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Is Dka In Emergency?

Ebm Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Ebm Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Epidemiology New diagnosis of diabetes 10-27%. Infection ~ 35%, inadequate insulin ~ 30%, surgery, trauma, alcohol, cocaine and drugs such as steroids, thiazides, sympathomimetics, pentamidine. No cause in 19-38%, but poor compliance / economic reasons frequent. Mortality 1% in adults, but 5% if over 65 years. Also high 15% in patients with hyperglycaemic, hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome (HHNS), when BSL usually > 50 mmol/L, more dehydrated with osmolality is > 320 mosm/L – can calculate latter by (2[NA + K] + glucose). Diagnostic Criteria Raised glucose >11.1 mmol/L Acidosis with arterial / venous pH < 7.3, or venous bicarb < 15 mmol/L Ketonaemia or ketonuria (urinalysis may miss 3-beta hydroxybutyrate early). Management / Complications Hypoperfusion Rapid initial crystalloid, especially for significant circulatory insufficiency, at 15-20 mL/kg in first hour ie. 1-1.5 L. Possible role for bicarbonate is in patients with impending cardiovascular collapse, if pH < 6.9. Dilute 100 mmol 8.4% bicarbonate in 250-1000 mL 0.45% NS, and give over 30-60 minutes with 20 mmol K via infusion pump. (Note there are no prospective data concerning bicarbonate use below pH 6.9, and from 6.9-7.1 morbidity and mortality outcomes are equivocal ie. not proven). Fluid replacement Total body water deficit 100 mL/kg, and sodium deficit 7-10 mmol/kg. Restore normal hydration with 0.9% NS at 4-14 mL/kg/hr, to correct estimated fluid deficit over first 24 hours, without exceeding change in osmolality greater than 3 mOsm/kg per hour. One regime is NS 1000 mL in first hour, 500 mL/hr next 4 hours, then 250 mL/hr next 4 hours ie. around 4 L in first 9 hours. Aim to restore fluid deficits over 24 hours in adults, or up to 48 hours in children. Insulin infusion Insulin infusion at 0.1 units/kg/hr Continue reading >>

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Emergency Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially fatal metabolic disorder presenting most weeks in most accident and emergency (A&E) departments.1 The disorder can have significant mortality if misdiagnosed or mistreated. Numerous management strategies have been described. Our aim is to describe a regimen that is based, as far as possible, on available evidence but also on our experience in managing patients with DKA in the A&E department and on inpatient wards. A literature search was carried out on Medline and the Cochrane Databases using “diabetic ketoacidosis” as a MeSH heading and as textword. High yield journals were hand searched. Papers identified were appraised in the ways described in the Users’ guide series published in JAMA. We will not be discussing the derangements in intermediary metabolism involved, nor would we suggest extrapolating the proposed regimen to children. Although some of the issues discussed may be considered by some to be outwith the remit of A&E medicine it would seem prudent to ensure that A&E staff were aware of the probable management of such patients in the hours after they leave the A&E department. AETIOLOGY AND DEFINITION DKA may be the first presentation of diabetes. Insulin error (with or without intercurrent illness) is the most common precipitating factor, accounting for nearly two thirds of cases (excluding those where DKA was the first presentation of diabetes mellitus).2 The main features of DKA are hyperglycaemia, metabolic acidosis with a high anion gap and heavy ketonuria (box 1). This contrasts with the other hyperglycaemic diabetic emergency of hyperosmolar non-ketotic hyperglycaemia where there is no acidosis, absent or minimal ketonuria but often very high glucose levels (>33 mM) and very high serum sodium levels (>15 Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Emergency Department

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Emergency Department

Diabetic ketoacidosis results from deficient insulin action and increased action of hormones such as catecholamines, glucagon, glucocorticoids, and growth hormone, which are produced during stress and which antagonize insulin's actions. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with a relatively high mortality rate. Treatment consists of appropriate fluid resuscitation, insulin infusion, adjustments of electrolytes and phosphate, and careful monitoring. The most common serious complication is cerebral edema. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

Anaesthetic Management During Surgery In A Patient Of Gastrointestinal Perforation With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Anaesthetic Management During Surgery In A Patient Of Gastrointestinal Perforation With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Sudhir Kumar Bisherwal*, Hiranmay Barman, Arundhati Dalai and Ravi Shankar Prasad Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, India *Corresponding Author: Sudhir Kumar Bisherwal Institute of Medical Sciences Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi Uttar Pradesh 221005, India Tel: +917379167800 E-mail: [email protected] Citation: Bisherwal SK, Barman H, Dalai A, Prasad RS (2016) Anaesthetic Management during Surgery in a Patient of Gastrointestinal Perforation with Diabetic Ketoacidosis. J Anesth Clin Res 7:680. doi:10.4172/2155-6148.1000680 Copyright: © 2016 Bisherwal SK, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Visit for more related articles at Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research Abstract Patients with diabetes are often encountered for anaesthesia and surgery. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a common condition which is caused by production of ketones because of deficient insulin. Its prevalence can be as high as 30% in diabetic patients. Elective surgery is to be postponed in patients of DKA. Mortality is increased in patients of ketoacidosis undergoing surgery and hyperglycemia associated with diabetes is associated with increased hospital stay and increased incidence of wound infection. In this case, we present anaesthetic methods used for a patient in DKA undergoing exploratory laparotomy for peritonitis secondary to bowel perforation. Keywords Diabetes mellitus; Diabetic ketoacidosis; Emergency laparotomy; Perforation peritonitis Introduction Diabetes is fast gaining the status of an epidemic in world. By the year 2030, the world prevalence of diab Continue reading >>

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Adult Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Go to: Abstract Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a rare yet potentially fatal hyperglycemic crisis that can occur in patients with both type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Due to its increasing incidence and economic impact related to the treatment and associated morbidity, effective management and prevention is key. Elements of management include making the appropriate diagnosis using current laboratory tools and clinical criteria and coordinating fluid resuscitation, insulin therapy, and electrolyte replacement through feedback obtained from timely patient monitoring and knowledge of resolution criteria. In addition, awareness of special populations such as patients with renal disease presenting with DKA is important. During the DKA therapy, complications may arise and appropriate strategies to prevent these complications are required. DKA prevention strategies including patient and provider education are important. This review aims to provide a brief overview of DKA from its pathophysiology to clinical presentation with in depth focus on up-to-date therapeutic management. Keywords: DKA treatment, insulin, prevention, ESKD Go to: Introduction In 2009, there were 140,000 hospitalizations for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) with an average length of stay of 3.4 days.1 The direct and indirect annual cost of DKA hospitalizations is 2.4 billion US dollars. Omission of insulin is the most common precipitant of DKA.2,3 Infections, acute medical illnesses involving the cardiovascular system (myocardial infarction, stroke) and gastrointestinal tract (bleeding, pancreatitis), diseases of the endocrine axis (acromegaly, Cushing’s syndrome), and stress of recent surgical procedures can contribute to the development of DKA by causing dehydration, increase in insulin counter-regulatory hor Continue reading >>

Myths In Dka Management

Myths In Dka Management

Anand Swaminathan, MD, MPH (@EMSwami) is an assistant professor and assistant program director at the NYU/Bellevue Department of Emergency Medicine in New York City. Review questions are available at the end of this post. Background Each year, roughly 10,000 patients present to the Emergency Department in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Prior to the advent of insulin, the mortality rate of DKA was 100% although in recent years, that rate has dropped to approximately 2-5%.1 Despite clinical advances, the mortality rate has remained constant over the last 10 years. With aggressive resuscitative measures and appropriate continued management this trend may change. DKA is defined as: Hyperglycemia (glucose > 250 mg/dl) Acidosis (pH < 7.3) Ketosis In the absence of insulin, serum glucose rises leading to osmotic diuresis. This diuresis leads to loss of electrolytes including sodium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorous. The resultant volume depletion leads to impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and acute renal failure. In patients with DKA, fatty acid breakdown produces 2 different ketone bodies, first acetoacetate, which then further converts to beta-hydroxybutyrate, the latter being the ketone body largely produced in DKA patients. With this background in mind, let’s take a look at four urban legends in the management of DKA and the evidence that dispels these legends. Here’s our case: Although this presentation likely represents DKA, a blood gas is typically obtained to confirm the diagnosis. Often, the question arises as to whether an arterial or venous blood gas is adequate. Urban Legend #1 – An ABG is necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of DKA ABG gets you pH, PaO2, PaCO2, HCO3, Lactate, electrolytes and O2Sat VBG gets all this except for PaO2 (but we have Continue reading >>

Episode 63 – Pediatric Dka

Episode 63 – Pediatric Dka

Pediatric DKA was identified as one of key diagnoses that we need to get better at managing in a massive national needs assessment conducted by the fine folks at TREKK – Translating Emergency Knowledge for Kids – one of EM Cases’ partners who’s mission is to improve the care of children in non-pediatric emergency departments across the country. You might be wondering – why was DKA singled out in this needs assessment? It turns out that kids who present to the ED in DKA without a known history of diabetes, can sometimes be tricky to diagnose, as they often present with vague symptoms. When a child does have a known history of diabetes, and the diagnosis of DKA is obvious, the challenge turns to managing severe, life-threatening DKA, so that we avoid the many potential complications of the DKA itself as well as the complications of treatment – cerebral edema being the big bad one. The approach to these patients has evolved over the years, even since I started practicing, from bolusing insulin and super aggressive fluid resuscitation to more gentle fluid management and delayed insulin drips, as examples. There are subtleties and controversies in the management of DKA when it comes to fluid management, correcting serum potassium and acidosis, preventing cerebral edema, as well as airway management for the really sick kids. In this episode we‘ll be asking our guest pediatric emergency medicine experts Dr. Sarah Reid, who you may remember from her powerhouse performance on our recent episodes on pediatric fever and sepsis, and Dr. Sarah Curtis, not only a pediatric emergency physician, but a prominent pediatric emergency researcher in Canada, about the key historical and examination pearls to help pick up this sometimes elusive diagnosis, what the value of serum Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Myths

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) Myths

Recently, I was asked to give a lecture to both my residents and nurses at the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio (UTHSCSA) on some common DKA myths. Now this topic was originally covered by my good friend Anand Swaminathan on multiple platforms and I did ask his permission to create this blogpost with the idea of improving patient care and wanted to express full disclosure of that fact. I specifically covered four common myths that I still see people doing in regards to DKA management: We should get ABGs instead of VBGs After Intravenous Fluids (IVF), Insulin is the Next Step Once pH <7.1, Patients Need Bicarbonate Therapy We Should Bolus Insulin before starting the infusion DKA Myths Case: 25 y/o female with PMH of Type I DM who presents via EMS with AMS. Per EMS report, the patient ran out of her insulin 3 days ago….. Vital Signs: BP 86/52 HR 136 RR 30 O2Sat 97% on room air Temp 99.1 Accucheck: CRITICAL HIGH EMS was not able to establish IV access, so decided to just bring her to the ED due to how sick she looks. Your nurses are on point today and get you two large bore 18G IVs and start to draw blood work to send to the lab. You state I need a blood gas, and the nurse turns to you and asks do you need an ABG or VBG? Myth #1: We should get ABGs instead of VBGs in DKA So you do a literature review and come across two studies that specifically look at ABG vs VBG in an ED population: Study #1: Kelly AM et al. Review Article – Can Venous Blood Gas Analysis Replace Arterial in Emergency Medical Care. Emery Med Australas 2010; 22: 493 – 498. PMID: 21143397 For pH, 3 studies of patients with DKA (265 patients) were reviewed showing a weighted mean difference of 0.02 pH units. Only one study, which was the largest study (200 patients) reported 95% Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that can occur in diabetes. DKA happens when acidic substances, called ketones, build up in your body. Ketones are formed when your body burns fat for fuel instead of sugar, or glucose. That can happen if you don’t have enough insulin in your body to help you process sugars. Learn more: Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis: What you should know » Left untreated, ketones can build up to dangerous levels. DKA can occur in people who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but it’s rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA can also develop if you are at risk for diabetes, but have not received a formal diagnosis. It can be the first sign of type 1 diabetes. DKA is a medical emergency. Call your local emergency services immediately if you think you are experiencing DKA. Symptoms of DKA can appear quickly and may include: frequent urination extreme thirst high blood sugar levels high levels of ketones in the urine nausea or vomiting abdominal pain confusion fruity-smelling breath a flushed face fatigue rapid breathing dry mouth and skin It is important to make sure you consult with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. If left untreated, DKA can lead to a coma or death. All people who use insulin should discuss the risk of DKA with their healthcare team, to make sure a plan is in place. If you think you are experiencing DKA, seek immediate medical help. Learn more: Blood glucose management: Checking for ketones » If you have type 1 diabetes, you should maintain a supply of home urine ketone tests. You can use these to test your ketone levels. A high ketone test result is a symptom of DKA. If you have type 1 diabetes and have a glucometer reading of over 250 milligrams per deciliter twice, you should test your urine for keton Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario

DOI: 10.7759/cureus.1286 Cite this article as: Addison R, Skinner T, Zhou F, et al. (May 29, 2017) Diabetic Ketoacidosis: An Emergency Medicine Simulation Scenario. Cureus 9(5): e1286. doi:10.7759/cureus.1286 Abstract Simulation provides a safe environment where learning is enhanced through the deliberate practice of skills and controlled management of a variety of clinical encounters. This is particularly important for core cases and low-frequency, high-stakes procedures and encounters. Competency-based medical education has seen widespread adoption in the field along with ongoing work in the areas of undergraduate and postgraduate training. Similarly, effective professional development activities stand to benefit greatly from a more stringent integration of simulation and competency-based approaches. This particularly makes sense when considering the goals of patient safety and achievement of optimal clinical outcomes. The current report describes a simulation training session designed to acquaint emergency medicine residents with the presentation and management of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) through the use of simulation. Continue reading >>

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is an emergency medical condition that can be life-threatening if not treated properly. The incidence of this condition may be increasing, and a 1 to 2 percent mortality rate has stubbornly persisted since the 1970s. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs most often in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus); however, its occurrence in patients with type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), particularly obese black patients, is not as rare as was once thought. The management of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis includes obtaining a thorough but rapid history and performing a physical examination in an attempt to identify possible precipitating factors. The major treatment of this condition is initial rehydration (using isotonic saline) with subsequent potassium replacement and low-dose insulin therapy. The use of bicarbonate is not recommended in most patients. Cerebral edema, one of the most dire complications of diabetic ketoacidosis, occurs more commonly in children and adolescents than in adults. Continuous follow-up of patients using treatment algorithms and flow sheets can help to minimize adverse outcomes. Preventive measures include patient education and instructions for the patient to contact the physician early during an illness. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a triad of hyperglycemia, ketonemia and acidemia, each of which may be caused by other conditions (Figure 1).1 Although diabetic ketoacidosis most often occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes (formerly called insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), more recent studies suggest that it can sometimes be the presenting condition in obese black patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes (formerly called non–insulin-depe Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Patient professional reference Professional Reference articles are written by UK doctors and are based on research evidence, UK and European Guidelines. They are designed for health professionals to use. You may find the Pre-diabetes (Impaired Glucose Tolerance) article more useful, or one of our other health articles. See also the separate Childhood Ketoacidosis article. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a medical emergency with a significant morbidity and mortality. It should be diagnosed promptly and managed intensively. DKA is characterised by hyperglycaemia, acidosis and ketonaemia:[1] Ketonaemia (3 mmol/L and over), or significant ketonuria (more than 2+ on standard urine sticks). Blood glucose over 11 mmol/L or known diabetes mellitus (the degree of hyperglycaemia is not a reliable indicator of DKA and the blood glucose may rarely be normal or only slightly elevated in DKA). Bicarbonate below 15 mmol/L and/or venous pH less than 7.3. However, hyperglycaemia may not always be present and low blood ketone levels (<3 mmol/L) do not always exclude DKA.[2] Epidemiology DKA is normally seen in people with type 1 diabetes. Data from the UK National Diabetes Audit show a crude one-year incidence of 3.6% among people with type 1 diabetes. In the UK nearly 4% of people with type 1 diabetes experience DKA each year. About 6% of cases of DKA occur in adults newly presenting with type 1 diabetes. About 8% of episodes occur in hospital patients who did not primarily present with DKA.[2] However, DKA may also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, although people with type 2 diabetes are much more likely to have a hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state. Ketosis-prone type 2 diabetes tends to be more common in older, overweight, non-white people with type 2 diabetes, and DKA may be their Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>

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