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Is Hyperglycemia Diabetes?

Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin ( type 1 diabetes ) or can't respond to insulin properly ( type 2 diabetes ). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: All of these need to be b Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

How Are Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Connected?

How Are Hyperglycemia And Diabetes Connected?

The term used to describe high blood glucose or blood sugar is hyperglycemia. When we eat food, the carbohydrate in food breaks down into sugar and goes into the bloodstream. The pancreas releases insulin when this happens. Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that "unlocks" the body's cells, allowing the sugar go from the blood and into the cells. The cells in the body use this sugar for energy. When the body does not make any or enough insulin, or when the cells are unable to use the insulin correctly, blood sugar levels go up. Contents of this article: Hyperglycemia and diabetes Hyperglycemia is common in people with diabetes. People with prediabetes are also at an increased risk. Prediabetes refers to blood sugar levels that are higher than normal but are not as high as they are for diabetes. Diabetes causes high blood sugar levels two main ways. Either there is a lack of insulin, as is the case with type 1 diabetes, or the body doesn't respond properly to insulin. In prediabetes, it is usually due to the cells not responding correctly. In type 2 diabetes, it is usually a combination. Causes of hyperglycemia There are several causes of hyperglycemia that are related to diabetes: Though many causes are related to diabetes, there are additional factors that can contribute to hyperglycemia: Certain medications such as steroids Other pancreatic diseases Illness and stress can trigger hyperglycemia because the hormones that are produced to combat illness or stress can also cause blood sugar to rise. People do not have to have full-blown diabetes to develop hyperglycemia due to a severe illness. People with diabetes may need to take extra diabetes medication to keep their blood sugar levels stable during illness or stress. Symptoms of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

Pre-diabetes (hyperglycemia)

Pre-diabetes (hyperglycemia)

Pre-diabetes is a condition in which a person's blood sugar (glucose) levels are higher than normal, but not high enough to be classified as diabetes. A person with pre-diabetes is at risk of developing type 2 diabetes . However, by making some lifestyle changes, a person with pre-diabetes can reduce his or her risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Most people with pre-diabetes have no symptoms. Because of this, many doctors recommend that overweight people age 45 or older be tested for pre-diabetes. People under age 45 who have a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 25 or more, as well as some risk factors for pre-diabetes, should also be tested. In addition to the danger of developing diabetes, people with pre-diabetes have an increased risk of heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. Insulin is a protein hormone that regulates the body's blood sugar levels. In pre-diabetes as in type 2 diabetes a person's body can't use insulin effectively. This means that glucose (sugar) builds up in the blood instead of being used by the body as fuel. Risk factors that increase a person's chances of developing pre-diabetes include: Having a history of gestational diabetes , or giving birth to a baby weighing more than nine pounds Having low levels of "good" (HDL) blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels Ethnic background. People of certain races are more likely to get pre-diabetes, including African-Americans, Hispanics, Native Americans, Asian-Americans, and Pacific Islanders. How does my doctor tell if I have pre-diabetes? Tests that check the levels of sugar (glucose) in your blood can help your doctor diagnose pre-diabetes. Two common tests include a fasting plasma glucose test and an oral glucose tolerance test. In the fasting plasma glucose test, the patient eats or drinks Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

What Is The Difference Between Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia?

By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV What Is Hyperglycemia? In relation to diabetes, hyperglycemia refers to chronically high blood glucose levels. Most medical professionals define hyperglycemia by using the blood glucose goals that you and your physician have established and combining those goals with the blood glucose target ranges set by the American Diabetes Association. It's important to understand that you'll probably experience high blood glucose levels from time to time, despite your best efforts at control. As with any chronic disease, talk with your physician and diabetes care team if the pattern of your blood glucose readings is consistently higher or lower than your blood glucose goals. Complications from Hyperglycemia Persistent hyperglycemia can cause a wide range of chronic complications that affect almost every system in your body. When large blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Stroke (cerebral vascular disease) Heart attack or Congestive Heart Failure (coronary heart disease) Circulation disorders and possible amputation (peripheral vascular disease) When smaller blood vessels are affected, it can lead to: Kidney disease (nephropathy) Nerve damage (neuropathy) Diabetic eye disease (retinopathy) Joseph Monks: Writer, Producer, and Film Director Joseph Monks, who has diabetic retinopathy, creates and produces films for his production company Sight Unseen Pictures. He is also the first blind filmmaker to direct a feature film. Says Joe, "I'm not uncomfortable with the term 'blind.' I'm not thrilled about it, of course, but it's accurate. The lights went out for me in early 2002 as a result of diabetic retinopathy—the death of my retinas. It is what it is, so when it happened, I decided that I wasn't going to let it put an en Continue reading >>

What Happens If Sugar Is Given During Hyperglycemia

What Happens If Sugar Is Given During Hyperglycemia

First aid manuals say to givesugar to any confused person with diabetes. But you wouldn't know without blood testing whether they were having an episode of low blood sugar ( hypoglycemia ) or high blood sugar ( hyperglycemia ). Giving sugar will help the person with low blood sugar get through their crisis. But what happens if you give someone with high blood sugar more sugar? The answer is that in the short term, nothing happens for the person with hyperglycemiathe sugar will not make the condition worse. However, that doesn't mean high blood sugar isn't a problem. Learning why this is the case starts with understanding how your body gets energy and the difference between what is happening during episodes of low blood sugar and high blood sugar. Alternative Fuels: Running on Sugar or on Fat The body basically runs on two different fuels: fat and sugar. The premium fuel is sugarit burns cleaner and much more efficiently. Every carbohydrate and protein you eat is eventually broken down into sugar for your cells to use as fuel. However, your body is a versatile engine. It can also use fat as a fuel. It's not clean burningkind of like the difference between high octane racing gas and coalbut it gets the job done in a pinch. Not all cells in your body are capable of using alternative fuel. Some of the cells are high-performance, and only the premium fuel will do. The brain is just such an elite machine. Brain cells cannot burn fat. When the bloodstream runs low on sugar, the body tries to save it for the brain. When the blood sugar gets too low, the brain starts to sputter and dieand the victim becomes dizzy, confused, and weak . Nothing will work other than sugar, the premium, high-octane racing fuel for the body. High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is a different mechanical Continue reading >>

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

What Is Hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia may be described as an excess of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Your endocrine system regulates the amount of sugar that is stored and used for energy. It is important in brain cell function, and energy levels. Since the sugar that you consume in your diet is either used or stored, certain conditions and disorders may cause you to have difficulty processing and storing blood glucose, resulting in hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. One hormone that is important to the normal storing and processing of sugar is insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is made in the pancreas that is responsible for maintaining "normal" blood sugar levels. If you have a problem with your pancreas, then you may have increased blood sugar levels. Normal blood Glucose (sugar) levels are 60-110 mg/dL. Normal values may vary from laboratory to laboratory. Levels higher than these might indicate hyperglycemia. Causes of Hyperglycemia: Diabetes. About 90% of people with diabetes, have diabetes of adult onset (Diabetes type 2). You are more at risk for developing diabetes if you are older, extremely overweight (obese), if you have a family history of diabetes (parents, siblings), and if you are of African-American, Hispanic American, or Native-American heritage. People who have diabetes have an underproduction of the hormone, insulin, which lowers your blood sugar levels. If you have diabetes, you will have problems with elevated blood sugar levels. If you develop diabetes type 2, and you are an adult, your healthcare provider may prescribe medications in a pill form, which allow your body to process insulin that is needed for maintaining "normal" blood glucose levels. It is likely that your pancreas is producing enough insulin, but your body is resistant to the insulin, a Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes

Type 1 Diabetes

Whether you have type 1 diabetes, are a caregiver or loved one of a person with type 1 diabetes, or just want to learn more, the following page provides an overview of type 1 diabetes. New to type 1 diabetes? Check out "Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics," which answers some of the basic questions about type 1 diabetes: what is type 1 diabetes, what are its symptoms, how is it treated, and many more! Want to learn a bit more? See our “Helpful Links” page below, which provides links to diaTribe articles focused on type 1 diabetes. These pages provide helpful tips for living with type 1 diabetes, our patient-perspective column by Adam Brown, drug and device overviews, information about diabetes complications, and some extra pages we hope you’ll find useful! Starting Point: Type 1 Diabetes Basics What is the risk of developing type 1 diabetes if it runs in my family? What is Type 1 Diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is disease in which the body can no longer produce insulin. Insulin is normally needed to convert sugar (also called glucose) and other food sources into energy for the body’s cells. It is believed that in people with type 1 diabetes, the body’s own immune system attacks and kills the beta cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Without insulin, the body cannot control blood sugar, and people can suffer from dangerously high blood sugar levels (called hyperglycemia). To control their blood glucose levels, people with type 1 diabetes take insulin injections. Before the discovery of insulin, type 1 diabetes was a death sentence (and it still is for patients with poor access to insulin). Can Type 1 Diabetes Be Prevented? Unfortunately, the genetic and environmental triggers for the immune attack that causes type 1 diabetes are not well understood, althoug Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose, occurs when there is too much sugar in the blood. When you have hyperglycemia for long periods of time, you can have damage to nerves, blood vessels, and other body organs. What are the causes of hyperglycemia? Skipping or forgetting your insulin or oral glucose-lowering medication Eating the wrong foods Eating too much food Infection Illness Increased stress Decreased activity What are the symptoms of hyperglycemia? It is important to know the early signs of hyperglycemia. If hyperglycemia is left untreated, it may develop into an emergency condition called ketoacidosis. Signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia include: Increased thirst Blurred vision Frequent urination Increased hunger Numbness or tingling in the feet Additional early symptoms include: Fatigue (feeling weak, tired) Sugar in the urine Weight loss Blood glucose of more than 180 mg/dl Vaginal and skin infections Slow-healing cuts and sores Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Type 2 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia can occur when blood sugar levels are too high. People develop hyperglycemia if their diabetes is not treated properly. Hypoglycemia sets in when blood sugar levels are too low. It is usually a side effect of treatment with blood-sugar-lowering medication. Diabetes is a metabolic disease with far-reaching health consequences. In type 2 diabetes, not enough insulin is released into the bloodstream, or the insulin cannot be used properly. In type 1 diabetes, the body only produces very little insulin, or none at all. We need insulin to live. Without it, sugar (glucose) builds up in the blood because it cannot be taken out and used by the body. Very high blood sugar, known as hyperglycemia, leads to a number of symptoms. If blood sugar levels are too low, it is called hypoglycemia. When is blood sugar considered to be too high or too low? Slight fluctuations in blood sugar levels are completely normal and also happen on a daily basis in people who do not have diabetes. Between around 60 and 140 milligrams of sugar per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) is considered to be healthy. This is equivalent to between 3.3 and 7.8 mmol/L. “Millimole per liter” (mmol/L) is the international unit for measuring blood sugar. It indicates the concentration of a certain substance per liter. If type 1 diabetes is left untreated, people’s blood sugar levels can get very high, even exceeding 27.8 mmol/L (500 mg/dL). Such high levels are rather uncommon for type 2 diabetes. Blood sugar concentrations below 3.3 mmol/L (60 mg/dL) are considered to be too low. As you can see in the illustration below, there are no clear-cut borders between the normal range of blood sugar and high and low blood sugar. Signs of hyperglycemia People with type 2 diabetes do not always realize that their Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

High Blood Sugar And Diabetes

Blood sugar control is at the center of any diabetes treatment plan. High blood sugar, or hyperglycemia, is a major concern, and can affect people with both type 1 and type 2 diabetes . There are two main kinds: Fasting hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 130 mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter) after not eating or drinking for at least 8 hours. Postprandial or after-meal hyperglycemia. This is blood sugar that's higher than 180 mg/dL 2 hours after you eat. People without diabetes rarely have blood sugar levels over 140 mg/dL after a meal, unless it’s really large. Frequent or ongoing high blood sugar can cause damage to your nerves, blood vessels, and organs. It can also lead to other serious conditions. People with type 1 diabetes are prone to a build-up of acids in the blood called ketoacidosis. If you have type 2 diabetes or if you’re at risk for it, extremely high blood sugar can lead to a potentially deadly condition in which your body can’t process sugar. It's called hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS). You’ll pee more often at first, and then less often later on, but your urine may become dark and you could get severely dehydrated. It's important to treat symptoms of high blood sugar right away to help prevent complications. Your blood sugar may rise if you: Eat too many grams of carbohydrates for the amount of insulin you took, or eat too many carbs in general Have an infection Are ill Are under stress Become inactive or exercise less than usual Take part in strenuous physical activity, especially when your blood sugar levels are high and insulin levels are low Early signs include: Increased thirst Trouble concentrating Frequent peeing Fatigue (weak, tired feeling) Blood sugar more than 180 mg/dL Ongoing high blood sugar Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia means high blood sugar or glucose. Glucose comes from the foods you eat. Insulin is a hormone that moves glucose into your cells to give them energy. Hyperglycemia happens when your body doesn't make enough insulin or can't use it the right way. People with diabetes can get hyperglycemia from not eating the right foods or not taking medicines correctly. Other problems that can raise blood sugar include infections, certain medicines, hormone imbalances, or severe illnesses. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And How To Treat It

Hyperglycemia And How To Treat It

What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, occurs when glucose is trapped in the bloodstream due to lack of insulin. Individual blood glucose ranges vary, so talk with your diabetes team about your threshold for high blood glucose levels. A reading above 160 mg/dL (8.9 mmol/L) indicates hyperglycemia according to the Joslin Diabetes Center, although symptoms may not be present until blood sugar levels reach 200 mg/dL or 11 mmol/L (Mayo Clinic). If left untreated, hyperglycemia may lead to severe dehydration, diabetic ketoacidosis, and coma. The effects of tong-term hyperglycemia include damage to the eyes, kidneys, nervous system and heart. Why does it occur? Taking too little insulin, under-counting carbohydrates at mealtimes, stress, not exercising as much as planned, fluctuating hormones and illness can all contribute to hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia can occur when when your body is under physical stress, like when you’re fighting an infection or other illness, if you’re recovering from an injury, or recently had surgery. Emotional stress also contributes to hyperglycemia as hormones produced in response to stress cause blood glucose levels to rise. Make a plan with your endocrinologist for sick days as your insulin needs may change (your pump may even have a “sick day” category in the basal settings). Keep a close eye on your blood sugar and check for ketones when you’re under the weather to prevent yourself from feeling the negative effects of hyperglycemia, too. Communicate with your diabetes team about how you’re feeling and ask questions about adjusting your insulin schedule. Sometimes hyperglycemia can occur when insulin has expired or if it “goes bad,” from being exposed to extreme heat or cold. Store your insulin within appropri Continue reading >>

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