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Is Fruity Breath A Symptom Of Hyperglycemia?

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) affects people who have diabetes. Several factors can contribute to hyperglycemia in people with diabetes, including food and physical activity choices, illness, nondiabetes medications, or skipping or not taking enough glucose-lowering medication. It's important to treat hyperglycemia, because if left untreated, hyperglycemia can become severe and lead to serious complications requiring emergency care, such as a diabetic coma. In the long term, persistent hyperglycemia, even if not severe, can lead to complications affecting your eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart. Symptoms Hyperglycemia doesn't cause symptoms until glucose values are significantly elevated — above 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 11 millimoles per liter (mmol/L). Symptoms of hyperglycemia develop slowly over several days or weeks. The longer blood sugar levels stay high, the more serious the symptoms become. However, some people who've had type 2 diabetes for a long time may not show any symptoms despite elevated blood sugars. Early signs and symptoms Recognizing early symptoms of hyperglycemia can help you treat the condition promptly. Watch for: Frequent urination Increased thirst Blurred vision Fatigue Headache Later signs and symptoms If hyperglycemia goes untreated, it can cause toxic acids (ketones) to build up in your blood and urine (ketoacidosis). Signs and symptoms include: Fruity-smelling breath Nausea and vomiting Shortness of breath Dry mouth Weakness Confusion Coma Abdominal pain When to see a doctor Call 911 or emergency medical assistance if: You're sick and can't keep any food or fluids down, and Your blood glucose levels are persistently above 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) and you have ketones in your urine Make an appointment with your Continue reading >>

Treatment Strategies For Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Treatment Strategies For Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Many patients with diabetes often do not completely grasp the consequences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on vascular health, and health care providers should not assume that a patient has been well educated on the pathophysiology of diabetes. Some fundamental points to review include the basic concept of carbohydrates, which convert to glucose in the digestive tract. Glucose then enters the blood, triggering the pancreas to release the hormone insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin then takes the glucose out of the blood and brings it to cells, which use the glucose for energy. When the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, an excess of glucose remains in the blood vessel, resulting in hyperglycemia, inducing vascular damage. In addition, white blood cells are damaged and lose their effectiveness in combating disease. With insulin resistance, there are fewer receptors on the cell to receive insulin and glucose; therefore, the cells do not receive glucose for energy. Hypoglycemia This occurs when the level of insulin in the blood is greater than glucose, lowering glucose to levels below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Some call this an “insulin reaction” because it often occurs when too much insulin is given to a patient. It may also occur with excessive physical activity without eating enough carbohydrates. Because sulfonylureas stimulate insulin release, reminding patients to eat regular meals may reduce hypoglycemic excursions. If someone consistently has high blood glucose levels greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), hypoglycemic symptoms may be experienced when blood glucose lowers into a normal range (between 80 and 150 mg/dL; 4.4 and 8.3 mmol/L, respectively). A small (15 g) carbohydrate and protein snack will help abate these symptoms because it will increa Continue reading >>

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms And Detection Of Ketoacidosis

Symptoms These symptoms are due to the ketone poisoning and should never be ignored. As soon as a person begins to vomit or has difficulty breathing, immediate treatment in an emergency room is required to prevent coma and possible death. Early Signs, Symptoms: Late Signs, Symptoms: very tired and sleepy weakness great thirst frequent urination dry skin and tongue leg cramps fruity odor to the breath* upset stomach* nausea* vomiting* shortness of breath sunken eyeballs very high blood sugars rapid pulse rapid breathing low blood pressure unresponsiveness, coma * these are more specific for ketoacidosis than hyperosmolar syndrome Everyone with diabetes needs to know how to recognize and treat ketoacidosis. Ketones travel from the blood into the urine and can be detected in the urine with ketone test strips available at any pharmacy. Ketone strips should always be kept on hand, but stored in a dry area and replaced as soon as they become outdated. Measurement of Ketones in the urine is very important for diabetics with infections or on insulin pump therapy due to the fact it gives more information than glucose tests alone. Check the urine for ketones whenever a blood sugar reading is 300 mg/dl or higher, if a fruity odor is detected in the breath, if abdominal pain is present, if nausea or vomiting is occurring, or if you are breathing rapidly and short of breath. If a moderate or large amount of ketones are detected on the test strip, ketoacidosis is present and immediate treatment is required. Symptoms for hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are linked to dehydration rather than acidosis, so a fruity odor to the breath and stomach upset are less likely. How To Detect Ketones During any illness, especially when it is severe and any time the stomach becomes upset, ketone Continue reading >>

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Diabetic ketoacidosis vs hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS or HHS): What are the differences between these two complications of diabetes mellitus? This NCLEX review will simplify the differences between DKA and HHNS and give you a video lecture that easily explains their differences. Many students get these two complications confused due to their similarities, but there are major differences between these two complications. After reviewing this NCLEX review, don’t forget to take the quiz on DKA vs HHNS. Lecture on DKA and HHS DKA vs HHNS Diabetic Ketoacidosis Affects mainly Type 1 diabetics Ketones and Acidosis present Hyperglycemia presents >300 mg/dL Variable osmolality Happens Suddenly Causes: no insulin present in the body or illness/infection Seen in young or undiagnosed diabetics Main problems are hyperglycemia, ketones, and acidosis (blood pH <7.35) Clinical signs/symptoms: Kussmaul breathing, fruity breath, abdominal pain Treatment is the same as in HHNS (fluids, electrolyte replacement, and insulin) Watch potassium levels closely when giving insulin and make sure the level is at least 3.3 before administrating. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Affects mainly Type 2 diabetics No ketones or acidosis present EXTREME Hyperglycemia (remember heavy-duty hyperglycemia) >600 mg/dL sometimes four digits High Osmolality (more of an issue in HHNS than DKA) Happens Gradually Causes: mainly illness or infection and there is some insulin present which prevents the breakdown of ketones Seen in older adults due to illness or infection Main problems are dehydration & heavy-duty hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity (because the glucose is so high it makes the blood very concentrated) More likely to have mental status changes due to severe dehydrat Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Definition Hyperglycemia is a complex metabolic condition characterized by abnormally high levels of blood sugar (blood glucose) in circulating blood, usually as a result of diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2), although it can sometimes occur in cystic fibrosis and near-drowning (submersion injury). Description Hyperglycemia, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, is a condition that develops over a period of a few days as the blood glucose levels of a type 1 or type 2 diabetic gradually rise. Ketoacidosis occurs when increasing glucose levels are met by a lack of sufficient or effective insulin production, starting a sequence of physiologic events as follows: The combination of excess glucose production and low glucose utilization in the body raises levels of blood glucose, which leads to increased urinary output (diuresis) followed quickly by a loss of fluid and essential mineral salts (electrolytes) and, ultimately, dehydration . The loss of fluid may finally result in dehydration. If the entire process is severe enough over several hours (serum glucose levels over 800mg/dL), swelling can occur in the brain (cerebral edema), and coma can eventually result. In a metabolic shift to a catabolic (breaking down) process, cells throughout the body empty their electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and phosphate) into the bloodstream. Electrolytes control the fluid balance of the body and are important in muscle contraction, energy generation, and almost all major biochemical reactions in the body. As a result of electrolyte imbalance, many functions can become impaired. Free fatty acids from lipid stores are increased, encouraging the production of ketoacids in the liver, leading to an over-acidic condition (metabolic acidosis) that causes even more disruption in body processes. Wit Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Lightheadedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your Continue reading >>

Stories From The Er And Helpful Tidbits For Your Brain

Stories From The Er And Helpful Tidbits For Your Brain

Signs and symptoms associated with hypoglycemia include nervousness, diaphoresis, weakness, light-headedness, confusion, paresthesia, irritability, headache, hunger, tachycardia, and changes in speech, hearing, or vision. If untreated, signs and symptoms may progress to unconsciousness, seizures, coma, and death. Polydipsia, polyuria, and polyphagia are symptoms associated with hyperglycemia. Acidosis results from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, with hyperpnea (Kussmaul respirations) as the outstanding symptom. The hallmark symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst, fruity breath, and glycosuria. The signs and symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include Kussmaul respirations, fruity breath, tachycardia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, headache, thirst, dry skin, and dehydration. (lww.com) Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Diabetic Ketoacidosis

How To Avoid Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a possible complication of diabetes caused by extreme hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose. It is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication, one that you should work hard to avoid when you have diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but it is a very rare possible complication for people with type 2 diabetes. Your doctor and certified diabetes educator will teach you how to recognize and manage diabetic ketoacidosis. It's critical to know and recognize the signs and symptoms of DKA, as well as how to treat it. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when your blood glucose level gets too high—usually higher than 300 mg/dL. Because people with type 1 diabetes do not have the insulin to process this extra glucose, their body cannot break down this glucose to create energy. To create energy for itself, the body starts to aggressively break down fat. Ketones or ketoacids are a byproduct of this process. Your body can handle a small amount of ketones circulating in your blood. However, the sizeable amounts from DKA are toxic. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes Illness, infections, stress, injuries, neglecting diabetes care (not properly taking your insulin, for example), and alcohol consumption can cause DKA. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms Initial symptoms of DKA include a stomach ache, nausea, and vomiting. One problem with DKA is that people could mistake it for an illness that typically gets better over time like the flu or food poisoning. Other symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: fruity breath (when fat is broken down by the body, it creates a chemical called acetone that smells fruity) fatigue frequent urination intense thirst headache If you feel any of these sympto Continue reading >>

Signs & Symptoms Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia

Signs & Symptoms Hypoglycemia & Hyperglycemia

More than 23 million children and adults in the United States have diabetes, and each year 1.6 million people receive a new diagnosis of this disease, according to the American Diabetes Association. People with diabetes must carefully manage their blood sugar, or blood glucose, levels with diet, physical activity and medication to prevent diabetes complications and avoid hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Video of the Day When blood sugar levels drop below normal levels, a person may experience symptoms of hypoglycemia, such as nervousness, shakiness and hunger. He may sweat and feel dizzy, lightheaded and confused. Sleepiness, anxiety, confusion and difficulty talking are also signs that a person has hypoglycemia. A person who has hypoglycemia while sleeping may sweat profusely during sleep, experience nightmares or wake feeling tired and irritable. If hypoglycemia isn’t treated, the condition can worsen, causing more-severe symptoms such as fainting, confusion, clumsiness, seizures, coma and even death. According to the National Diabetes Information Clearinghouse, most cases of hypoglycemia are mild, and consuming food or drink rich in carbohydrates helps bring blood sugar levels back to normal. People with diabetes may need to take glucose tablets to raise their blood sugar levels quickly and avoid hypoglycemia's complications. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar levels, occur when the body lacks insulin or cannot use insulin properly. High levels of sugar in the urine indicate hyperglycemia; frequently feeling thirsty and having to urinate often are also indicators of high blood sugar levels. According to the American Diabetes Association, checking blood sugar levels often can help alert you to hyperglycemia before you feel symptoms. In many cases, reducing food intak Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia - Symptoms, Causes And Treatments

Hyperglycemia is a term referring to high blood glucose levels - the condition that often leads to a diagnosis of diabetes. High blood glucose levels are the defining feature of diabetes, but once the disease is diagnosed, hyperglycemia is a signal of poor control over the condition. Hyperglycemia is defined by certain high levels of blood glucose:1 Fasting levels greater than 7.0 mmol/L (126 mg/dL) Two-hours postprandial (after a meal) levels greater than 11.0 mmol/L (200 mg/dL). Chronic hyperglycemia usually leads to the development of diabetic complications.2 Symptoms of hyperglycemia The most common symptoms of diabetes itself are related to hyperglycemia - the classic symptoms of frequent urination and thirst.2,3 Typical signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia that has been confirmed by blood glucose measurement include:1,3,4 Thirst and hunger Dry mouth Frequent urination, particularly at night Tiredness Recurrent infections, such as thrush Weight loss Vision blurring. Causes of hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia often leads to the diagnosis of diabetes. For people already diagnosed and treated for diabetes, however, poor control over blood sugar levels leads to the condition. Causes of this include:1,3,4 Eating more or exercising less than usual Insufficient amount of insulin treatment (more commonly in cases of type 1 diabetes) Insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes Illness such as the flu Psychological and emotional stress The "dawn phenomenon" or "dawn effect" - an early morning hormone surge. The video below from Diabetes UK explains the dawn phenomenon and offers practical tips. Treatment and prevention of hyperglycemia Prevention of hyperglycemia for people with a diabetes diagnosis is a matter of good self-monitoring and management of blood glucose levels, including ad Continue reading >>

Hypo/hyperglycemia

Hypo/hyperglycemia

Type I Diabetes Mellitus, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a condition where the pancreas does not produce any or enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that lets glucose (sugar) enter cells to be used for energy. Type II Diabetes Mellitus occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin to handle all the glucose in the blood. Type II Diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance. The pancreas can keep up with the resistance by producing more insulin, but in time will lose the ability to secrete insulin in effective doses. Hypoglycemia, (low blood glucose, <70 mg/dL) can have a rapid onset and is dangerous if not handled appropriately. Hyperglycemia, (high blood glucose, >180 mg/dL), does not typically have an acute risk of death, however it does carry long term consequences. Prevention Athletes should wear medical identification bracelets at all times Take medications in appropriate doses at recommended times Eat regular meals and snacks Establish and follow diabetes care plan For sports and exercise Check blood glucose before activity Avoid exercise if glucose level: <100 mg/dL >250 mg/dL with ketones present >300 mg/dL regardless of ketone presence Plan meals/snacks to be eaten before and after activity Should contain carbohydrate and protein Consult physician on altering insulin dosages before activity Special considerations: insulin delivery via pump Pump should be disconnected for collision sports Athlete should monitor blood glucose carefully during participation when pump is disconnected Pumps do not need to be disconnected for non-collision sports, however: Exercise facilitates glucose uptake by muscle Not as much insulin will be necessary Type of exercise affects glucose levels differently Experiment Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Wondering about the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia—or high blood sugar? High blood sugar occurs in type 1 diabetes when the body has too much glucose/food or not enough insulin. Having hyperglycemia symptoms doesn’t immediately put you in danger but regular high blood-sugar levels over time does. That’s because they can lead to complications including blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and amputation. What are the symptoms of high blood sugar? – Thirst – Frequent urination – Stomach pain – Blurry vision – Increased Hunger Other signs of hyperglycemia With high blood sugar, you may also experience drowsiness, exhaustion, nausea or vomiting, confusion, fruity or sweet-smelling breath, impaired concentration and sweating. And, having very high blood-glucose levels for an extended period can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA happens when the body starts to burn fat and body tissue for energy. This releases toxic acids called ketones that build up in the blood and urine—and can lead to a diabetic coma. So if you’re experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, it’s important to get checked out by your doctor. The earlier high blood-sugar issues are treated, the better. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia Vs Hypoglycemia: What’s The Difference?

Hyperglycemia Vs Hypoglycemia: What’s The Difference?

If you have diabetes, you’re likely well aware of the issues that can come with blood sugar levels that are too high—or too low. Hyperglycemia (high blood sugar) and hypoglycemia (low blood sugar) may sound similar, but they can have very different consequences. Using too much or too little insulin can affect your blood sugar levels, but even if you aren’t diabetic, you should know that side effects of other medications, not eating enough (or eating too much), or even exercising more than usual can all affect your blood sugar. The scary part? Some people don’t have many symptoms, and may not be able to tell that their blood sugar is too high or too low without a glucose meter check. So what’s the difference, and how can you avoid hyper- and hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar) Low blood sugar can be caused by not eating enough food or a delayed meal, an unusual amount of exercise, and drinking alcohol without eating food. If you use insulin, you know that your blood sugar levels can go too low if you use too much of your medication. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include sweatiness, shaking, dizziness, confusion, a fast heartbeat, hunger, feeling weak or tired, feeling nervous or upset, or headache. Will I notice if my blood sugar is low? Maybe. You may experience some of the symptoms mentioned above like feeling sweaty, shaky, or dizzy; a fast heartbeat; or feeling hungry. However, some people don’t feel anything at all. Hypoglycemia unawareness is the term for not being able to tell if your blood sugar is low, and it can be very dangerous. How can I know if my blood sugar is low if I don’t notice any symptoms? You’ll need to use a blood glucose meter, which can determine the amount of sugar in your blood using a small drop of blood typically from you Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

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