Use Of Expressed Breast Milk With The Ketogenic Diet
Breastfeeding continues to be the recommended mode of infant feeding with numerous nutritive and nonnutritive benefits to both mothers and babies. The ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate protein, and very low carbohydrate diet prescribed for infants and children with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Due to the high carbohydrate content of breast milk (BM) and the extremely low carbohydrate allowance of the KD, these 2 modes of feeding are typically not used together. We report our experience to demonstrate that BM can be part of a successful KD treatment. A retrospective chart review was performed and 4 patients met criteria. They were younger than 2 years and were fed BM before KD initiation. All achieved ketosis at low (2-3:1) ratios and remained ketotic while using BM. The average amount of BM consumed was 139 ± 50 mL/day, equivalent to 11 ± 4.5 grams of carbohydrates per day. Three patients achieved >50% reduction in seizure frequency within 2 months of treatment. Patients continued using BM for an average of 105 ± 50 days. For all cases, BM was discontinued due to maternal preference. BM is a viable, preferred, carbohydrate source for infants prescribed the KD. “The ketogenic diet (KD) is an effective treatment for infants and children with treatment-resistant epilepsy.” The World Health Organization, the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention all recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding with complementary foods for 1 year or beyond.1 The digestibility, composition, and immune functions of breast milk (BM) are unique and unmatched by formula. The composition of BM is very complex, including 600 different species of beneficial bacteria and 200 oligosaccharides Continue reading >>
Babies In Ketosis
This post topic was inspired by the following article: Ketosis - key to human babies’ big brains? It is hosted on Tim Noakes' website and written by one of his associates in nutritional information misdirection, Tamzyn Murphy Campbell, RD. I'm going to address this misdirection and the disturbing parts of this article vis a vis Campbell in a future BabyGate Files, but for now I want to discuss the role of ketones in metabolism. In doing so, I'd also like to explain my somewhat cryptic recent post on heating my kitchen. (I've C&P'd that entire post to the end further down in this one, so if you don't wish to go to another page, you can just scroll down to The Kitchen Heating Analogy). I'm going to structure this post a little differently than most and get to my point, then provide the back up information. Let's see how this goes. The major source (6 of 12 numbered citations, 1 of 6 unique sources) for her article is: Survival of the fattest: fat babies were the key to evolution of the large human brain (2003) Stephen C. Cunnane, Michael A. Crawford (I'll call this C&C) In this paper, they make the following points: Human babies have higher body fat than other mammals and this may be as a source of ketones in early infancy. Infants have slightly elevated ketones (mild ketonemia) regardless of feeding status which differs from adults who only have elevated ketones when food is restricted (no details here). Glucose is the primary fuel for the human brain Ketones are an alternate source of fuel when glucose is less available Ketones "appear to be" an essential fuel for the midterm fetus, and may provide as much as 30% of the developing brain's needs Ketones are both an energy source and carbon source for fat and cholesterol synthesis in the brain. Campbell relates these so Continue reading >>
Babies Thrive Under A Ketogenic Metabolism
Some people, even some scientists who study ketogenic metabolism, have the idea that ketogenesis is somehow abnormal, or exceptional; an adaptation for emergencies only. We disagree. One reason we think a ketogenic metabolism is normal and desirable, is that human newborns are in ketosis. Despite the moderate sugar content of human breast milk, breastfeeding is particularly ketogenic. This period of development is crucial, and there is extensive brain growth during it. Although the composition of breast milk can be affected by diet , it is reasonable to assume that breast milk has always been ketogenic, and this is not an effect of modernisation. When the brain is in its period of highest growth, and when the source of food is likely to be close to what it evolved to be for that period, ketones are used to fuel that growth. If nothing else, this suggests that learning is well supported by a ketogenic metabolism. It is also consistent with the ability of ketogenic diets to treat a variety of seemingly unrelated brain disorders and brain trauma. Newborn infants are in ketosis. This is their normal state. Breastfeeding is particularly ketogenic (compared to formula feeding). Breastfeeding longer (up to a point) is associated with better health outcomes. This suggests the hypothesis that weaning onto a ketogenic diet would be healthier than weaning onto a high-carb diet. (Mark-up ours) Human babies are in ketosis Soon after birth, human babies are in ketosis, and remain so while breastfeeding . They use ketones and fats for energy and for brain growth. When this has been studied, in the first couple of hours after birth, babies aren't immediately in ketosis. There is a short delay . During that brief period before ketogenesis starts, lactate (confusingly not to do Continue reading >>
Your Brain On Ketones
The modern prescription of high carbohydrate, low fat diets and eating snacks between meals has coincided with an increase in obesity, diabetes, and and increase in the incidence of many mental health disorders, including depression, anxiety, and eating disorders. In addition, many of these disorders are striking the population at younger ages. While most people would agree that diet has a lot to do with the development of obesity and diabetes, many would disagree that what we eat has much to do with our mental health and outlook. I believe that what we eat has a lot to do with the health of our brains, though of course mental illness (like physical illness) has multifactorial causes, and by no means should we diminish the importance of addressing all the causes in each individual. But let's examine the opposite of the modern high carbohydrate, low fat, constant snacking lifestyle and how that might affect the brain. The opposite of a low fat, snacking lifestyle would be the lifestyle our ancestors lived for tens of thousands of generations, the lifestyle for which our brains are primarily evolved. It seems reasonable that we would have had extended periods without food, either because there was none available, or we were busy doing something else. Then we would follow that period with a filling meal of gathered plant and animal products, preferentially selecting the fat. During the day we might have eaten a piece of fruit, or greens, or a grub we dug up, but anything filling or high in calories (such as a starchy tuber) would have to be killed, butchered, and/or carefully prepared before eating. Fortunately, we have a terrific system of fuel for periods of fasting or low carbohydrate eating, our body (and brain) can readily shift from burning glucose to burning what ar Continue reading >>
A Gestational Ketogenic Diet Alters Maternal Metabolic Status As Well As Offspring Physiological Growth And Brain Structure In The Neonatal Mouse
Go to: Abstract The use of the ketogenic diet (KD) among women of child-bearing age has been increasing, leading to increased interest in identifying the diet’s suitability during gestation. To date, no studies have thoroughly investigated the effect of a gestational KD on offspring growth. Since ketones have been reported to play a role in cerebral lipid and myelin synthesis, it is particularly important to investigate the diet’s impact on brain anatomy of the offspring. To fill this knowledge gap we imaged CD-1 mouse neonates whose mothers were fed either a standard diet (SD) or a KD prior to and during gestation. Images were collected at postnatal (P) 11.5 and 21.5 using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Maternal metabolic status was also tracked during lactation, by following their body weight, blood glucose, ketone, cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations. Results The KD dams exhibit a significant reduction in maternal fertility and litter size, as well as a high risk of developing fatal ketoacidosis by mid-lactation. To increase survival of the KD dams and offspring, fostering of P2.5 pups (from both KD and SD litters) by SD-foster dams was carried out. This resulted in stabilization of blood ketones of the KD dams, and aversion of the fatal ketoacidosis. We also note a slower and smaller weight loss for the KD compared with the SD dams. The average fostered KD pup exhibits retarded growth by P21.5 compared with the average fostered SD pup. An anatomical comparison of their brains further revealed significant structural differences at P11.5, and particularly at P21.5. The KD brain shows a relative bilateral decrease in the cortex, fimbria, hippocampus, corpus callosum and lateral ventricle, but a relative volumetric enlargement of the hypothalamus and med Continue reading >>
Your Brain On Ketones
Ketogenic diets have been prescribed for seizures for a long time. The actual research diets used in the past were pretty dismal and seemed to involve drinking a lot of cream and eating a lot of mayonnaise. At Johns Hopkins, pediatric patients were admitted to the hospital for a 48 hour fast and then given eggnog (minus the rum and sugar, I'm guessing) until ketosis was achieved (usually took about 4 days). In addition, ketogenic diets were calorie restricted to just 75-90% of what would be considered a child's usual calorie intake, and often they were fluid-restricted too (1)! If we're talking soybean oil mayonnaise, you could see how someone could get into trouble with mineral deficiencies and liver problems pretty quickly. To understand "dismal," some of the latest research showed that a "modified Atkins protocol" was just as good as the classic ketogenic diet, and so much more liberating, as the patients were allowed up to 10 grams of carbohydrates daily, and they didn't begin with the fast, and they weren't calorie restricted (2)(3). While the classic ketogenic diet was 4:1:1 fat to carbs to protein. If you use MCT oil for 50% of your calories (have to add it in slowly though to prevent vomiting, diarrhea, and cramping!), you could increase the carbohydrates and proteins to a 1.2:1:1 fat:carb:protein and still get the same numbers of magical ketones circulating. And while "MCT oil" sounds nice and yummy when it is gorgeous coconut milk, this MCT Oil 100% Pure 32 fl.oz doesn't look quite as appetizing, especially when that is going the be half of what you eat for the foreseeable future (4). You can see why researchers consider ketogenic diets (especially the original versions) to be extremely difficult and unappetizing (they were), whereas seasoned low-carbers (who Continue reading >>
Breastfeeding On A Low-carb Diet – Is It Dangerous?
Is it dangerous to breastfeed while on a low-carb, high-fat diet? Recently, the journal of the Swedish Medical Association published a case report (summary in English) of a woman who, six weeks after giving birth, had to be hospitalized for severe ketoacidosis. Luckily, she recovered quickly and her numbers were back to normal the next day. Ketoacidosis is a dangerous condition, most often seen in type 1 diabetics with acute insulin deficiency. In rare cases, ketoacidosis may occur in non-diabetics after prolonged periods of starvation or inadequate food intake, in which case it typically occurs in combination with stress or other medical conditions. The woman in this case had been eating low-carb, high fat for a long time before the incident. After giving birth however, she had suffered flu-like symptoms of fever, nausea and a complete loss of appetite. Despite this, she was still able to breastfeed her baby, which of course ramped up her nutritional requirements. The case study report brings up the woman’s low-carbohydrate diet as one possible contributing factor to the situation. However, as soon as the media found out, they immediately exaggerated this possible contributing factor to the guaranteed sole cause of the condition (which, as we shall see, is unikely): Metro: Woman Falls Seriously Ill of LCHF Diet During Lactation (Google translated from Swedish) In the woman’s own words The woman described in the case report in the journal contacted me of her own accord through common acquaintances. She tells a different story from the one perpetuated by the media: What isn’t made clear is that I, the breastfeeding woman, had been eating LCHF for approximately six years before this incident, but, because of stress during my second pregnancy and after childbirth I s Continue reading >>
Low Carb Breastfeeding And Milk Supply
Almost every woman wants to lose weight. This is even truer after the birth of a beautiful child that you’ve anticipated for the previous 9 months. But now that your baby is here and you’re nursing, you might wonder how, or if, you can do low carb breastfeeding. The answer is: yes, you can do low carb breastfeeding to lose weight and no, it will not affect your baby. Read on to find out why low carb breastfeeding will not affect your milk supply. The human body needs ZERO carbs to survive. Milk 101 Breast milk is made on a supply and demand basis. It is NOT made on a diet and demand basis. This means the more frequent your baby is at the breast suckling, the more milk your body will produce. It may take your breast milk supply a few days to catch up to baby’s needs and milk requirements but the human body is a remarkable thing. It knows exactly how much to make and when, but sometimes there are problems. These problems could arise from improper latching techniques to inverted nipples to a child’s illness (decreased thirst/hunger), or dehydration. Before you can blame your diet for a low milk supply or think that low carb dieting might lower it, ask yourself this. Ask yourself, “Will having pizza tonight increase my breast milk supply?” If you laughed at that question, that means you probably already have a good idea that your diet doesn’t directly impact your milk supply. Low Carb Breastfeeding Myth It is a myth that consuming fewer carbs reduces your milk supply. There’s no telltale sign where this myth came from, but there are a few things you should keep in mind. Before carbs were commercially produced in excess quantities (see an article about this here) on factory lines all across the globe, Americans consumed far fewer carbohydrates than we do toda Continue reading >>
Initiating And Maintaining The Ketogenic Diet In Breastfed Infants
Abstract The ketogenic diet has been used as an effective treatment for intractable epilepsy since 1921. Its efficacy in the treatment of epilepsy in infants has been reported to be similar to that in older children. However, there have been no reports in the literature addressing the possibility of continuing breastfeeding during treatment with the ketogenic diet. The authors performed a retrospective chart review of the patients initiated on the ketogenic diet and identified 5 infants who continued to receive breast milk while on the ketogenic diet treatment. All 5 experienced a >90% reduction of seizures during the first month on the ketogenic diet treatment with continued breastfeeding. Four of the 5 were able to maintain >90% reduction of seizures for the duration of their time receiving breast milk while on the ketogenic diet treatment. Traditionally, infants have discontinued breastfeeding prior to diet initiation because of the concern that the carbohydrates in the breast milk will prevent attaining adequate levels of ketosis. It is the authors’ experience with these 5 patients that infants can continue to breastfeed while successfully using the ketogenic diet for seizure treatment. Continue reading >>
Ketogenic Diet Nursing Mothers Added 2 New Photos.
To lose 20pounds in 2weeks. If u think it's impossible to lose 20pounds in 2weeks then think again. It's not a magic, pull or wraps, all we are talking abt are small sacrifice combined with specific techniques. All we will do is just to give u a plan. 1. Drink mainly water. ... See More Continue reading >>
I Am Breastfeeding My Baby And I Want To Lose Weight. Is A Low Carbohydrate Diet Safe For A Breastfeeding Mother?
Many women are anxious to get back in shape after childbirth, but we must remember that pregnancy weight wasn’t gained overnight, and won’t disappear quickly, either. It is wise for mothers to wait until two months postpartum to purposely lose weight, as the mother’s body needs time to recover from childbirth and establish a good milk supply. Many mothers find that by following a sensible diet they are able to lose weight steadily while breastfeeding. Anyone who wants to start a weight loss diet should consult with their physician to rule out any health problems that would contraindicate the diet. If a breastfeeding mother is interested in any type of weight loss diet, there are several factors she should consider. Nutritional balance-- A breastfeeding mother should receive adequate and balanced nutrition, for her breastfed baby’s sake, and the sake of her own health. Otherwise, she risks depleting her body’s nutritional stores. A malnourished mother may have inadequate levels of vitamins A, D, B6 and B12 in her milk, and may risk decreased milk supply. Hunger-- Inadequate caloric intake results in feeling weak, tired, and drained. When a mother feels this way, taking care of a baby is very difficult, and these very real feelings can result in lowered milk supply and inhibited milk ejection (letdown) reflex. The Subcommittee on Nutrition during Lactation advises breastfeeding mothers to take in 1500-1800 calories per day. Rate of weight loss-- Gradual weight loss has not been found to affect either the mother’s milk supply or the baby’s health. However, there are documented concerns when a breastfeeding mother loses weight rapidly, defined as more than a pound (.45 kg) per week. Toxins, such as environmental contaminants PCBs and pesticides, are stored in Continue reading >>
- The effect of a low-carbohydrate, ketogenic diet versus a low-glycemic index diet on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus
- Can a Newborn Baby Have Diabetes from Mother?
- The interpretation and effect of a low-carbohydrate diet in the management of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials
The Ketogenic Diet: Cancer Breakthrough Or Madness?
There has been a lot of buzz recently regarding ketones. As a cancer physician and researcher, I spend a lot of time thinking about ketones throughout the day. But what exactly is a ketone, you may be asking... Ketones are the energy supply our body makes to feed the brain during times of starvation, carbohydrate deprivation, fasting, or even just after a night’s rest. Our cells require a constant amount of oxygen and an energy source for survival. Sugar within the blood can provide a small amount of energy, as can proteins and fats. But when sugar is not around, the body turns to ketone production to feed the brain and other organs and cells. Through fasting and cutting carbohydrates, one can raise the amount of ketones feeding his or her brain and floating around in the body. Not only is this a clinically proven and superior method of weight loss,1–4 but it also has promise as a method of cancer treatment, or at least working together with current cancer treatments.5–8 You see, when ketone production in the body is high, your sugar levels drop, which is important, as cancer cells use sugar for energy.9 There is also a handful of data showing that cancer cells may not be able to use ketones for energy, while normal cells can.10 As an oncologist, when I heard that ketones may selectively starve cancer cells, I was excited and began aggressively researching it. However, with all the chatter on the internet of the dangers of ketones, I have been wondering if all my work regarding the ketogenic diet is putting people in harm’s way as opposed to helping them. I recently got my answer while I was stuck on an airplane. I was seated next to someone who was engaging in a ketogenic diet consisting of pure liquid. His diet was almost 60% fat, mostly in order to produce ke Continue reading >>
- Get off your backside! It's madness for the NHS to spend millions fighting type 2 diabetes when the simple cure is exercise, says DR MICHAEL MOSLEY, who reversed HIS own diabetes
- Why the ketogenic diet may help fight diabetes, cancer
- Ketogenic Diet Aids Weight loss, Diabetes, Epilepsy and Multiple Sclerosis: Keto Starves Cancer
Breastfeeding While In Ketosis: Round 2
Since my baby has been growing great, no issues breastfeeding, etc, and I found myself trending lower and lower in my daily carb counts; I decided I was going into full-on Keto again. I tend to average between 20 and 40 carbs per day. After a couple of days with this limit, I noticed Natalie wanted to nurse practically all day long. It seemed like a small drop in supply, as expected. However, the very next day my letdowns seemed normal, and I got the usual breaks between feedings. If some one else is consuming a high carb diet and wants to make the change with younger babies (~4+ months old), I would recommend starting at 100g carbs per day, and cutting 5g each day and monitoring your supply as you go along. More important than carb count while breastfeeding is your water and caloric intake. Be sure to be constantly drinking water; if you feel thirsty then you are already a little bit dehydrated. If you are having trouble with your calorie counts, I highly recommend MyFitnessPal. Great, intuitive site (and love the app!) with an extensive food database. Above all else, I recommend going gradually into ketosis and calorie restriction while breastfeeding, especially if your baby is young, and if you are not at home with the baby for unlimited nursing during the potential conversion. Check out my previous posts on breastfeeding while in ketosis - Low Carb or Keto While Breastfeeding Keto and Breastfeeding Introduction Keto While Breastfeeding: Days 1-5 Keto and the Breastfeeding Diet TIPS Continue reading >>
(redirected from lactation ketosis) Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. Lactation Definition Lactation is the medical term for yielding of milk by the mammary glands which leads to breastfeeding. Human milk contains the ideal amount of nutrients for the infant, and provides important protection from diseases through the mother's natural defenses. Description Early in a woman's pregnancy her milk-producing glands begin to prepare for her baby's arrival, and by the sixth month of pregnancy the breasts are ready to produce milk. Immediately after the baby is born, the placenta is delivered. This causes a hormone in the woman's body (prolactin) to activate the milk-producing glands. By the third to fifth day, the woman's breasts fill with milk. Then, as the baby continues to suck each day, nursing triggers the continuing production of milk. The baby's sucking stimulates nerve endings in the nipple, which signal the mother's pituitary gland to release oxytocin, a hormone that causes the mammary glands to release milk to the nursing baby. This is called the "let-down reflex." While the baby's sucking is the primary stimulus for this reflex, a baby's cry, thoughts of the baby, or the sound of running water also may trigger the response. Frequent nursing will lead to increased milk production. Breast milk cannot be duplicated by commercial baby food formulas, although both contain protein, fat, and carbohydrates. In particular, breast milk changes to meet the specific needs of a baby. The composition of breast milk changes as the baby grows to meet the baby's changing needs. Most important, breast milk contains substances called antibodies from the mother that can protect the child against illness and allergies. Antibodies are part of the body's natural defense Continue reading >>
Breastfeeding & No Carb Diets
Video of the Day Cutting carbs or calories suddenly can cause your milk supply to dwindle, leaving you struggling to make enough breast milk for your baby's needs. Some moderately low-carb diets have multiple phases, so you might be able to skip the ultra-restrictive early phases and try a diet that gives you some healthy carbs and enough calories to maintain milk production. Aim for slow weight loss of 1 to 2 pounds a week and avoid dieting at all until around eight weeks after your baby's birth. At this point, your milk supply is fully established, so dieting won't derail that process. When you embark on a drastic diet, your body's fat stores may release stored toxins that could get into your breast milk. If your diet restricts carbs, you could also be missing out on vital nutrients that your body needs to support your own and your baby's health. Women on an extremely carb-restricted diet often begin to produce types of chemicals called ketones, and it is unknown whether ketones can get into breast milk or whether they are a danger to a nursing baby. Continue reading >>