Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats
Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats supply 90% of the dry weight of the diet and 100% of its energy. All three provide energy (measured in calories), but the amount of energy in 1 gram (1/28 ounce) differs: These nutrients also differ in how quickly they supply energy. Carbohydrates are the quickest, and fats are the slowest. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats are digested in the intestine, where they are broken down into their basic units: The body uses these basic units to build substances it needs for growth, maintenance, and activity (including other carbohydrates, proteins, and fats). Carbohydrates Depending on the size of the molecule, carbohydrates may be simple or complex. Simple carbohydrates: Various forms of sugar, such as glucose and sucrose (table sugar), are simple carbohydrates. They are small molecules, so they can be broken down and absorbed by the body quickly and are the quickest source of energy. They quickly increase the level of blood glucose (blood sugar). Fruits, dairy products, honey, and maple syrup contain large amounts of simple carbohydrates, which provide the sweet taste in most candies and cakes. Complex carbohydrates: These carbohydrates are composed of long strings of simple carbohydrates. Because complex carbohydrates are larger molecules than simple carbohydrates, they must be broken down into simple carbohydrates before they can be absorbed. Thus, they tend to provide energy to the body more slowly than simple carbohydrates but still more quickly than protein or fat. Because they are digested more slowly than simple carbohydrates, they are less likely to be converted to fat. They also increase blood sugar levels more slowly and to lower levels than simple carbohydrates but for a longer time. Complex carbohydrates include starches and fib Continue reading >>
How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats
How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats The human body is remarkably adept at making do with whatever type of food is available. Our ability to survive on a variety of diets has been a vital adaptation for a species that evolved under conditions where food sources were scarce and unpredictable. Imagine if you had to depend on successfully hunting a woolly mammoth or stumbling upon a berry bush for sustenance! Today, calories are mostly cheap and plentifulperhaps too much so. Understanding what the basic macronutrients have to offer can help us make better choices when it comes to our own diets. From the moment a bite of food enters the mouth, each morsel of nutrition within starts to be broken down for use by the body. So begins the process of metabolism, the series of chemical reactions that transform food into components that can be used for the body's basic processes. Proteins, carbohydrates , and fats move along intersecting sets of metabolic pathways that are unique to each major nutrient. Fundamentallyif all three nutrients are abundant in the dietcarbohydrates and fats will be used primarily for energy while proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones, muscle, and other essential biological equipment. Proteins in food are broken down into pieces (called amino acids) that are then used to build new proteins with specific functions, such as catalyzing chemical reactions, facilitating communication between different cells, or transporting biological molecules from here to there. When there is a shortage of fats or carbohydrates, proteins can also yield energy. Fats typically provide more than half of the body's energy needs. Fat from food is broken down into fatty acids, which can travel in the blood and be captured by hungry cells. Fatty aci Continue reading >>
Body Fuel - The Difference Between Carbohydrates, Protein And Fats
Understanding your bodys fuel system will give your players an edge during game time. Theyll be able to make educated decisions about how their diet affects their play. Your body has three main types of nutrients (called macronutrients): carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Im not going to go into a ton of detail about each of them. Because you dont need to know everything. Too much information and you and your players will become confused and forget it all. At least, thats what happened to me the first couple of times anyway. You need to know the essentials the things that are most important to athletes. Heres the essential things you need to know about each fuel source. Carbohydrates: Your Bodys Primary Fuel Source Carbohydrates are your bodys main fuel source. There are two types of carbohydrates: simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are carbs that your body can break down into glucose and burn as energy almost immediately. If you eat a slice of watermelon, it only takes about 20 minutes before the sugar hits your blood stream. High doses of simple sugars can cause sugar spikes and crashes, while small doses can help give an immediate energy boost. Complex carbohydrates are carbs that your body needs to digest and slowly break down. Theyre converted into simple sugars over time as your body metabolizes the carbs. Bread, rice and vegetables are examples of complex carbs. Its important to note that not all carbs are created equal. Though a Kit-Kat bar and a banana are both simple carbs, the latter has far more nutrition and causes less of an insulin spike than the Kit-Kat bar. As a rule of thumb, opt for whole foods rather than processed foods and avoid processed sugars. Fats serve several important functions in the body. For one, theyre a store of energy. When your Continue reading >>
What Is Glucose?
Starches, sugars and fiber are the carbohydrates in food. Carbohydrates are a molecule that plants make during photosynthesis, combining carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. They are very important in your body's metabolism because they are generally the part of food that is digested most quickly. Carbohydrates can give you quick energy, and cause a rise in blood sugar levels. Diabetics, in particular, need to pay attention to the carbohydrates they eat to help manage their blood sugar. Some carbohydrates, those found in whole grains and leafy vegetables, for example have a much slower impact on blood sugar than carbohydrates in fruits or candy. It's easy to consume a lot of carbohydrates, as foods like breads, pasta, cake, cookies and potatoes are loaded with them. Nutrition experts suggest that you should only get 45 to 65 percent of your daily nutrition from carbohydrates. Continue reading >>
Overview Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. We require them in relatively large amounts for normal function and good health. These are also energy-yielding nutrients, meaning these nutrients provide calories. On This Page: What are Carbohydrates? Carbohydrates Understanding Carbohydrates Every few years, carbohydrates are vilified as public enemy number one and are accused of being the root of obesity, diabetes, heart disease and more. Carb-bashers shun yogurt and fruit and fill up on bun-less cheeseburgers. Instead of beans, they eat bacon. They dine on the tops of pizza and toss the crusts into the trash. They so vehemently avoid carbs and spout off a list of their evils that they may have you fearing your food. Rest assured, you can and should eat carbohydrates. In fact, much of the world relies on carbohydrates as their major source of energy. Rice, for instance, is a staple in Southeast Asia. The carbohydrate-rich potato was so important to the people of Ireland that when the blight devastated the potato crop in the mid 1800s, much of the population was wiped out. What are Carbohydrates? The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain. Simple carbohydrates, usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. Simple carbohydrates may be single sugar molecules called monosaccharides or two monosaccharides joined together called disaccharides. Glucose, a monosaccharide, is the most abundant sugar molecule and is the preferred energy source for the brain. It is a part of all disaccharides Continue reading >>
Why Fats (and Not Carbs) Are The Body's Preferred Fuel Source
Why Fats (And Not Carbs) Are The Body's Preferred Fuel Source #dmt , #healthandfitness , #lifehack , #occult , #superfoods , #synchro , #transhumanism , #yoga , anti-inflammatory , fitness , health , nutrition Insulin. Not only does it look cool...it's also the key to understanding how your body stores fat. If you keep up with the Synchro Life Design System, you'll know by now that I'm a huge advocate of eating a diet that is low-glycemic load and fuels the body primarily with high-quality, easily digested fats. Switching to this diet was hugely transformative for me, and if you look around a bit online, you'll find it's a rapidly growing movement that has produced similar results for hundreds of thousands of people. If your goals are stable vibrant energy, high cognitive performance and low body-fat - this diet produces results better than any other I have come across. Initially, it looks a little counterintuitive. Why does eating lots of fat produce high energy and low body fat? First, it's important to make a distinction between types of fat. There are a lot of undesirable types of fat out there - but even many types of fats commonly regarded as "healthy" turn out to be closer to "OK" than "beneficial". Secondly, understanding how our body precesses fats and carbohydrates differently is key to understanding why certain types of foods make you feel or look a certain way. We'll cover both in detail below. Sugar in your food generally requires little to no digesting or processing and will be in your bloodstream inside 60 minutes after eating. In response, blood sugar shoots up for a bit before coming back down rapidly a short while later. Other carbohydrates, referred to as complex carbohydrates, will be sugar in your bloodstream as well eventually. It takes your diges Continue reading >>
The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins And Fats
BULLETINS HEALTH A-Z • Overview • Issues HOT TOPICS NEWSLETTERS The Macronutrients: Carbohydrates, Proteins And Fats Chester J. Zelasko, Ph.D. | August 2004 The foods we eat contain nutrients. Carbohydrate, protein, and fat are considered macronutrients because we need a substantial amount of all three everyday to keep our bodies operating smoothly. They provide us with energy but they also have other important functions in our bodies you may not realize. For each energy nutrient, we'll find out: What is the nutrient used for in our bodies besides energy? How is the energy nutrient stored in our body? What foods contain the energy nutrient? What happens if we eat too much of it? Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are the body's primary source of energy for most activities. Carbohydrates are found in simple forms, such as fruit or table sugar, or complex forms, like whole wheat breads, rice, or potatoes -- but in all cases they're made up of smaller units. These smaller units are mostly glucose and fructose. The sugar lactose is primarily found in dairy products like milk. All are combinations of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a perfect balance for use in the body. There are other minor sugars found in foods that are important for cellular communication. Use Carbohydrates have one prime directive: provide your body's cells with energy to carry on cell functions. Glucose is the preferred source of energy for the brain -- real brain food -- and for muscles during physical activity. Carbohydrates contain about 4 calories per gram. What’s a calorie? It is a unit of energy used to tell us how much potential energy is stored within food. Technically, it is the energy required to raise the temperature of 1 liter of water, 1 degree centigrade. If you can’t relate to that (as m Continue reading >>
Protein: Metabolism And Effect On Blood Glucose Levels.
Abstract Insulin is required for carbohydrate, fat, and protein to be metabolized. With respect to carbohydrate from a clinical standpoint, the major determinate of the glycemic response is the total amount of carbohydrate ingested rather than the source of the carbohydrate. This fact is the basic principle of carbohydrate counting for meal planning. Fat has little, if any, effect on blood glucose levels, although a high fat intake does appear to contribute to insulin resistance. Protein has a minimal effect on blood glucose levels with adequate insulin. However, with insulin deficiency, gluconeogenesis proceeds rapidly and contributes to an elevated blood glucose level. With adequate insulin, the blood glucose response in persons with diabetes would be expected to be similar to the blood glucose response in persons without diabetes. The reason why protein does not increase blood glucose levels is unclear. Several possibilities might explain the response: a slow conversion of protein to glucose, less protein being converted to glucose and released than previously thought, glucose from protein being incorporated into hepatic glycogen stores but not increasing the rate of hepatic glucose release, or because the process of gluconeogenesis from protein occurs over a period of hours and glucose can be disposed of if presented for utilization slowly and evenly over a long time period. Continue reading >>
Do Our Bodies Convert All Food (fats, Carbs And Proteins) To Glucose, Or In Other Words, Do Our Cells Burn Anything Other Than Glucose?
Answered May 12, 2015 Author has 219 answers and 550.2k answer views Our body doesn't convert all the carbs, proteins and fat we eat to glucose! Carbohydrates: Only those carbohydrates which are digestible by our gut are used, remaining else (cellulose for that matter) remains in the gut, absorbs water and aids in proper digestion; the so called roughage. Yeah, the digested ones which may either give glucose, fructose or galactose as the final product, are all converted to glucose. Proteins: All amino acids obtained from the protein digestion are not converted to glucose, only a few of them are, remaining is converted to ketone bodies (another energy suppplier as glucose). Fats: Fats (neutral fats or triglycerides) are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. From this, only glycerol and odd chain fatty acid (cf. even chain fatty acid) can produce glucose. So, what's with this compulsion of glucose to be present in the blood in the right quantity always? "Lest the brain will be starved, for it needs glucose from blood", you would have heard. Partly true because brain can live by utilizing ketone bodies as well. But for an optimal neurotransmitter (chemical signals aiding communication between two or more neurons) production Krebs cycle/ citric acid cycle should occur, which would be shunted when brain cells use ketone bodies, in contrary glucose would aid positively for krebs cycle to occur and produce intermediates which can be furthur be utilised for neurotransmitters production. Nevertheless, there are cells solely dependent on blood glucose for survival (RBCs eg), and these cells need to continuous supply of glucose for their survival. Continue reading >>
Fat For Fuel: Why Dietary Fat, Not Glucose, Is The Preferred Body Fuel
Contrary to popular belief, glucose is NOT the preferred fuel of human metabolism; the fact is that burning dietary fat for fuel may actually be the key to optimal health Carbohydrate intake is the primary factor that determines your body's fat ratio, and processed grains and sugars (particularly fructose) are the primary culprits behind our skyrocketing obesity and diabetes rates According to experts, carbs should make up only 20 percent of your diet, while 50-70 percent of your diet should be healthy fats. Fat is far more satiating than carbs, so if you have cut down on carbs and feel ravenous, this is a sign that you need more healthy fat to burn for fuel By Dr. Mercola While we may consider ourselves to be at the pinnacle of human development, our modern food manufacturing processes have utterly failed at improving health and increasing longevity. During the Paleolithic period, many thousands of years ago, our ancestors ate primarily vegetables, fruit, nuts, roots and meat—and a wide variety of it. This diet was high in fats and protein, and low in grain- and sugar-derived carbohydrates. The average person's diet today, on the other hand, is the complete opposite, and the average person's health is a testament of what happens when you adhere to a faulty diet. Humans today suffer more chronic and debilitating diseases than ever before. And there can be little doubt that our food choices play a major role in this development. Quite simply, you were not designed to eat large amounts of refined sugar, high fructose corn syrup, cereal, bread, potatoes and pasteurized milk products. As Mark Sisson states in the featured article:1 "If you want to live a better life and eat the best foods nature provided for health and fitness, then it's time to ditch the old paradigms an Continue reading >>
Carbohydrates, Proteins, Fats, And Blood Sugar
The body uses three main nutrients to function-carbohydrate, protein, and fat. These nutrients are digested into simpler compounds. Carbohydrates are used for energy (glucose). Fats are used for energy after they are broken into fatty acids. Protein can also be used for energy, but the first job is to help with making hormones, muscle, and other proteins. Nutrients needed by the body and what they are used for Type of nutrient Where it is found How it is used Carbohydrate (starches and sugars) Breads Grains Fruits Vegetables Milk and yogurt Foods with sugar Broken down into glucose, used to supply energy to cells. Extra is stored in the liver. Protein Meat Seafood Legumes Nuts and seeds Eggs Milk products Vegetables Broken down into amino acids, used to build muscle and to make other proteins that are essential for the body to function. ADVERTISINGinRead invented by Teads Fat Oils Butter Egg yolks Animal products Broken down into fatty acids to make cell linings and hormones. Extra is stored in fat cells. After a meal, the blood sugar (glucose) level rises as carbohydrate is digested. This signals the beta cells of the pancreas to release insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells to be used for energy. If all the glucose is not needed for energy, some of it is stored in fat cells and in the liver as glycogen. As sugar moves from the blood to the cells, the blood glucose level returns to a normal between-meal range. Several hormones and processes help regulate the blood sugar level and keep it within a certain range (70 mg/dL to 120 mg/dL). When the blood sugar level falls below that range, which may happen between meals, the body has at least three ways of reacting: Cells in the pancreas can release glucagon, a hormone that signals the b Continue reading >>
What Gives The Most Energy Per Gram: Fat, Protein Or Carbohydrates?
The amount of energy you'll get from carbohydrate, protein and fat is measured in calories per gram. Fats have the most energy and proteins have the same amount as carbohydrates, but their value as a source of energy is determined by more than the calories gained from one gram. Other factors, such as your activity level and diet, impact which macronutrient is used for energy. Carbohydrates have four calories per gram. Sugars and starches get digested to produce glucose, which is the form of energy preferred by every cell in your body. They also have the advantage of being converted into energy faster than fats and protein. Inside your cells, special structures convert glucose into the chemical that stores and carries energy: ATP. Each molecule of glucose produces 36 to 38 molecules of ATP. If you eat more carbohydrates than you need for energy, the excess glucose is stored in fatty tissue as triglycerides or in the muscles and liver as glycogen. Fiber Even though fiber is a carbohydrate, it passes through your system mostly intact and doesn't get absorbed into the bloodstream, so it provides very little energy for the body. However, some types of fiber are fermented in your large intestine, producing short-chain fatty acids that are metabolized for energy. This energy may be used throughout your body, but it also helps support the growth of healthy bacteria in the intestine. It's estimated that each gram of fermentable fiber has 1.5 to 2.5 calories. Fat When your body runs out of glucose, it turns to fat for energy, which has 9 calories in every gram. This is a little more than double the amount in carbohydrates. Converting fat into energy takes longer than it does to convert glucose into energy, because fat must be first be broken down into its two component parts: fat Continue reading >>
What You Need To Know About Carbs
Carbohydrates, or saccharides, are biomolecules. The four major classes of biomolecules are carbohydrates, proteins, nucleotides, and lipids. Carbohydrates are the most abundant of the four. Also known as "carbs," carbohydrates have several roles in living organisms, including energy transportation. They are also structural components of plants and insects. Carbohydrate derivatives are involved in reproduction, the immune system, the development of disease, and blood clotting. Contents of this article: "Saccharide" is another word for "carbohydrate." Foods high in carbohydrates include bread, pasta, beans, potatoes, rice, and cereals. One gram of carbohydrate contains approximately 4 kilocalories High glycemic index (GI) carbohydrates quickly enter the bloodstream as glucose Switching to a low-GI diet improves the chance of a healthy weight and lifestyle What are carbohydrates? Carbohydrates, also known as saccharides or carbs, are sugars or starches. They are a major food source and a key form of energy for most organisms. They consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. Two basic compounds make up carbohydrates: Aldehydes: These are double-bonded carbon and oxygen atoms, plus a hydrogen atom. Ketones: These are double-bonded carbon and oxygen atoms, plus two additional carbon atoms. Carbs can combine together to form polymers, or chains. These polymers can function as: long-term food storage molecules protective membranes for organisms and cells the main structural support for plants Most organic matter on earth is made up of carbohydrates. They are involved in many aspects of life. Types of carbohydrate There are various types of carbohydrate. They include monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides This is the smallest possible sugar unit Continue reading >>
Sources Of Glucose
Our bodies convert food into energy. Although we get energy and calories from carbohydrate, protein, and fat, our main source of energy is from carbohydrate. Our bodies convert carbohydrate into glucose, a type of sugar. See Illustration: How Food Affects Blood Sugar Many foods contain a combination of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The amount of each in the food we eat affects how quickly our bodies change that food into glucose. This is how different foods affect how our blood sugar levels: Carbohydrate: Includes bread, rice, pasta, potatoes, vegetables, fruit, sugar, yogurt, and milk. Our bodies change 100 percent of the carbohydrate we eat into glucose. This affects our blood sugar levels quickly, within an hour or two after eating Protein: Includes fish, meat, cheese, and peanut butter. Although our bodies change some of the protein we eat into glucose, most of this glucose is stored in our liver and not released into our bloodstream. Eating protein usually has very little impact on blood sugar. Fat: Includes butter, salad dressing, avocado, olive oil. We turn less than 10 percent of the fat we eat into glucose. The glucose from fat is absorbed slowly and it won't cause an immediate rise in blood sugar. Even though we don't get much glucose from fat, a meal that's high in fat can affect how fast our bodies digest carbohydrate. Because fat slows down the digestion of carbohydrate, it also slows down the rise in blood sugar levels. This sometimes can cause a high blood sugar level several hours after eating. For some people, this delayed reaction can be quite a surprise. For example, after eating a meal high in fat, a person might have a blood sugar reading that's close to normal before going to bed. But the next morning, he or she might have a fasting blood sugar t Continue reading >>
Carbohydrates And Lipids
Macromolecules of Life: Readings: Starr, Chapter 3 pages 34-35, 38-41. Don't forget This Week's WarmUp and Good For Trans Fats 101: What are some of the health effects of partially hydrogenated oils like margerine and shortening? The object of opening the mind, as of opening the mouth, is to shut it again on something solid. - Gilbert Keith Chesterton, 1864-1936 I. Living matter is made of cells, but what are cells made of? Cells are made of molecules based on based on 4 main chemical elements: carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen (plus lots of other elements) and the many compounds that can be made from combining these elements. Cells put the chemical "building blocks" C, O, H, and N (and others) together to make useful molecules for food and energy that allow them to perform the 5 functions of life. Enzymatic reactions inside cells join together small organic molecules (monomers; building blocks) to form large molecules (polymers) by a process called dehydration synthesis, to make Macromolecules: The 4 main macromolecules in cells made largely from C, O, H, and N are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, and Nucleic Acids. For each of these 4 macromolecules, I would like you to know: 1. What the monomer (basic building block) is 2. What types of polymers result 3. What the functions of each macromolecule are in cells. II. Carbohydrates (sugars, starches, cellulose) Made from joining H2O and CO2 by plants during photosynthesis (we will discuss this on February 12) Monomer: Simple sugars: CH2O (ratio of one carbon and one oxygen to every 2 hydrogens) Bread, cereal, potatoes, fruits, vegetables, and pasta = are made mostly of carbohydrates (sugars and starches). Three main functions: energy for cells, structural support, cell-cell communication 1. A. Monosaccharides (simple Continue reading >>