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Is Dka Serious?

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Print Overview Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of blood acids called ketones. The condition develops when your body can't produce enough insulin. Insulin normally plays a key role in helping sugar (glucose) — a major source of energy for your muscles and other tissues — enter your cells. Without enough insulin, your body begins to break down fat as fuel. This process produces a buildup of acids in the bloodstream called ketones, eventually leading to diabetic ketoacidosis if untreated. If you have diabetes or you're at risk of diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — and know when to seek emergency care. Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms often develop quickly, sometimes within 24 hours. For some, these signs and symptoms may be the first indication of having diabetes. You may notice: Excessive thirst Frequent urination Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain Weakness or fatigue Shortness of breath Fruity-scented breath Confusion More-specific signs of diabetic ketoacidosis — which can be detected through home blood and urine testing kits — include: High blood sugar level (hyperglycemia) High ketone levels in your urine When to see a doctor If you feel ill or stressed or you've had a recent illness or injury, check your blood sugar level often. You might also try an over-the-counter urine ketones testing kit. Contact your doctor immediately if: You're vomiting and unable to tolerate food or liquid Your blood sugar level is higher than your target range and doesn't respond to home treatment Your urine ketone level is moderate or high Seek emergency care if: Your blood sugar level is consistently higher than 300 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL), or 16.7 mill Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Introduction Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication of diabetes caused by a lack of insulin in the body. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when the body is unable to use blood sugar (glucose) because there isn't enough insulin. Instead, it breaks down fat as an alternative source of fuel. This causes a build-up of a by-product called ketones. Most cases of diabetic ketoacidosis occur in people with type 1 diabetes, although it can also be a complication of type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: passing large amounts of urine feeling very thirsty vomiting abdominal pain Seek immediate medical assistance if you have any of these symptoms and your blood sugar levels are high. Read more about the symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis. Who is affected by diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a relatively common complication in people with diabetes, particularly children and younger adults who have type 1 diabetes. Younger children under four years of age are thought to be most at risk. In about 1 in 4 cases, diabetic ketoacidosis develops in people who were previously unaware they had type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis accounts for around half of all diabetes-related hospital admissions in people with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis triggers These include: infections and other illnesses not keeping up with recommended insulin injections Read more about potential causes of diabetic ketoacidosis. Diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis This is a relatively straightforward process. Blood tests can be used to check your glucose levels and any chemical imbalances, such as low levels of potassium. Urine tests can be used to estimate the number of ketones in your body. Blood and urine tests can also be used to check for an underlying infec Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 Diabetes Complications

Type 1 diabetes is complicated—and if you don’t manage it properly, there are complications, both short-term and long-term. “If you don’t manage it properly” is an important if statement: by carefully managing your blood glucose levels, you can stave off or prevent the short- and long-term complications. And if you’ve already developed diabetes complications, controlling your blood glucose levels can help you manage the symptoms and prevent further damage. Diabetes complications are all related to poor blood glucose control, so you must work carefully with your doctor and diabetes team to correctly manage your blood sugar (or your child’s blood sugar). Short-term Diabetes Complications Hypoglycemia: Hypoglycemia is low blood glucose (blood sugar). It develops when there’s too much insulin—meaning that you’ve taken (or given your child) too much insulin or that you haven’t properly planned insulin around meals or exercise. Other possible causes of hypoglycemia include certain medications (aspirin, for example, lowers the blood glucose level if you take a dose of more than 81mg) and alcohol (alcohol keeps the liver from releasing glucose). There are three levels of hypoglycemia, depending on how low the blood glucose level has dropped: mild, moderate, and severe. If you treat hypoglycemia when it’s in the mild or moderate stages, then you can prevent far more serious problems; severe hypoglycemia can cause a coma and even death (although very, very rarely). The signs and symptoms of low blood glucose are usually easy to recognize: Rapid heartbeat Sweating Paleness of skin Anxiety Numbness in fingers, toes, and lips Sleepiness Confusion Headache Slurred speech For more information about hypoglycemia and how to treat it, please read our article on hy Continue reading >>

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

> Hyperglycemia And Diabetic Ketoacidosis

When blood glucose levels (also called blood sugar levels) are too high, it's called hyperglycemia. Glucose is a sugar that comes from foods, and is formed and stored inside the body. It's the main source of energy for the body's cells and is carried to each through the bloodstream. But even though we need glucose for energy, too much glucose in the blood can be unhealthy. Hyperglycemia is the hallmark of diabetes — it happens when the body either can't make insulin (type 1 diabetes) or can't respond to insulin properly (type 2 diabetes). The body needs insulin so glucose in the blood can enter the cells to be used for energy. In people who have developed diabetes, glucose builds up in the blood, resulting in hyperglycemia. If it's not treated, hyperglycemia can cause serious health problems. Too much sugar in the bloodstream for long periods of time can damage the vessels that supply blood to vital organs. And, too much sugar in the bloodstream can cause other types of damage to body tissues, which can increase the risk of heart disease and stroke, kidney disease, vision problems, and nerve problems in people with diabetes. These problems don't usually show up in kids or teens with diabetes who have had the disease for only a few years. However, they can happen in adulthood in some people, particularly if they haven't managed or controlled their diabetes properly. Blood sugar levels are considered high when they're above someone's target range. The diabetes health care team will let you know what your child's target blood sugar levels are, which will vary based on factors like your child's age. A major goal in controlling diabetes is to keep blood sugar levels as close to the desired range as possible. It's a three-way balancing act of: diabetes medicines (such as in Continue reading >>

How The Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Has Improved

How The Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Has Improved

For patients with type 1 diabetes, one of the most serious medical emergencies is diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). It can be life-threatening and, in most cases, is caused by a shortage of insulin. Glucose is the “fuel” which feeds human cells. Without it, these cells are forced to “burn” fatty acids in order to survive. This process leads to the production of acidic ketone bodies which can cause serious symptoms and complications such as passing out, confusion, vomiting, dehydration, coma, and, if not corrected in a timely manner, even death. High levels of ketones poison the body. DKA can be diagnosed with blood and urine tests and is distinguished from other ketoacidosis by the presence of high blood sugar levels. Typical treatment for DKA consists of using intravenous fluids to correct the dehydration, insulin dosing to suppress the production of ketones, and treatment for any underlying causes such as infections. Medical history notes that DKA was first diagnosed and described in 1886 and until insulin therapy was introduced in the 1920’s, this condition was almost universally fatal. However, with availability and advances in insulin therapy, the mortality rate is less than one percent when timely treatment is applied. A Clinical Pharmacist Examines DKA Ron Fila (RPh) is a clinical pharmacist at McLaren Northern Michigan in Petoskey, MI. He has first-hand experience in treating patients with DKA and, as one of the early adaptors of EndoTool he has seen how this algorithmically-based glucose management software can help physicians save lives and improve patient outcomes. “We started using EndoTool in 2013, for treating patients in the ICU,” he noted in a recent interview. “Later, we expanded our use of this software for DKA and pediatrics. “Since DKA i Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Treatment Options

Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Treatment Options

Let’s set the stage first: the sugars in your food are ingested and travel to your intestines where they are released into your bloodstream. This sugar is called glucose. The sugar tries to enter your cells to provide energy but can’t because the sugar molecules are too big. At this point your pancreas produces insulin which attaches to your cells to create openings for the glucose to enter which gives you energy. Now here’s where diabetic ketoacidosis comes in: when the cells in your body are unable to get the sugar they need for energy because you aren’t producing enough insulin, your body starts to break down fat and muscle as fuel. This causes DKA which is when high levels of blood acids called ketones enter the bloodstream. DKA is a serious condition that can lead to a diabetic coma or even death. Diabetic Ketoacidosis: Symptoms DKA is a serious condition and it is important to be aware of its warning signs. Early signs of DKA may include: Thirst or a very dry mouth Frequent urination High blood glucose (sugar) levels Symptoms that follow: Feeling continually tired Dry or flushed skin Nausea or abdominal pain Vomiting that continues for more than 2 hours Difficulty breathings A hard time paying attention or feeling confused Diabetic Ketoacdosis: Treatment Options If your are diagnosed with DKA, you may be treated in the emergency room or admitted into the hospital. From there, you will be given fluids to prevent dehydration and dilute blood sugar. Next, your doctor will replace your electrolytes since those levels probably decreased when your insulin levels dropped. (Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electric charge in your body that help your heart, muscles and nerve cells to function normally.) Finally, you’ll be given insulin to get your body wor Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious condition characterized by high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), low insulin, and the presence of moderate to large amounts of ketones in the blood. It's a medical emergency that requires treatment in a hospital. If not treated in a timely fashion, ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. While diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA) is much more common among people with type 1 diabetes, it can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, so ketone monitoring is something everyone with diabetes should understand. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms Signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis include: Thirst or a very dry mouth Frequent urination Fatigue and weakness Nausea Vomiting Dry or flushed skin Abdominal pain Deep breathing A fruity breath odor What Are Ketones? Ketones, or ketone bodies, are acidic byproducts of fat metabolism. It's normal for everyone to have a small amount of ketones in the bloodstream, and after a fast of 12 to16 hours, there may be detectable amounts in the urine. As is the case with glucose, if blood levels of ketones get too high, they spill over into the urine. An elevated level of ketones in the blood is known as ketosis. People who follow low-carbohydrate diets often speak of ketosis as a desirable state — it's evidence that their bodies are burning fat, not carbohydrate. But the level of ketosis that results from low carbohydrate consumption isn't harmful and is much lower than the level seen in diabetic ketoacidosis. When Should Ketones Be Monitored? Ketone monitoring is less of a concern for people with type 2 diabetes than for those with type 1 diabetes. This is because most people with type 2 diabetes still make some of their own insulin, making diabetic ketoacidosis less likely to develop. Nonetheless, people with type 2 d Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) - Topic Overview

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening condition that develops when cells in the body are unable to get the sugar (glucose) they need for energy because there is not enough insulin. When the sugar cannot get into the cells, it stays in the blood. The kidneys filter some of the sugar from the blood and remove it from the body through urine. Because the cells cannot receive sugar for energy, the body begins to break down fat and muscle for energy. When this happens, ketones, or fatty acids, are produced and enter the bloodstream, causing the chemical imbalance (metabolic acidosis) called diabetic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be caused by not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection or other illness, becoming severely dehydrated, or some combination of these things. It can occur in people who have little or no insulin in their bodies (mostly people with type 1 diabetes but it can happen with type 2 diabetes, especially children) when their blood sugar levels are high. Your blood sugar may be quite high before you notice symptoms, which include: Flushed, hot, dry skin. Feeling thirsty and urinating a lot. Drowsiness or difficulty waking up. Young children may lack interest in their normal activities. Rapid, deep breathing. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. Confusion. Laboratory tests, including blood and urine tests, are used to confirm a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis. Tests for ketones are available for home use. Keep some test strips nearby in case your blood sugar level becomes high. When ketoacidosis is severe, it must be treated in the hospital, often in an intensive care unit. Treatment involves giving insulin and fluids through your vein and closely watching certain chemicals in your blood (electrolyt Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?: Signs, Symptoms, Causes And Treatment

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) refers to a serious diabetes complication which happens when your body produces high amount of blood acids known as ketones. It is a very serious medical condition that could lead to diabetic coma or death. This life threatening medical condition happens when the body cells are unable to get the glucose they need for energy, because of a deficiency in insulin. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose, a main source of energy for muscles and tissue, enter the body cells. When glucose cannot get into the body cells, it remains in the blood. The kidney will then filter some of the glucose from the blood, then excrete it from the body through the urine. When your body cells do not receive energy from glucose, they start to break body fat down into energy. When that happens, fatty acids or ketones are produced which then enter the bloodstream. This will lead to a chemical imbalance that causes DKA. Diabetic ketoacidosis mostly affect people with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes. The reason for this is because people with type 1 diabetes cannot produce enough insulin on their own. Lack of insulin allows your blood to become acidic. Because your body cells cannot make it under acidic conditions, the liver will secrete glucose to help the starving cells. Research shows that there are over 200,000 cases of patients suffering from DKA every year in the US alone. Diabetic ketoacidosis signs and symptoms There are signs and symptoms you can look out for to know if you have diabetic ketoacidosis. These signs and symptoms usually develop quickly and could indicate you have diabetes. If you are experiencing symptoms of DKA, you need to call your doctor immediately. If not treated, DKA can be fa Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic acidosis is a life-threatening condition that can occur in people with type 1 diabetes. Less commonly, it can also occur with type 2 diabetes. Term watch Ketones: breakdown products from the use of fat stores for energy. Ketoacidosis: another name for diabetic acidosis. It happens when a lack of insulin leads to: Diabetic acidosis requires immediate hospitalisation for urgent treatment with fluids and intravenous insulin. It can usually be avoided through proper treatment of Type 1 diabetes. However, ketoacidosis can also occur with well-controlled diabetes if you get a severe infection or other serious illness, such as a heart attack or stroke, which can cause vomiting and resistance to the normal dose of injected insulin. What causes diabetic acidosis? The condition is caused by a lack of insulin, most commonly when doses are missed. While insulin's main function is to lower the blood sugar level, it also reduces the burning of body fat. If the insulin level drops significantly, the body will start burning fat uncontrollably while blood sugar levels rise. Glucose will then begin to show up in your urine, along with ketone bodies from fat breakdown that turn the body acidic. The body attempts to reduce the level of acid by increasing the rate and depth of breathing. This blows off carbon dioxide in the breath, which tends to correct the acidosis temporarily (known as acidotic breathing). At the same time, the high secretion of glucose into the urine causes large quantities of water and salts to be lost, putting the body at serious risk of dehydration. Eventually, over-breathing becomes inadequate to control the acidosis. What are the symptoms? Since diabetic acidosis is most often linked with high blood sugar levels, symptoms are the same as those for diabetes Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus. Before the availability of insulin in the 1920s, DKA was a uniformly fatal disorder. Even after the discovery of insulin, DKA continued to carry a grave prognosis with a reported mortality rate in humans ranging from 10% to 30%. However, with the expanding knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of DKA and the application of new treatment techniques for the complications of DKA, the mortality rate for this disorder has decreased to less than 5% in experienced human medical centers (Kitabchi et al, 2008). We have experienced a similar decrease in the mortality rate for DKA in our hospital over the past two decades. DKA remains a challenging disorder to treat, in part because of the deleterious impact of DKA on multiple organ systems and the frequent occurrence of concurrent often serious disorders that are responsible for the high mortality rate of DKA. In humans, the incidence of DKA has not decreased, appropriate therapy remains controversial, and patients continue to succumb to this complication of diabetes mellitus. This chapter summarizes current concepts regarding the pathophysiology and management of DKA in dogs and cats. • Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe form of complicated diabetes mellitus that requires emergency care. • Acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities can be life threatening. • Fluid therapy and correction of electrolyte abnormalities are the two most important components of therapy. • Concurrent disease increases the risk for DKA and must be addressed as part of the diagnostic and therapeutic plan. • Bicarbonate therapy usually is not needed and its use is controversial. • About 70% of treated dogs and cats are discharged from the hospital after 5 to 6 days Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that can occur in diabetes. DKA happens when acidic substances, called ketones, build up in your body. Ketones are formed when your body burns fat for fuel instead of sugar, or glucose. That can happen if you don’t have enough insulin in your body to help you process sugars. Learn more: Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis: What you should know » Left untreated, ketones can build up to dangerous levels. DKA can occur in people who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but it’s rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA can also develop if you are at risk for diabetes, but have not received a formal diagnosis. It can be the first sign of type 1 diabetes. DKA is a medical emergency. Call your local emergency services immediately if you think you are experiencing DKA. Symptoms of DKA can appear quickly and may include: frequent urination extreme thirst high blood sugar levels high levels of ketones in the urine nausea or vomiting abdominal pain confusion fruity-smelling breath a flushed face fatigue rapid breathing dry mouth and skin It is important to make sure you consult with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. If left untreated, DKA can lead to a coma or death. All people who use insulin should discuss the risk of DKA with their healthcare team, to make sure a plan is in place. If you think you are experiencing DKA, seek immediate medical help. Learn more: Blood glucose management: Checking for ketones » If you have type 1 diabetes, you should maintain a supply of home urine ketone tests. You can use these to test your ketone levels. A high ketone test result is a symptom of DKA. If you have type 1 diabetes and have a glucometer reading of over 250 milligrams per deciliter twice, you should test your urine for keton Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Related Events In The Canagliflozin Type 2 Diabetes Clinical Program

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Related Events In The Canagliflozin Type 2 Diabetes Clinical Program

Go to: Research Design and Methods An analysis of all serious adverse events of DKA and related terms of ketoacidosis, metabolic acidosis, and acidosis was performed using a database that contained data from 17,596 patients, with nearly 24,000 patient-years of exposure, compiled from completed and ongoing randomized, controlled clinical studies of canagliflozin. The overall mean exposure in this analysis was 1.4 years. Table 1 includes details regarding the studies included in this analysis, which was conducted by Janssen Research & Development, LLC (the sponsor of canagliflozin). A history of type 1 diabetes or DKA was an exclusion criterion in all studies. Ascertainment of potential events for inclusion in this analysis was done using investigator-reported adverse events. Four adverse event terms (i.e., diabetic ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis, metabolic acidosis, and acidosis) from the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities (MedDRA) were searched. Cases meeting standard criteria for a regulatory definition of a serious adverse event (e.g., resulting in hospitalization or a medically important event) were included in this analysis. All unblinded cases in this analysis came from completed studies or unblinded data sets previously used to support canagliflozin global marketing dossiers or required for responses to health authorities. Through 11 May 2015, there were 12 patients with 13 unblinded serious adverse events of DKA, ketoacidosis, metabolic acidosis, and acidosis, and 3 additional serious adverse events that remain blinded and were not included in the current analysis. These 3 additional events come from the ongoing CANagliflozin cardioVascular Assessment Study (CANVAS), which is blinded and is being monitored by an independent data monitoring committee. Data f Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Among Children And Young People With Type 1 Diabetes

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Among Children And Young People With Type 1 Diabetes

This fact sheet provides the most recent available data on hospitalisations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA)—a serious complication of diabetes. It highlights that DKA continues to affect many children and young people with type 1 diabetes, in particular females and those living in regional and remote areas and in lower socioeconomic areas. People aged less than 25 years accounted for 54% of all DKA hospitalisations of those with type 1 diabetes DKA hospitalisation rates 1.5 times as high for Outer regional and Remote and very remote areas than for Major cities DKA hospitalisation rates were 1.4 times as high in females as males. 16% of DKA hospitalisation of young people had also a diagnosis of psychological or behavioural conditions Continue reading >>

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