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Is Glucose An Amino Acid?

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In this video I discuss what are amino acids, what are amino acids made of, and what do amino acids do in the body. I also cover what are peptide bonds, polypeptide chains, how amino acids form proteins, some functions of amino acids, and what are amino acids used to build. Transcript We are going to start by looking at the molecular structure of a typical amino acid, dont worry, I am going to make it easy to understand. The basic structure of amino acids is that they consist of a carboxyl group, a lone hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a side chain, which is often referred to as an R-group. The formation of the side chain is what makes amino acids different from one another. As you can see in this diagram, these 4 are all connected to a carbon atom, which is referred to as the alpha carbon. Not every amino acid follows this exact structure, but, most do. On the screen I have 3 different amino acids, lysine, tryptophan, and leucine. You can see that each has a carboxyl group, an alpha carbon, a amino group, and an R-group that is different from each other. There are 23 total amino acids that are proteinogenic. Proteinogenic amino acids are precursors to proteins, which means they are compounds that participate in a chemical reaction to produce another compound. Of these 23 amino acids, 20 of them are called standard amino acids, and the other 3 are non-standard amino acids. These are listed on the screen. In this video we are going to focus on the standard amino acids, as they are what make up proteins. These amino acids can be classified many different ways, we are going to classify them in a basic nutritional way. Essential and nonessential. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we dont get them from the food we eat. There is a subgroup of nonessential amino acids that are considered to be conditional amino acids. The list of conditional amino acids is not definitive. For instance, in times of illness or stress, there are certain amino acids the body cant produce sufficiently, and children's bodys havent developed the ability to produce certain amino acids yet. There are 9 essential and 11 nonessential amino acids, ive listed them on the screen. So, how do amino acids form proteins? Proteins are built from the 20 standard amino acids. Well, the first thing that happens is that 2 amino acids come together to form a peptide bond. A peptide bond is when the carboxyl group of one amino acid bonds with the amino group of another amino acid, as you can see here. If you notice 2 hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom have been removed from the peptide bonding process. So, the peptide bonding results in the release of a water moleculeh20. But, we are not finished. More amino acids can link in, and form what is called a polypeptide chain. Some proteins are single polypeptide chains, and other proteins have polypeptide chains linked together. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids. Proteins are often labeled as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids that we discussed earlier. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. Complete protein foods includeanimal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cows milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal. Amino acids also make up most enzymes. These Enzymes are proteins, so they are made by linking amino acids together in a specific and unique order. This chain of amino acids then forms a unique shape that allows the enzyme created to serve a single specific purpose. Enzymes function as catalysts, which means that they speed up the rate at which metabolic processed and reactions occur. Amino acids can also be metabolized for energy. Some hormones like epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, are amino acid derived. Some neurotransmitters like serotonin are derived from amino acids. The amino acid arginine is a precursor of nitric oxide, which helps regulate blood pressure, improves sleep quality and increases endurance and strength. Glutathione, which is a powerful antioxidant is formed from amino acids. Other sources... https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Amino_acid http://www.fitday.com/fitness-article... http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBiology/...

Amino Acid Metabolism

Amino acids are categorized into two types - non-essential amino acids (can be synthesized by the body) and essential amino acids which cannot, and have to be provided from the diet. The non-essential amino acids are glycine, alanine, serine, asparagine, aspartic acid, glutamine, glutamic acid, proline, cysteine, tyrosine and arginine. The essential amino acids include valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, methionine, threonine, lysine and histidine. The amino acids arginine, methionine and phenylalanine are considered essential because their rate of synthesis is insufficient to meet the growth needs of the body. Most of synthesized arginine is cleaved to form urea. Methionine is required in large amounts to produce cysteine if the latter amino acid is not adequately supplied in the diet. Similarly, phenylalanine is needed in large amounts to form tyrosine if the latter is not adequately supplied in the diet. The amino acid pool comes from protein degradation in the gastro-intestinal tract, intracellular protein degradation and de novo synthesis and is used in protein synthesis and metabolism. Each amino acid type has its own metabolic fate and specific functions. Continue reading >>

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  1. [deleted]

    Is there any difference? Also, I'm wondering why Atkins promises dramatic weightloss (14lbs in first 2 weeks) and it became so popular because you'd lose weight quickly when all I keep seeing on here is people talking about plateus and slow weight loss.
    It's very restrictive for a diet that doesn't promise quick results (and I feel hungry and tired tbh).
    Thanks :)

  2. validrouge

    I've "done Atkins" with huge successes before. I would recommend reading the book, be careful to get the one actually written by Dr. Atkins himself (2002 is the version I went by)--don't go by the Atkins Nutritional Company website (it's all commercial and more concerned with selling bars and shakes than your actual health, IMO).
    I would say the difference between Atkins and "Keto" (as done by this reddit) is that Atkins Induction, which is the first 2 weeks of that program, is almost the same as we do here. It has a few more restrictions than what this board uses, such as limiting vegetables to 3 cups per day which can often make your total carb count far below the 20 net carbs per day allowance. He also limits the amount of dairy (cream and cheese) you can have per day.
    Beyond the first two weeks (Atkins induction) you start to add various categories of foods (starting with more vegetables, at 5 grams net carb per day) back into your diet slowly to see 1. if you continue to lose weight 2. if you have any kind of intolerance to that food. I think this is a really good idea. If do a search on this reddit, you'll notice posts from people after they lose all their weight "doing keto", they don't know what to do "after keto". If you do Atkins by the book, you'll have added all the foods back into your diet, and you'll know which ones affect you adversely and you know how to maintain your losses. There is no question about "what do now" because you've slowly introduced all the foods back while losing weight until you get to maintenance. Dr. Atkins did a very good job of laying out his whole plan--initial weight loss, ongoing weight loss, and lifetime maintenance.
    If you truly want to educate yourself on Ketogenic diets--and you spend the time reading Taubes, Volek, Phinney, Atia and more--I suggest you also read Dr. Atkins himself as well.

  3. anbeav

    Atkins isn't necessarily ketogenic due to high protein. On both keto and atkins you lose water weight in the first 1-2 weeks. You then continue losing fat as on any other diet, slowly with plateaus.
    Neither are that restrictive. Yes you can't have carbs but focus on what you can eat not what you can't. If you're turning to keto because you think atkins is limited, the food choices are basically the same. However with added fat on keto you will likely feel less hungry.

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Moof's Medical Biochemistry Video Course: http://moof-university.thinkific.com/... In this video, I define and describe glucogenic and ketogenic amino acids, as well as list and depict which amino acids are exclusively glucogenic, which amino acids are exclusively ketogenic, and which amino acids are both glucogenic and ketogenic. I also show how the amino acids feed into the different key products of the TCA Cycle. For a suggested viewing order of the videos, information on tutoring, personalized video solutions, and an opportunity to support Moof University financially, visit MoofUniversity.com, and follow Moof University on the different social media platforms. Don't forget to LIKE, COMMENT, and SUBSCRIBE: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c...

Glucogenic And Ketogenic Amino Acids

Amino acids can be classified as being “glucogenic” or “ketogenic” based on the type of intermediates that are formed during their breakdown or catabolism. The catabolism of glucogenic amino acids produces either pyruvate or one of the intermediates in the Krebs Cycle. The catabolism of ketogenic amino acids produces acetyl CoA or acetoacetyl CoA (see Figure 1). There is a rare medical condition in which a person is deficient in the pyruvate dehydrogenase enzyme that converts pyruvate to acetyl CoA – a precursor for the Krebs Cycle. Signs and symptoms vary, but there are generally two main manifestations. First, patients can have an elevated blood lactate (lactic acid) level. Second, patients may have neurological defects, including microcephaly (a small head circumference) and/or mental retardation. Treatment is currently limited and not very effective. Moreover, damage to the brain is often irreversible. Your biochemistry study partner looks at Figure 1 and exclaims, “This doesn’t make sense - why can’t acetyl-coA and the ketogenic amino acids be converted back to pyruvate to create glucose using pyruvate dehydrogenase?” With your knowledge of basic chemistry, y Continue reading >>

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  1. bostonwaifu

    How long should I stay in ketosis? If I'm loosing how long should I stay in the burn? Will it taper off if I stay in ketosis too long?

  2. Oggie81

    http://imgur.com/a/NhEHb

  3. tocra619

    I was just about to dig this up! lol

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In this video I discuss the basics of what are complete proteins and incomplete proteins, and what essential and non essential amino acids are. I also discuss what are standard amino acids in the amino acids list, and some of the functions of proteins. Transcript (partial with notes). Amino acids are molecules that make up proteins. Protein consumption is important because protein has many functions in the body, such as being used to make enzymes, hormones, build and maintain tissues, construct transport proteins, which transport fats throughout the body, and make antibodies, which help neutralize some bacteria and viruses in the body. There are 20 different standard amino acids that your body requires for healthy function. These amino acids are often classified as essential and non-essential amino acids. Nonessential amino acids are amino acids that our bodies can produce even if we dont get them from the food we eat. There are 11 non essential amino acids. Essential amino acids cannot be made by the body, so, they must come from foods we eat. There are 9 essential amino acids. So, when we eat foods that contain protein, in essence we are eating amino acids, however, not all protein contains all 20 of the standard amino acids.. Protein is often classified as complete or incomplete protein. A Complete protein is a protein source that contains a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids. An incomplete protein does not contain a sufficient quantity of all 9 of the essential amino acids Complete protein foods includeanimal foods such as red meat, poultry, pork and fish. Eggs and dairy products such as cows milk, yogurt, and cheese. Plant foods such as soy products, black beans, kidney beans, pumpkin seeds, quinoa, pistachios, just to name a few. You can also combine incomplete protein foods to create a complete protein meal, or to get the essential amino acids throughout the day. And that is the basics on essential and non-essential amino acids and complete and incomplete proteins.

Peritoneal Dialysis With Solutions Containing Amino Acids Plus Glucose Promotes Protein Synthesis During Oral Feeding

Peritoneal Dialysis with Solutions Containing Amino Acids Plus Glucose Promotes Protein Synthesis during Oral Feeding Departments of *Internal Medicine and Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands Dr. Hoey Lan Tjiong, Department of Internal Medicine, Erasmus MC, Dr. Molewaterplein 40, 3015 GD Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Phone: +31-10-4634610; Fax: +31-10-4635092; E-mail: h.tjiong{at}erasmusmc.nl Inadequate food intake plays an important role in the development of malnutrition. Recently, an increased rate of protein anabolism was shown in fasting state in patients who were on automated peritoneal dialysis with combined amino acids (AA) and glucose (G) dialysate serving as a source of both proteins and calories. This study investigated the effects of such a dialysis procedure in the daytime in the fed state in patients who were on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). A crossover study was performed in 12 CAPD patients to compare, at 7-d intervals, a mixture of AA (Nutrineal 1.1%) plus G (Physioneal l.36 to 3.86%) versus G only as control dialysate. Whole-body protein turnover was studied by primed constant intravenous infusion o Continue reading >>

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  1. Joanna_Osterloh

    My mom found some correlation between low carb consumption and depression. I believe she found this on a podcast of some sort. Perhaps THM?
    Regardless, I’m having a difficult time finding information for or against this idea. Any help provided would be greatly appreciated!

  2. James.K

    The Implications of Low Cholesterol in Depression and Suicide
    James M. Greenblatt, M.D. For the last quarter century, we have been told that cholesterol is dangerous for our health and were advised to avoid it in order to live a healthier life. However, cholesterol is essential in maintaining good...

  3. jilliangordona

    Anecdotal, but my depression has disappeared since removing carbs

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