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Is Glucose An Amino Acid?

Amino Acids, Glucose Metabolism And Clinical Relevance For Phenylketonuria Management

Amino Acids, Glucose Metabolism And Clinical Relevance For Phenylketonuria Management

Abstract It is general knowledge that glycaemia is affected by digested nutrients. Amino acids intake appears to be an important regulator in this regard. Many questions need to be answered, such as the real mediators of this response and the mechanisms underlying this metabolic behavior. Studies have been undertaken in order to investigate the role of amino acids on metabolic parameters. Their main findings suggest that the ingestion of free amino acids have a pivotal role in avoiding glycaemia excursions, improving glucose tolerance. In parallel, several important molecules for glucose metabolism have been exploited. Insulin and glucagon-like peptide – 1 (GLP-1) release seem to be the main triggers of this response. This insulinogenic effect is attributed to some amino acids, particularly the branched-chain amino acids (leucine, isoleucine and valine). GLP-1 may exert its effects by activating its receptor in pancreas and enhancing insulin release by β-cells or through its extrapancreatic actions. The mechanisms that may justify the aforementioned effects remain to be answered, being the mTOR pathway activation a possible key. These metabolic effects may have a special interest within the nutritional management of Phenylketonuria (PKU), an inborn metabolic disease of phenylalanine (Phe) catabolism. Since a Phe restricted diet is the mainstay of PKU treatment, a chronic supplementation with a Phe-free amino acid mixture is used. Although scientific evidence is scarce, it is hypothesized whether this chronic ingestion may modulate glycaemia. Keywords: Amino acids; Glycaemia; Insulin; Glucagon-like peptide-1; Phenylketonuria Abbreviations GIP: Glucose-dependent Insulinotropic Polypeptide; GLP-1: Glucagon-Like Peptide-1; mTOR: Mammalian Target of Rapamycin; DPP-IV: Dip Continue reading >>

Peritoneal Dialysis With Solutions Containing Amino Acids Plus Glucose Promotes Protein Synthesis During Oral Feeding

Peritoneal Dialysis With Solutions Containing Amino Acids Plus Glucose Promotes Protein Synthesis During Oral Feeding

Peritoneal Dialysis with Solutions Containing Amino Acids Plus Glucose Promotes Protein Synthesis during Oral Feeding Departments of *Internal Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Dr. Hoey Lan Tjiong, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Phone: +31-10-4634610; Fax: +31-10-4635092; E-mail: h.tjiong{at}erasmusmc.nl Inadequate food intake plays an important role in the development of malnutrition. Recently, an increased rate of protein anabolism was shown in fasting state in patients who were on automated peritoneal dialysis with combined amino acids (AA) and glucose (G) dialysate serving as a source of both proteins and calories. This study investigated the effects of such a dialysis procedure in the daytime in the fed state in patients who were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A crossover study was performed in 12 CAPD patients to compare, at 7-d intervals, a mixture of AA (Nutrineal 1.1%) plus G (Physioneal l.36 to 3.86%) versus G only as control dialysate. Whole-body protein turnover was studied by primed constant intravenous infusion of 13C-leucine during the 9-h dialysis. For meeting steady-state conditions during whole-body protein turnover, frequent exchanges with a mixture of AA plus G were done using an automated cycler. Fed-state conditions were created by identical liquid hourly meals. Using AA plus G dialysate, as compared with the control, rates of protein synthesis increased significantly (2.02 0.08 versus 1.94 0.07 mol leucine/kg per min [mean SEM]; P = 0.039). Rates of protein breakdown and net protein balance did not differ significantly between AA plus G and G. In conclusion, dialysate that contains AA plus G Continue reading >>

Amino Acid Ingestion And Glucose Metabolism--a Review.

Amino Acid Ingestion And Glucose Metabolism--a Review.

IUBMB Life. 2010 Sep;62(9):660-8. doi: 10.1002/iub.375. Amino acid ingestion and glucose metabolism--a review. Metabolic Research Laboratory, Section of Endocrinology, Metabolism & Nutrition VA Medical Center, Departments of Medicine, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55417, USA. [email protected] Interest in the effect of proteins or amino acids on glucose metabolism dates back at least a century, largely because it was demonstrated that the amino acids from ingested protein could be converted into glucose. Indeed, these observations influenced the dietary information provided to people with diabetes. Subsequently it was shown that ingested protein did not raise the blood glucose concentration. It also was shown that proteins could stimulate a rise in insulin and glucagon but the response to various proteins was different. In addition, it was shown that individual amino acids also could stimulate a rise in insulin and in glucagon concentrations. When individual amino acids are ingested by normal subjects, there is an ordering of the insulin and glucagon responses. However, the order is not the same for insulin and glucagon. In addition, the metabolic response cannot be predicted based on the functional groups of the amino acids. Thus, empirical prediction of the metabolic response to ingested single amino acids is not possible. Continue reading >>

No Sugar | Enterade - An Amino Acid-based, Glucose Free, Medical Food/beverage.

No Sugar | Enterade - An Amino Acid-based, Glucose Free, Medical Food/beverage.

Glucose (sugar) in the healthy gut is used to transport nutrients, electrolytes and fluids into the body. In a damaged gut, such as in patients undergoing cancer treatment, the villi become blunted, leaving them unable to absorb glucose- bound nutrients and electrolytes. Additionally, glucose has been shown to stimulate chloride secretion (fluid loss/diarrhea), and weaken barrier function (cause for bacteria and toxins to enter the body) causing leaky gut. Research funded by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI) 1 a NASA funded consortium of institutions showed that enterades amino acid-based formulations, unlike glucose, did not increase active chloride secretion, improved barrier function and helped to rebuild the GI absorptive structures. When compared to glucose based beverages, clinical testing conducted at United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USAREIM) 2 showed that enterades select amino acids, provide superior nutrient and electrolyte absorption as well as greater retention. Amino Acids in enterade vs. Glucose The enteradeAdvantage Both glucose and amino acids actively transport the electrolytes. However, glucose increases chloride secretion, which decreases water absorption leading to fluid loss and diarrhea. Additionally, glucose decreases gut barrier function, thus transferring bacteria and toxins into the bloodstream, leading to increased symptoms and side effects. enterades Advanced Oncology Formula does not contain glucose, which allows the select amino acids and electrolytesto properly absorb water and nutrients and increases gut barrier function, preventing bacteria and toxins from entering the bloodstream, leading to decreased symptoms and side effects. Active Transport: Amino Acids in enterade vs. Glucose Continue reading >>

Is Glucose An Amino Acid?

Is Glucose An Amino Acid?

Amino acids are the monomers that combine to make peptides and proteins. Amino acids have an amine group (NHtext2) at one end of the molecule and a carboxyl group (COOH) on the other end. Get access to this video and our entire Q&A library from General Studies Health Science: Help & Review Become a member and unlock all StudyAnswers Explore our homework questions and answer library Ask a study question and one of our experts will send you an answer within hours. By submitting, I am agreeing to the Terms of Use and Honor Code To ask a site support question, click here When your answer is ready, it will appear on your Dashboard . New! Get a text message when your answer is ready Thanks! We'll text you when your answer is ready! Receive an email or text message when your answer is ready to view Email already in use. Already a member? Log In instead. We will send you an email and/or text message when you answer is ready. Thanks! We'll notify you when your answer is ready! Your notification info was successfully sent. Study.com's video lessons can help you master all major subjects Create your account. No obligation; cancelanytime. Start your FREE trial. No obligation; cancelanytime. Email already in use. Already a member? Log In instead. 22,000 streaming videos to use in the classroom 10,000 rich lesson plans, activities, games, project ideas, and more to supplement your lessons {{ cart.coupon.trialDays ? cart.coupon.trialDays : cart.product.defaultTrialDays }}-day free trial Just{{(cart.product.remspectPriceCents/100/30)|currency}} Just{{(cart.product.remspectPriceCents/100/365)|currency}} Just{{(cart.coupon.discountPriceCents/100/30)|currency}} Just{{(cart.coupon.discountPriceCents/100/365)|currency}} Cancel before {{endTrialDate.format('MMMD,YYYY')}} and your credit car Continue reading >>

Can Amino Acids Be Used By The Body To Make Glucose & Fatty Acids?

Can Amino Acids Be Used By The Body To Make Glucose & Fatty Acids?

Amino acids are nitrogen-containing molecules that are the building blocks of all proteins in food and in the body. They can be used as energy, yielding about 4 calories per gram, but their primary purpose is the synthesis and maintenance of body proteins including, but not limited to, muscle mass. Video of the Day During normal protein metabolism, a certain number of amino acids are pushed aside each day. When these amino acids are disproportionate to other amino acids for the synthesis of new protein, your liver and kidneys dispose of the nitrogen as urea, and the rest of the molecule is used as energy in a variety of ways. Then certain amino acids -- minus their nitrogen -- can enter the citric acid cycle -- the biochemical pathway that converts food into energy. Others can be converted to glucose or fat. This process may be enhanced when you take in more protein than you need. Your body relies on a continuous supply of glucose and fatty acids for energy for physical activity and cellular needs during rest. When you exercise, your body relies still more on glucose because fat is slower to metabolize. The higher your exercise intensity is, the more your body requires quicker-burning glucose. Some glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver and muscles and can be recruited when blood glucose is used up. When glycogen becomes depleted, the process of gluconeogenesis can take over -- the creation of new glucose from another source. The usual source for gluconeogenesis is amino acids. Healthy people store adequate body fat to cover their energy needs. Although certain amino acids can be converted to fatty acids, there should be no need for this to occur in order to supply energy. But if a very high protein intake adds substantially more calories, theoretically those extra Continue reading >>

Branched-chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness In College-age Females

Branched-chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness In College-age Females

Branched-Chain Amino Acid Plus Glucose Supplement Reduces Exercise-Induced Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in College-Age Females Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Vermont, Burlington, VT 05405, USA Received 25 January 2013; Accepted 19 February 2013 Academic Editors: H.Kalhoff, M. G.Nikolaidis, and F.Sanchez de Medina Copyright 2013 Danielle T. Leahy and Stephen J. Pintauro. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License , which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Supplementation with branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) has been used to stimulate muscle protein synthesis following exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if supplementation with BCAAs in combination with glucose would reduce exercise-induced delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). Using a double-blind crossover design, 20 subjects (11 females, 9 males) were randomly assigned to either BCAA ( ) groups. Subjects performed a squatting exercise to elicit DOMS and rated their muscle soreness every 24 hours for four days following exercise while continuing to consume the BCAA or placebo. Following a three-week recovery period, subjects returned and received the alternate BCAA or placebo treatment, repeating the same exercise and DOMS rating protocol for the next four days. BCAA supplementation in female subjects resulted in a significant decrease in DOMS versus placebo at 24 hours following exercise ( ). No significant effect of BCAA supplementation versus placebo was noted in male subjects nor when male and female results were analyzed together. This gender difference may be related to dose per body weight differences between male and female subjects. The Continue reading >>

The Effect Of An Amino Acid Beverage On Glucose Response And Glycogen Replenishment After Strenuous Exercise

The Effect Of An Amino Acid Beverage On Glucose Response And Glycogen Replenishment After Strenuous Exercise

, Volume 115, Issue6 , pp 12831294 | Cite as The effect of an amino acid beverage on glucose response and glycogen replenishment after strenuous exercise We previously reported that an amino acid mixture (AA) was able to lower the glucose response to an oral glucose challenge in both rats and humans. Increased glucose uptake and glycogen storage in muscle might be associated with the faster blood glucose clearance. We therefore tested the effect of two different doses of AA provided with a carbohydrate supplement on blood glucose homeostasis and muscle glycogen replenishment in human subjects after strenuous aerobic exercise. Ten subjects received a carbohydrate (1.2g/kg body weight, CHO), CHO/HAA (CHO+13g AA), or CHO/LAA (CHO+6.5g AA) supplement immediately and 2h after an intense cycling bout. Muscle biopsies were performed immediately and 4h after exercise. The glucose responses for CHO/HAA and CHO/LAA during recovery were significantly lower than CHO, as was the glucose area under the curve (CHO/HAA 1259.927.7, CHO/LAA 1251.547.7, CHO 1376.852.9mmol/L 4h, p<0.05). Glycogen storage rate was significantly lower in CHO/HAA compared with CHO, while it did not differ significantly between CHO/LAA or CHO (CHO/HAA 15.42.0, CHO/LAA 18.12.0, CHO 21.51.4mol/g wet muscle 4h). CHO/HAA caused a significantly higher insulin response and a greater effect on mTOR and Akt/PKB phosphorylation compared with CHO. Phosphorylation of AS160 and glycogen synthase did not differ across treatments. Likewise, there were no differences in blood lactate across treatments. The AA lowered the glucose response to a carbohydrate supplement after strenuous exercise. However, it was not effective in facilitating subsequent muscle glycogen storage. Amino acid mixtureIsoleucineGlucoseInsulinMuscle gly Continue reading >>

Are There Proteins, Glucose And Amino Acids In The Urine Of A Normal Person? - Quora

Are There Proteins, Glucose And Amino Acids In The Urine Of A Normal Person? - Quora

Are there proteins, glucose and amino acids in the urine of a normal person? This is a popular subject. It is not the first time I see it on Quora. The purpose of urine formation is to eliminate some waste products from the blood while preserving vital molecules like proteins, glucose, amino acids, and numerous others. Circulating blood proteins like albumin should be retained. That said, it is very rare in biology to have a process that is 100% efficient in all conditions and at all times. This is why quantitative values in biology need to be backed by a statistical analysis and comparison with appropriate controls to determine what is significant. In addition, the walls of the kidney tubules that surround the urine being formed produce a protein called TammHorsfall protein - Wikipedia . Its function is not known, but it may help prevent stone formation and urinary tract infection. This protein can be separated and detected by running a urine sample on a regular protein gel electrophoresis. Also, the bladder and the urinary tract are lined with epithelial cells that normally shed as the epithelium is renewed, and the urethra is populated with bacteria, all of which contain proteins that can be detected if you use a method that is sufficiently sensitive. So yes, a healthy persons urine can contain a certain amount of proteins. This website Protein urine test: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia puts the value at 020 milligrams of protein per deciliter of urine. A person with kidney damage will have higher values depending on how severe the damage is. You can grasp the difference between the urines of a subject with kidney failure and a healthy control on this image of a protein gel electrophoresis. As for glucose, a healthy person should retain 99.9% of blood glucose. You Continue reading >>

Glucogenic And Ketogenic Amino Acids

Glucogenic And Ketogenic Amino Acids

Amino acids can be classified as being “glucogenic” or “ketogenic” based on the type of intermediates that are formed during their breakdown or catabolism. The catabolism of glucogenic amino acids produces either pyruvate or one of the intermediates in the Krebs Cycle. The catabolism of ketogenic amino acids produces acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA (see Figure 1). There is a rare medical condition in which a person is deficient in the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA – a precursor for the Krebs Cycle. Signs and symptoms vary, but there are generally two main manifestations. First, patients can have an elevated blood lactate (lactic acid) level. Second, patients may have neurological defects, including microcephaly (a small head circumference) and/or mental retardation. Treatment is currently limited and not very effective. Moreover, damage to the brain is often irreversible. Your biochemistry study partner looks at Figure 1 and exclaims, “This doesn’t make sense - why can’t acetyl-coA and the ketogenic amino acids be converted back to pyruvate to create glucose using pyruvate dehydrogenase?” With your knowledge of basic chemistry, you answer: Continue reading >>

Glucogenic Amino Acids

Glucogenic Amino Acids

DOUGLAS C. HEIMBURGER MD, in Handbook of Clinical Nutrition (Fourth Edition) , 2006 The major aim of protein catabolism during a state of starvation is to provide the glucogenic amino acids (especially alanine and glutamine) that serve as substrates for endogenous glucose production (gluconeogenesis) in the liver. In the hypometabolic/starved state, protein breakdown for gluconeogenesis is minimized, especially as ketones become the substrate preferred by certain tissues. In the hypermetabolic/stress state, gluconeogenesis increases dramatically and in proportion to the degree of the insult to increase the supply of glucose (the major fuel of reparation). Glucose is the only fuel that can be utilized by hypoxic tissues (anaerobic glycolysis), by phagocytosing (bacteria-killing) white cells, and by young fibroblasts. Infusions of glucose partially offset a negative energy balance but do not significantly suppress the high rates of gluconeogenesis in the catabolic patient. Hence, adequate supplies of protein are needed to replace the amino acids utilized for this metabolic response. In summary, the two physiologic states represent different responses to starvation. The hypometabolic patient, who conserves body mass by reducing the metabolic rate and using fat as the primary fuel (rather than glucose and its precursor amino acids), is adapted to starvation. The hypermetabolic patient also uses fat as a fuel but rapidly breaks down body protein to produce glucose, the fuel of reparation, thereby causing loss of muscle and organ tissue and endangering vital body functions. Joerg Klepper*, in Handbook of Clinical Neurology , 2013 Gluconeogenesis, predominantly in the liver, generates glucose from noncarbohydrate substrates such as lactate, glycerol, and glucogenic amino acid Continue reading >>

Is Glucose A Sugar Protein Or Amino Acid?

Is Glucose A Sugar Protein Or Amino Acid?

Is glucose a sugar protein or amino acid? Is glucose a sugar protein or amino acid? Would you like to merge this question into it? already exists as an alternate of this question. Would you like to make it the primary and merge this question into it? Glucose is a sugar. That is usually broken down by the body in order to use if for energy. It is also a product of photosynthesis a long with water. Glucose is a sugar. That is usually broken down by the body in order to use if for energy. It is also a product of photosynthesis a long with water. Synthesist, Photo and Electrochemical PhD student at Dublin City University. Undergraduate in Analytical Science an amino acid is to a protein. ie starch is made of a chain of glucose with side branching. aa's combine to make a protein, to simplify things reabsorbed completely unless their concentrations in the filtrate exceed their transport maximum Glucose is a simple sugar, with the formula C6H12O6, whilst an amino acid is formed with peptide bonds, larger amino acids are often known as proteins. Look at any food packet to see the difference. The gluconeogenesis pathway converts amino acids (except lysine and leucine) to glucose. It's catalyzed by a variety of enzymes that are outlined in the Wikipedia article on Gluconeogenesis. A better comparison would be that amino acids make up protein similarly to the way that sugar makes up starch. Fat is not composed only of sugars. For an amino acid to become glucose, it must enter through the different members of the Kreb's Cycle. The first reaction is to remove the amino group of the amino acid before entering the cycle. There are 5 amino acids that enter through; pyruvate: alanine, cysteine, glycine, serine and threonine alpha ketoglutarate: glutamate, glutamine, arginine, histidine Continue reading >>

Amino Acids And Their Significance For Diabetes

Amino Acids And Their Significance For Diabetes

Arginine can reduce insulin resistance Diabetics cannot sufficiently utilise carbohydrates such as sugar, which is an important energy source. Insulin plays a significant role here as it is a blood-sugar reducing endogenous hormone and the production of insulin is lower in those affected. Furthermore, the cells in their bodies are not able to properly absorb the insulin that is available. The reason for this is the highly diminished sensitivity of the cells towards insulin. The cell membranes are unable to recognise the hormone and therefore do not absorb enough of it. The consequence of this so-called insulin resistance is that not enough energy is produced in the cells. Moreover, sugar cannot properly be degraded in the blood and therefore accumulates so that the blood sugar level increases. Over the long-term, a constantly elevated blood sugar level can damage the vessels and lead to calcification and typical resulting illnesses such as stroke or heart attack. Diabetes mellitus type 2 is mostly associated with older people, as the insulin sensitivity in the cells decreases with age. A well-received study from 1998 showed that arginine can reduce insulin resistance, meaning in turn that insulin sensitivity can be increased.1 Arginine - an important amino acid for insulin absorption Another study by European researchers showed that the amino acid arginine is of great importance for the sensitivity of the body’s cells towards insulin. Arginine is a precursor of nitrogen oxide, a transmitting substance which has a direct influence on insulin sensitivity. For the study, six type two diabetes patients were split into two groups. Both groups consumed a normal diabetic diet. One of the groups was administered a placebo to be taken three times daily for one month. The other Continue reading >>

Amino Acid Metabolism

Amino Acid Metabolism

Amino acids are categorized into two types - non-essential amino acids (can be synthesized by the body) and essential amino acids which cannot, and have to be provided from the diet. The non-essential amino acids are glycine, alanine, serine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, proline, cysteine, tyrosine and arginine. The essential amino acids include valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, lysine and histidine. The amino acids arginine, methionine and phenylalanine are considered essential because their rate of synthesis is insufficient to meet the growth needs of the body. Most of synthesized arginine is cleaved to form urea. Methionine is required in large amounts to produce cysteine if the latter amino acid is not adequately supplied in the diet. Similarly, phenylalanine is needed in large amounts to form tyrosine if the latter is not adequately supplied in the diet. The amino acid pool comes from protein degradation in the gastro-intestinal tract, intracellular protein degradation and de novo synthesis and is used in protein synthesis and metabolism. Each amino acid type has its own metabolic fate and specific functions. Not only does this metabolic process generate energy, but it also generates key intermediates for the biosynthesis of certain non-essential amino acids, glucose and fat. Synthesis of non-essential amino acids Essential amino acids - valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, lysine and histidine - cannot be synthesized by the human body and thus have to be provided from the diet. While the amino acids arginine, methionine and phenyalanine can be synthesized by mammalian cells they are considered dietary essentials as their rate of synthesis is insufficient Continue reading >>

Connections Of Carbohydrate, Protein, And Lipid Metabolic Pathways

Connections Of Carbohydrate, Protein, And Lipid Metabolic Pathways

Connecting Other Sugars to Glucose Metabolism Sugars, such as galactose, fructose, and glycogen, are catabolized into new products in order to enter the glycolytic pathway. Learning Objectives Identify the types of sugars involved in glucose metabolism Key Takeaways When blood sugar levels drop, glycogen is broken down into glucose -1-phosphate, which is then converted to glucose-6-phosphate and enters glycolysis for ATP production. In the liver, galactose is converted to glucose-6-phosphate in order to enter the glycolytic pathway. Fructose is converted into glycogen in the liver and then follows the same pathway as glycogen to enter glycolysis. Sucrose is broken down into glucose and fructose; glucose enters the pathway directly while fructose is converted to glycogen. disaccharide: A sugar, such as sucrose, maltose, or lactose, consisting of two monosaccharides combined together. glycogen: A polysaccharide that is the main form of carbohydrate storage in animals; converted to glucose as needed. monosaccharide: A simple sugar such as glucose, fructose, or deoxyribose that has a single ring. You have learned about the catabolism of glucose, which provides energy to living cells. But living things consume more than glucose for food. How does a turkey sandwich end up as ATP in your cells? This happens because all of the catabolic pathways for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids eventually connect into glycolysis and the citric acid cycle pathways. Metabolic pathways should be thought of as porous; that is, substances enter from other pathways, and intermediates leave for other pathways. These pathways are not closed systems. Many of the substrates, intermediates, and products in a particular pathway are reactants in other pathways. Like sugars and amino acids, the catabo Continue reading >>

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