improving health, getting in shape and performing well. I want to discuss the 10 of the biggest reasons why blood glucose levels tend to go high (hyperglycemia) in people living with diabetes. Please bear in mind that Type 1 and 2 diabetes are different and need to be managed differently. Key factors include: the type of medication, physical activity levels, training volume, muscle mass, other illnesses and susceptibility to life stress. Hypoinsulinemia You simply don’t have enough insulin in your bloodstream to facilitate the transport of glucose into target tissues. As a result, your blood glucose levels remain high, increasing the risk of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which exacerbates hyperglycemia. This may be due to missing a dose, eating too many carbs or uncontrolled glucose production from your liver during times of stress. Fix – Administer appropriate amounts of insulin or other diabetic mediation specific to your abnormal blood glucose level. Only do this under the close guidance and monitoring of a professional healthcare team. Prolonged pump disconnect Similar to above. Lack of insulin in the blood stream means only one thing for the individual deficient in insulin — high blood glucose. Fix – Ensure you pump is well connected at all time, especially if you’ve spent the day doing manual labor. Be mindful that wearing an exercise belt, for powerlifting and bodybuilding purposes can lead to pump discomfort and disconnect during training, consequently leading to high blood glucose. Malfunctioning needles If your needle fails t Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia occurs when blood sugar levels are too high. People develop hyperglycemia if their diabetes is not treated properly. Hypoglycemia sets in when blood sugar levels are too low. This is usually a side effect of treatment with blood-sugar-lowering medication. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with far-reaching health effects. In type 1 diabetes, the body only produces very little insulin, or none at all. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is released into the bloodstream, or the insulin cannot be used properly. We need insulin to live. Without it, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood because it cannot be taken out and used by the body. Very high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, leads to a number of symptoms. If blood sugar levels are too low, it is called hypoglycemia. When is blood sugar considered to be too high or too low? Slight fluctuations in blood sugar levels are completely normal and also happen on a daily basis in people who do not have diabetes. Between around 60 and 140 milligrams of sugar per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) is considered to be healthy. This is equivalent to blood sugar concentrations between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/L. “Millimole per liter” (mmol/L) is the international unit for measuring blood sugar. It indicates the concentration of a certain substance per liter. If type 1 diabetes is left untreated, people’s blood sugar levels can get very high, sometimes exceeding 27.8 mmol/L (500 mg/dL). Blood sugar concentrations below 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) are considered to be too low. As you can see in the illustration below, there are no clear-cut borders between the normal range of blood sugar and high and low blood sugar. Signs of hyperglycemia Signs of very high blood sugar levels in type 1 diabetes may include the following: If you o Continue reading >>

What Is Hyperglycemia?

What Is Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia, a high level of sugar in the blood, is a hallmark of diabetes. Your blood sugar levels fluctuate over the course of a day: Levels are higher right after meals, as carbohydrates are broken down into glucose (sugar), and lower after exercise, when glucose has been burned to fuel the activity. In someone who doesn't have diabetes, blood sugar levels stay within a narrow range. Between meals, the concentration of sugar in the blood ranges from about 60 to 100 mg/dl (milligrams per deciliter). After meals it may reach 120 to 130 mg/dl, but rarely goes higher than 140 mg/dl. But if you have type 2 diabetes, blood sugar levels can go much higher — to 200, 300, or even 400 mg/dl and beyond — and will go much higher unless you take the necessary steps to bring them down. Hyperglycemia Symptoms High blood sugar doesn't always produce symptoms, so it's important to check your blood sugar regularly, as indicated by your doctor. Hyperglycemia symptoms include: Frequent urination Extreme thirst Feeling tired and weak Blurry vision Feeling hungry, even after eating Causes of Hyperglycemia If you've been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, a treatment plan is put in place to lower blood sugar and keep it as close to the normal range as possible. But even after you start treatment, you may still develop hyperglycemia at times. When you have diabetes, it's almost impossible not to have hyperglycemia — and high blood sugar can happen for no identifiable reason. Some of the reasons blood sugar may go too high include: Missing prescribed medicines or taking medication at the wrong times or in the wrong amounts High food intake or larger consumptions of carbohydrate than expected or intended Lack of sleep Emotional stress Intense exercise Illness is another important — and Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And How To Treat It

Hyperglycemia And How To Treat It

What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, occurs when glucose is trapped in the bloodstream due to lack of insulin. Individual blood glucose ranges vary, so talk with your diabetes team about your threshold for high blood glucose levels. A reading above 160 mg/dL (8.9 mmol/L) indicates hyperglycemia according to the Joslin Diabetes Center, although symptoms may not be present until blood sugar levels reach 200 mg/dL or 11 mmol/L (Mayo Clinic). If left untreated, hyperglycemia may lead to severe dehydration, diabetic ketoacidosis, and coma. The effects of tong-term hyperglycemia include damage to the eyes, kidneys, nervous system and heart. Why does it occur? Taking too little insulin, under-counting carbohydrates at mealtimes, stress, not exercising as much as planned, fluctuating hormones and illness can all contribute to hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can occur when when your body is under physical stress, like when you’re fighting an infection or other illness, if you’re recovering from an injury, or recently had surgery. Emotional stress also contributes to hyperglycemia as hormones produced in response to stress cause blood glucose levels to rise. Make a plan with your endocrinologist for sick days as your insulin needs may change (your pump may even have a “sick day” category in the basal settings). Keep a close eye on your blood sugar and check for ketones when you’re under the weather to prevent yourself from feeling the negative effects of hyperglycemia, too. Communicate with your diabetes team about how you’re feeling and ask questions about adjusting your insulin schedule. Sometimes hyperglycemia can occur when insulin has expired or if it “goes bad,” from being exposed to extreme heat or cold. Store your insulin within appropri Continue reading >>

Managing Hyperglycemia

Managing Hyperglycemia

When you were diagnosed with diabetes, your doctor probably told you that your blood glucose levels were too high. Indeed, high blood glucose, or hyperglycemia, is the hallmark of diabetes. Regardless of your knowledge of diabetes at that time, you may have wondered what the significance of high blood glucose levels was for you. The answer is that hyperglycemia is linked to the development of long-term diabetes complications, which include nephropathy (kidney disease), retinopathy (eye disease), neuropathy (nerve damage), foot and skin problems, heart and blood vessel disease, and tooth and gum disease. That’s why individual treatment plans for people with diabetes focus on preventing hyperglycemia and keeping blood glucose levels as close to the normal range as possible. Keeping blood glucose levels close to normal requires learning how to balance food intake, physical activity, and the effects of any diabetes medicines your doctor may prescribe to lower your blood glucose level. For some people, the balancing act also involves learning to avoid hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose. Blood glucose goals In healthy people who don’t have diabetes, blood glucose levels typically run in the range of 65–110 mg/dl and may rise to 120–140 mg/dl one to two hours after eating. A diagnosis of diabetes is made when a person’s HbA1c (a measure of glucose control over the previous 2–3 months) is 6.5% or higher, his fasting blood glucose level is above 126 mg/dl on two separate occasions, or when he has symptoms of diabetes (such as excessive thirst and urination) and his nonfasting blood glucose level is greater than 200 mg/dl on two separate occasions. Until several years ago, a diagnosis of prediabetes, a condition in which blood glucose levels are high but not high enou Continue reading >>

How Are Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Connected?

How Are Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Connected?

The term used to describe high blood glucose or blood sugar is hyperglycemia. When we eat food, the carbohydrate in food breaks down into sugar and goes into the bloodstream. The pancreas releases insulin when this happens. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that "unlocks" the body's cells, allowing the sugar go from the blood and into the cells. The cells in the body use this sugar for energy. When the body does not make any or enough insulin, or when the cells are unable to use the insulin correctly, blood sugar levels go up. Contents of this article: Hyperglycemia and diabetes Hyperglycemia is common in people with diabetes. People with prediabetes are also at an increased risk. Prediabetes refers to blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but are not as high as they are for diabetes. Diabetes causes high blood sugar levels two main ways. Either there is a lack of insulin, as is the case with type 1 diabetes, or the body doesn't respond properly to insulin. In prediabetes, it is usually due to the cells not responding correctly. In type 2 diabetes, it is usually a combination. Causes of hyperglycemia There are several causes of hyperglycemia that are related to diabetes: Though many causes are related to diabetes, there are additional factors that can contribute to hyperglycemia: Certain medications such as steroids Other pancreatic diseases Illness and stress can trigger hyperglycemia because the hormones that are produced to combat illness or stress can also cause blood sugar to rise. People do not have to have full-blown diabetes to develop hyperglycemia due to a severe illness. People with diabetes may need to take extra diabetes medication to keep their blood sugar levels stable during illness or stress. Symptoms of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

Blood sugar control is at the center of any diabetes treatment plan. High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, is a major concern, and can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes . There are two main kinds: Fasting hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after not eating or drinking for at least 8 hours. Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after you eat. People without diabetes rarely have blood sugar levels over 140 mg/dL after a meal, unless it’s really large. Frequent or ongoing high blood sugar can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels, and organs. It can also lead to other serious conditions. People with type 1 diabetes are prone to a build-up of acids in the blood called ketoacidosis. If you have type 2 diabetes or if you’re at risk for it, extremely high blood sugar can lead to a potentially deadly condition in which your body can’t process sugar. It's called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). You’ll pee more often at first, and then less often later on, but your urine may become dark and you could get severely dehydrated. It's important to treat symptoms of high blood sugar right away to help prevent complications. Your blood sugar may rise if you: Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin you took, or eat too many carbs in general Have an infection Are ill Are under stress Become inactive or exercise less than usual Take part in strenuous physical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high and insulin levels are low Early signs include: Increased thirst Trouble concentrating Frequent peeing Fatigue (weak, tired feeling) Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL Ongoing high blood sugar Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

Must Read Articles Related To High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) Whenever the glucose (sugar) level in one's blood rises high temporarily, this condition is known as hyperglycemia. The opposite condition, low blood sugar, is called hypoglycemia. Glucose comes from most foods, and the body uses other chemicals to create glucose in the liver and muscles. The blood carries glucose (blood sugar) to all the cells in the body. To carry glucose into the cells as an energy supply, cells need help from insulin. Insulin is a hormone made by the pancreas, an organ near the stomach. The pancreas releases insulin into the blood, based upon the blood sugar level. Insulin helps move glucose from digested food into cells. Sometimes, the body stops making insulin (as in type 1 diabetes), or the insulin does not work properly (as in type 2 diabetes). In diabetic patients, glucose does not enter the cells sufficiently, thus staying in the blood and creating high blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels can be measured in seconds by using a blood glucose meter, also known as a glucometer. A tiny drop of blood from the finger or forearm is placed on a test strip and inserted into the glucometer. The blood sugar (or glucose) level is displayed digitally within seconds. Blood glucose levels vary widely throughout the day and night in people with diabetes. Ideally, blood glucose levels range from 90 to 130 mg/dL before meals, and below 180 mg/dL within 1 to 2 hours after a meal. Adolescents and adults with diabetes strive to keep their blood sugar levels within a controlled range, usually 80-150 mg/dL before meals. Doctors and diabetes health educators guide each patient to determine their optimal range of blood glucose control. When blood sugar levels remain high for several hours, dehydration and more serious complicat Continue reading >>

Relationships Between Hyperglycemia And Cognitive Performance Among Adults With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

Relationships Between Hyperglycemia And Cognitive Performance Among Adults With Type 1 And Type 2 Diabetes

OBJECTIVE—Hyperglycemia is a common event among patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While the cognitive-motor slowing associated with hypoglycemia is well documented, the acute effects of hyperglycemia have not been studied extensively, despite patients’ reports of negative effects. This study prospectively and objectively assessed the effects of hyperglycemia on cognitive-motor functioning in subjects’ natural environment. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Study 1 investigated 105 adults with type 1 diabetes (mean age 37 years and mean duration of diabetes 20 years), study 2 investigated 36 adults with type 2 diabetes (mean age 50 years and mean duration of diabetes 10 years), and study 3 investigated 91 adults with type 1 diabetes (mean age 39 years and mean duration of diabetes 20 years). Subjects used a hand-held computer for 70 trials over 4 weeks, which required them to complete various cognitive-motor tasks and then measure and enter their current blood glucose reading. RESULTS—Hyperglycemia (blood glucose >15 mmol/l) was associated with slowing of all cognitive performance tests (P < 0.02) and an increased number of mental subtraction errors for both type 1 and type 2 diabetic subjects. The effects of hyperglycemia were highly individualized, impacting ∼50% of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS—Acute hyperglycemia is not a benign event for many individuals with diabetes, but it is associated with mild cognitive dysfunction. Patients with diabetes often report acute and transient cognitive disruptions associated with hyperglycemia. The impact of such effects could influence quality of life and daily functioning, as well as indicate cues to aid patients in better recognizing the presence of hyperglycemia. Holmes et al. (1) reported significant slowing of visu Continue reading >>

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