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Is Fruity Breath A Symptom Of Hyperglycemia?

Hypo/hyperglycemia

Hypo/hyperglycemia

Type I Diabetes Mellitus, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes, is a condition where the pancreas does not produce any or enough insulin. Insulin is a hormone that lets glucose (sugar) enter cells to be used for energy. Type II Diabetes Mellitus occurs when the body becomes resistant to the effects of insulin or doesn’t make enough insulin to handle all the glucose in the blood. Type II Diabetes usually begins with insulin resistance. The pancreas can keep up with the resistance by producing more insulin, but in time will lose the ability to secrete insulin in effective doses. Hypoglycemia, (low blood glucose, <70 mg/dL) can have a rapid onset and is dangerous if not handled appropriately. Hyperglycemia, (high blood glucose, >180 mg/dL), does not typically have an acute risk of death, however it does carry long term consequences. Prevention Athletes should wear medical identification bracelets at all times Take medications in appropriate doses at recommended times Eat regular meals and snacks Establish and follow diabetes care plan For sports and exercise Check blood glucose before activity Avoid exercise if glucose level: <100 mg/dL >250 mg/dL with ketones present >300 mg/dL regardless of ketone presence Plan meals/snacks to be eaten before and after activity Should contain carbohydrate and protein Consult physician on altering insulin dosages before activity Special considerations: insulin delivery via pump Pump should be disconnected for collision sports Athlete should monitor blood glucose carefully during participation when pump is disconnected Pumps do not need to be disconnected for non-collision sports, however: Exercise facilitates glucose uptake by muscle Not as much insulin will be necessary Type of exercise affects glucose levels differently Experiment Continue reading >>

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) (cont.)

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) (cont.)

A A A A high blood sugar level itself is a symptom of diabetes. However, an individual experiencing hyperglycemia may have no symptoms at all. Common symptoms can include: If hyperglycemia persists for several hours and leads to dehydration, other symptoms may develop, such as: Left untreated, hyperglycemia can lead to a condition called ketoacidosis, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or diabetic coma. This occurs because the body has insufficient insulin to process glucose into fuel, so the body breaks down fats to use for energy. When the body breaks down fat, ketones are produced as by-products. Some ketones are eliminated via the urine, but not all. Until the patient is rehydrated, and adequate insulin action is restored, ketones remain in the blood. Ketones in the blood cause nausea, headache, fatigue, or vomiting. Symptoms include: A A A High Blood Sugar (Hyperglycemia) (cont.) If hyperglycemia persists for at least two or three days, or if ketones appear in the urine, call a doctor. Generally, people with diabetes should test their blood sugar levels at least four times a day: before meals and at bedtime (or following the schedule advised by the prescribed individual diabetes care plan). The urine should be checked for ketones any time the blood sugar level is over 250 mg/dL. When blood sugar stays high despite following a diabetic diet and plan of care, call the nurse, diabetes health educator, or physician for adjustments in the diet. If blood sugars are high because of illness, check for ketones and contact a health professional. Vomiting Confusion Sleepiness Shortness of breath Dehydration Blood sugar levels that stay above 160 mg/dL for longer than a week Glucose readings higher than 300 mg/dL The presence of ketones in the urine Ketoacidosis or diab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when the body does not have enough insulin. Insulin is what breaks down sugar into energy. When insulin is not present to break down sugars, our body begins to break down fat. Fat break down produces ketones which spill into the urine and cause glucose build up in the blood, thus acidifying the body. Because sugar is not entering into our body’s cells for energy breakdown, the sugar is being processed by the kidneys and excreted through the urine; as a result, we become dehydrated and our blood becomes even more acidic. This leads to sickness and hospitalization if not treated. If a person’s blood sugar is over 240, they should start checking their blood for ketones. If you have diabetes, or love someone who does, being aware of warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) can help save a life. Early Symptoms of DKA: High blood glucose level, usually > 300 High volume to ketones present in blood or urine Frequent urination or thirst that lasts for a day or more Dry skin and mouth Rapid shallow breathing Abdominal pain (especially in children) Muscle stiffness or aches Flushed face As DKA Worsens: Decreases alertness, confusion – brain is dehydrating Deep, labored, and gasping breathing Headache Breath that smells fruity or like fingernail polish remover Nausea and/or vomiting Abdomen may be tender and hurt if touched Decreased consciousness, coma, death If you think you might have DKA, test for ketones. If ketones are present, call your health care provider right away. To treat high blood sugar, hydrate with water or sugar free, caffeine free drinks. Sugar free popsicles and snacks are also good alternatives. Always call the doctor if vomiting goes on for more than two hours. Symptoms can go from mild Continue reading >>

What Does Bad Breath Have To Do With Diabetes?

What Does Bad Breath Have To Do With Diabetes?

Your breath has an interesting ability to provide clues to your overall health. A sweet, fruity odor can be a sign of ketoacidosis, an acute complication of diabetes. An odor of ammonia is associated with kidney disease. Similarly, a very foul, fruity odor may be a sign of anorexia nervosa. Other diseases, such as asthma, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, and liver disease, also can cause distinct odors on the breath. Bad breath, also called halitosis, can be so telling that doctors may even be able to use it to identify diabetes. Recently, researchers have found that infrared breath analyzers can be effective in identifying prediabetes or early-stage diabetes. Diabetes-related halitosis has two main causes: periodontal disease and high levels of ketones in the blood. Periodontal diseases Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, include gingivitis, mild periodontitis, and advanced periodontitis. In these inflammatory diseases, bacteria attack the tissues and bone that support your teeth. Inflammation can affect metabolism and increase your blood sugar, which worsens diabetes. While diabetes can lead to periodontal diseases, these diseases can also create further problems for people with diabetes. According to a report in IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, an estimated one in three people with diabetes will also experience periodontal diseases. Heart disease and stroke, which can be complications of diabetes, are also linked to periodontal disease. Diabetes can damage blood vessels, which can reduce blood flow throughout your body, including your gums. If your gums and teeth aren’t receiving a proper supply of blood, they may become weak and more prone to infection. Diabetes may also raise glucose levels in your mouth, promoting bacteria growth, infection, Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Definition Hyperglycemia is a complex metabolic condition characterized by abnormally high levels of blood sugar (blood glucose) in circulating blood, usually as a result of diabetes mellitus (types 1 and 2), although it can sometimes occur in cystic fibrosis and near-drowning (submersion injury). Description Hyperglycemia, also known as diabetic ketoacidosis, is a condition that develops over a period of a few days as the blood glucose levels of a type 1 or type 2 diabetic gradually rise. Ketoacidosis occurs when increasing glucose levels are met by a lack of sufficient or effective insulin production, starting a sequence of physiologic events as follows: The combination of excess glucose production and low glucose utilization in the body raises levels of blood glucose, which leads to increased urinary output (diuresis) followed quickly by a loss of fluid and essential mineral salts (electrolytes) and, ultimately, dehydration . The loss of fluid may finally result in dehydration. If the entire process is severe enough over several hours (serum glucose levels over 800mg/dL), swelling can occur in the brain (cerebral edema), and coma can eventually result. In a metabolic shift to a catabolic (breaking down) process, cells throughout the body empty their electrolytes (sodium, potassium, and phosphate) into the bloodstream. Electrolytes control the fluid balance of the body and are important in muscle contraction, energy generation, and almost all major biochemical reactions in the body. As a result of electrolyte imbalance, many functions can become impaired. Free fatty acids from lipid stores are increased, encouraging the production of ketoacids in the liver, leading to an over-acidic condition (metabolic acidosis) that causes even more disruption in body processes. Wit Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state have the same cause: insufficient insulin. There are two types of hyperglycemic emergencies: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). These situations require emergency medical intervention, since they can lead to serious conditions such as coma, even death, if left untreated. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state have the same cause: insufficient insulin. These complications can arise in specific situations, during sick days, for example. Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis mainly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes. It is characterized by hyperglycemia often greater than 20 mmol/L, with the presence of ketones in the blood or urine. Ketones are produced from the breakdown of fats. Their accumulation in the blood is toxic for the body. This situation arises when the body lacks insulin and must use its fat reserves for the energy it normally gets from glucose. Diabetic ketoacidosis can arise due to a forgotten or skipped insulin dose, an improper adjustment to the insulin dose, an insulin pump that stops working, or a serious medical problem (e.g., heart attack, pneumonia). The following symptoms are associated with diabetic ketoacidosis: deep, rapid breathing nausea, vomiting abdominal pain decreased consciousness, confusion, agitation, unusual behaviour Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state occurs primarily in people with type 2 diabetes. This state is characterized by hyperglycemia often greater than 30 mmol/L, and severe dehydration. During a hyperglycemic episode, the accumulation of glucose in the blood increases the frequency and volume of urination. This can cause excessive water loss and significant dehydration. Th Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Lightheadedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your Continue reading >>

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Dka Vs Hhs (hhns) Nclex Review

Diabetic ketoacidosis vs hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS or HHS): What are the differences between these two complications of diabetes mellitus? This NCLEX review will simplify the differences between DKA and HHNS and give you a video lecture that easily explains their differences. Many students get these two complications confused due to their similarities, but there are major differences between these two complications. After reviewing this NCLEX review, don’t forget to take the quiz on DKA vs HHNS. Lecture on DKA and HHS DKA vs HHNS Diabetic Ketoacidosis Affects mainly Type 1 diabetics Ketones and Acidosis present Hyperglycemia presents >300 mg/dL Variable osmolality Happens Suddenly Causes: no insulin present in the body or illness/infection Seen in young or undiagnosed diabetics Main problems are hyperglycemia, ketones, and acidosis (blood pH <7.35) Clinical signs/symptoms: Kussmaul breathing, fruity breath, abdominal pain Treatment is the same as in HHNS (fluids, electrolyte replacement, and insulin) Watch potassium levels closely when giving insulin and make sure the level is at least 3.3 before administrating. Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Nonketotic Syndrome Affects mainly Type 2 diabetics No ketones or acidosis present EXTREME Hyperglycemia (remember heavy-duty hyperglycemia) >600 mg/dL sometimes four digits High Osmolality (more of an issue in HHNS than DKA) Happens Gradually Causes: mainly illness or infection and there is some insulin present which prevents the breakdown of ketones Seen in older adults due to illness or infection Main problems are dehydration & heavy-duty hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity (because the glucose is so high it makes the blood very concentrated) More likely to have mental status changes due to severe dehydrat Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Wondering about the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia—or high blood sugar? High blood sugar occurs in type 1 diabetes when the body has too much glucose/food or not enough insulin. Having hyperglycemia symptoms doesn’t immediately put you in danger but regular high blood-sugar levels over time does. That’s because they can lead to complications including blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and amputation. What are the symptoms of high blood sugar? – Thirst – Frequent urination – Stomach pain – Blurry vision – Increased Hunger Other signs of hyperglycemia With high blood sugar, you may also experience drowsiness, exhaustion, nausea or vomiting, confusion, fruity or sweet-smelling breath, impaired concentration and sweating. And, having very high blood-glucose levels for an extended period can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA happens when the body starts to burn fat and body tissue for energy. This releases toxic acids called ketones that build up in the blood and urine—and can lead to a diabetic coma. So if you’re experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, it’s important to get checked out by your doctor. The earlier high blood-sugar issues are treated, the better. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

Treatment Strategies For Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Treatment Strategies For Hypoglycemia And Hyperglycemia

Many patients with diabetes often do not completely grasp the consequences of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia on vascular health, and health care providers should not assume that a patient has been well educated on the pathophysiology of diabetes. Some fundamental points to review include the basic concept of carbohydrates, which convert to glucose in the digestive tract. Glucose then enters the blood, triggering the pancreas to release the hormone insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin then takes the glucose out of the blood and brings it to cells, which use the glucose for energy. When the pancreas does not produce sufficient insulin, an excess of glucose remains in the blood vessel, resulting in hyperglycemia, inducing vascular damage. In addition, white blood cells are damaged and lose their effectiveness in combating disease. With insulin resistance, there are fewer receptors on the cell to receive insulin and glucose; therefore, the cells do not receive glucose for energy. Hypoglycemia This occurs when the level of insulin in the blood is greater than glucose, lowering glucose to levels below 70 mg/dL (3.9 mmol/L). Some call this an “insulin reaction” because it often occurs when too much insulin is given to a patient. It may also occur with excessive physical activity without eating enough carbohydrates. Because sulfonylureas stimulate insulin release, reminding patients to eat regular meals may reduce hypoglycemic excursions. If someone consistently has high blood glucose levels greater than 200 mg/dL (11.1 mmol/L), hypoglycemic symptoms may be experienced when blood glucose lowers into a normal range (between 80 and 150 mg/dL; 4.4 and 8.3 mmol/L, respectively). A small (15 g) carbohydrate and protein snack will help abate these symptoms because it will increa Continue reading >>

Diabetes Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Hyperglycemia

Ads by Google Hyperglycemia is a serious health concern for diabetes as well as undiagnosed diabetes. Learn what is happening during high blood sugar, and what you have to do. What is hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia is a Greek word “Hyper” means excessive, “Glyc” means sweet, and “Emia” means the blood. Hyperglycemia is a condition characterized by an excess amount of blood glucose, generally anything over 7.0 mmol/L (or 126 mg/dl) when fasting and over 11.0 mmol/L (or 200 mg/dl) 2-hours after meals. What are the symptoms of high blood glucose? Hyperglycemia rarely has noticeable symptoms until it significantly elevated around 200 mg/dL or higher. In many instances, the symptoms can develop slowly over several days or weeks; the common signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia are frequent urination, increased thirst, hunger, blurry vision, difficulty concentrating, headaches, and fatigue. The longer the condition has been left untreated, the harsher the problem may become. The severe hyperglycemia signs and symptoms include: Ketone’s build-up in the blood and urine, Tummy pain, Impaired vision, Fruity breath, Nausea and vomit, Nerve damage, Slow healing sores, Urinary infection, Coma What causes hyperglycemia? Several factors can contribute to High blood glucose (sugar) or hyperglycemia; they may include poor food choice, physically inactive, illness or infection, missing diabetes medication/insulin, and taking wrong medicine. Poor food choices such as eating the excess carbs without adjusting treatment, Eating more than regular diet, Physically inactive or exercised less than normal, Stress out (due to family conflict, relationship problems, or financial concerns) – it triggers stress hormones causing the blood-glucose to rise, Severe illness or infection (such Continue reading >>

How To Avoid Diabetic Ketoacidosis

How To Avoid Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a possible complication of diabetes caused by extreme hyperglycemia, or high blood glucose. It is a serious and potentially life-threatening complication, one that you should work hard to avoid when you have diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis mainly affects people with type 1 diabetes, but it is a very rare possible complication for people with type 2 diabetes. Your doctor and certified diabetes educator will teach you how to recognize and manage diabetic ketoacidosis. It's critical to know and recognize the signs and symptoms of DKA, as well as how to treat it. What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis happens when your blood glucose level gets too high—usually higher than 300 mg/dL. Because people with type 1 diabetes do not have the insulin to process this extra glucose, their body cannot break down this glucose to create energy. To create energy for itself, the body starts to aggressively break down fat. Ketones or ketoacids are a byproduct of this process. Your body can handle a small amount of ketones circulating in your blood. However, the sizeable amounts from DKA are toxic. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Causes Illness, infections, stress, injuries, neglecting diabetes care (not properly taking your insulin, for example), and alcohol consumption can cause DKA. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms Initial symptoms of DKA include a stomach ache, nausea, and vomiting. One problem with DKA is that people could mistake it for an illness that typically gets better over time like the flu or food poisoning. Other symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: fruity breath (when fat is broken down by the body, it creates a chemical called acetone that smells fruity) fatigue frequent urination intense thirst headache If you feel any of these sympto Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia Symptoms: The Telltale Signs And What To Do

Hyperglycemia Symptoms: The Telltale Signs And What To Do

Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar, is an excess of glucose in the bloodstream. Even when you do your best to manage your blood glucose, you will experience highs. These highs can be dangerous if you don’t act quickly. The reference table below can help you quickly recognize the signs of hyperglycemia (when your fasting blood glucose is at or above 11 mmol/L)1 and act. You may want to print it off and keep it handy. Recognize and treat symptoms of hyperglycemia Signs to look out for What to do Increased thirst Urinate more often than usual, especially during the night More tired than usual Try to figure out why it’s high Did you have a larger-than-usual meal or snack? Did you calculate your carbohydrate intake correctly? Did you not take enough insulin? Were you less physically active than usual? Are you feeling unwell or are you sick? Take action to lower your blood glucose to your target levels Note: When initially discussing your diabetes care plan, ask your doctor how you should adjust your insulin when your blood glucose is high. Engage in mild physical activity and drink non-sugary drinks to prevent dehydration. Re-test your blood glucose to see if it has decreased. If it remains high for a few days, consult your healthcare team. Changes may be needed to your diabetes management plan. If your blood glucose is very high (>14.0 mmol/L, but it can be lower than this number so watch for the symptoms below), check for ketones.2 Ketoacidosis develops when your body doesn’t produce enough insulin, so it breaks down fats into ketones. Ketone levels can be measured with a simple urine test using ketone strips (similar to blood glucose test strips) purchased from the pharmacy. Ketoacidosis can be very serious and lead to a diabetic coma. Ketoacidosis usually develops Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Describe The Different Types Of Diabetes.

Describe The Different Types Of Diabetes.

Objectives At the conclusion of this chapter you should be able to: Describe the signs, symptoms and treatment of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Describe the signs, symptoms and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis. Case: You are dispatched to an "unknown medical emergency" at 1022 Burke Street. Upon arrival you find a 43 year-old male lying unconscious in the living room. His landlord discovered him while doing routine maintenance. During your initial assessment you discover: The patient is breathing deeply at a rate of 28 per minute Pulse 110 Skin Warm & Dry Unresponsive to Pain You begin your focused assessment while your partner administers oxygen, applies a cardiac monitor and sets up an IV. During your focused assessment you find: Sweet, fruity odor ECG - Sinus tachycardia Pulse Ox - 96% Medic Alert Necklace that simply states "Diabetic" Glucometer reads "Too High" You rapidly package the patient, draw a blood sample, establish an IV of NS en route to the hospital, rapidly infuse 2 liters per protocol, then decrease rate to TKO and contact the receiving hospital with a detailed report. You complete a detailed assessment and continue the ongoing assessment during the 25 minute transport. The patient's condition remained the same during the transport. Diabetes Mellitus Diabetes mellitus is characterized by a deficiency of insulin or the inability of the body to respond to insulin. Diabetes mellitus is generally classified as Type I - insulin dependent, or Type II non-insulin dependent. Patients with type I diabetes mellitus (DM), also known as insulin-dependent DM (IDDM) or juvenile-onset diabetes, may develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Patients with type II DM, also known as non-insulin-dependent DM (NIDDM), may develop nonketotic hyperglycemic-hyperosmolar coma ( Continue reading >>

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