Intracellular Acidosis Definition

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This lesson explores how the Na/K-ATPase or Na-pump uses ATP to transport sodium out of the cell and potassium into the cells. In particular, the various conformational states of the Na/K-ATPase and their relationship to the transport of Na and K ions and the utilization of ATP. Test your knowledge with a sample quiz: http://aniveo.com/na-k-atpase/v Learn about the ATP Synthase: http://aniveo.com/atp-synthase/

Chronic Extracellular Acidosis Induces Plasmalemmal Vacuolar Type H+ Atpase Activity In Osteoclasts*

Proton extrusion into an extracellular resorption compartment is an essential component of bone degradation by osteoclasts. Chronic metabolic acidosis is known to induce negative calcium balance and bone loss by stimulating osteoclastic bone resorption, but the underlying mechanism is not known. The present studies were undertaken to evaluate whether chronic acidosis affects proton extrusion mechanisms in osteoclasts cultured on glass coverslips. Acidosis, mimicked experimentally by maintaining the cells at extracellular pH 6.5, rapidly lowered intracellular pH to 6.8. However, after 2 hours, a proportion of cells demonstrated the capacity to restore intracellular pH to near normal levels. To define the mechanism responsible for this recovery, the activity of individual H+ transport pathways was analyzed. We found that chronic acid treatment for up to 6 h did not significantly affect the cellular buffering power or Na+/H+ antiport activity. In contrast, chronic acidosis activated vacuolar H+ pumps in the osteoclasts. Although only 5% of the control cells displayed proton pump activity, about 40% of cells kept at extracellular pH 6.5 for 4-6 h were able to recover from the acute ac Continue reading >>

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  1. DustinX

    Fasting to get into ketosis... faster?

    The other day I remembered that when I was young I had to get a physical. Well to keep the story short, I hadn't eaten much the day before and didn't eat breakfast before I went. After he looked at the urine results I remember him asking if I ate breakfast, he said he asked because I had alot of ketones in my urine.
    I was thinking, would it be possible to do a 24 hour fast to enter ketosis and then the next day continue a keto diet (I'm saying for when you're first starting a keto diet). Maybe 12 hours of fasting would get you into ketosis? I'm not sure, but I figured this could be a quick way to get into ketosis without having to wait 3 or even 4 days when you first begin.

  2. Eileen

    If you are young and active, then you'll get into ketosis quickly. Someone who is older or less active will take longer the first time.
    Fasting will get out into ketosis, but so will eating high fat meals. Don't know about you, but I get very crabby if I miss my breakfast.

  3. jg_girl088

    yeah it sure will. I remember reading in Good Calories Bad Calories that the original recommendation for the ketogenic diet was to start with a 48 hour fast, however, atkins was the one who changed it to a 2 week induction period of minimal carbs.

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This video includes the best research paper topics that I've ever seen as a professor (along with a tutorial on how to write great argumentative research topics of your own), and here is the link to the webpage featured in the video, including the top 100 topic ideas: http://robjohnfrank.com/research-pape... The research essay topics presented here are intended for college courses, though they could also be used at the high school level, and they are based on some of the most interesting argumentative research paper topics from my English 101 classes and Research Writing classes when I was teaching college courses. The topic examples are broken down by major, including psychology, business, science, and a lot more. If you found this video to be helpful, please Like It, Share It, Comment, and Subscribe to my Channel: http://www.youtube.com/subscription_c... If you want to learn the how to format a paper in MLA using OpenOffice, which is a free alternative to Microsoft Word, I've created this video as well, including a free formatting template for MLA format in both Word 2010 and Open Office, so that you don't have to worry about proper research paper format, including how to set up

Acidosis - An Overview | Sciencedirect Topics

Acidemia is defined as an increase in plasma hydrogen concentration above normal, measured by a hydrogen concentration >45 nanoEq/L or a pH below 7.35. Joanne Hardy, in Equine Surgery (Fourth Edition) , 2012 Acidosis and alkalosis refer to the processes that cause net accumulation of acid or alkali in the body, respectively. Acidemia and alkalemia refer to the pH of the ECF: in acidemia, the pH of the ECF is lower than normal, and in alkalemia the pH of the ECF is higher than normal. The distinction between these terms is important; for example, a horse with chronic reactive airways disease may have a normal blood pH because of effective renal compensation, but in this setting the patient will have increased bicarbonate. This patient has alkalosis but does not have alkalemia. Allen J. Roussel, Christine B. Navarre, in Food Animal Practice (Fifth Edition) , 2009 Acidemia can quickly and accurately be assessed when a blood gas analyzer is available. These units are becoming more affordable, but access to such a unit is still not common in private large animal practice. Measurement and assessment of total carbon dioxide (TCO2) will provide essentially equivalent clinical data in asse Continue reading >>

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  1. kellibelli

    I'm asking out of pure curiosity--not out of dissatisfaction with the IP weight loss plan. Is there anything that we can do to boost our weekly fat loss? I've researched exercising while in ketosis and I'm finding conflicting information. Some say that it actually stalls weight loss. Anyways, I was just wondering if there's anything more in my power to get the most bang for my buck.

  2. SWP


    Originally Posted by kellibelli
    I'm asking out of pure curiosity--not out of dissatisfaction with the IP weight loss plan. Is there anything that we can do to boost our weekly fat loss? I've researched exercising while in ketosis and I'm finding conflicting information. Some say that it actually stalls weight loss. Anyways, I was just wondering if there's anything more in my power to get the most bang for my buck. I too have been searching for an answer to this. Just based on reading posts, it sounds like everyone is different and what works for one person may not work for another. I've tried different variations that suit my life style to see what will yield the most weight loss/body fat.
    For me, the more water I drink, the more likely i'll see a loss on the scale. I go to the restroom about every hour - but i'm fine with that
    If I do light exercise, I have 1 boiled egg white right after, and if I have an intense workout, I have a restricted item before and an IP right after (with a total of 4 packets that day). I also have one restricted item a day.
    I've tried different variations of this where I only have 3 packets on light workout days without the boiled egg or no restricted items and I only saw a 1lb loss and a decrease in muscle...while on other typical weeks I drop between 6 to 4lbs.
    Also, you might want to consider talking to your coach to see if he/she has ideas of how you can maximize the benefits for your body?

  3. serendipityberry

    My coach said that I will burn the most fat when at rest and there is nothing a person can do to speed it up. If a person exercises vigorously the body goes in search of more efficient fuel means...if not glycogen, then it burns muscle.
    Everyone has a sweat spot, though, for fat loss and it isn't always 100% IP protocol.....as I have found I lose more fat every week if I eat an extra 1-2 protein/day. Seems that the body will hold onto the fat if your specific calorie requirement is too low. So in that respect you can speed it up by actually eating more.

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Introduction to pH and the pH scale. Examples of calculating pH of pure water, bleach, and orange juice. Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/b... Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/b... Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specializ


Metabolic acidosis: Assessment and Treatment Acidosis is a frequent problem in critically-ill neonates. Buffers, such as sodium bicarbonate, are often used to treat metabolic acidosis. However, evidence to support the use or efficacy of this therapy is lacking. The etiology of a low pH must be understood to treat infants appropriately. Respiratory acidosis (increased CO2 on a blood gas and normal or near normal serum bicarbonate concentration) can only be treated by improving ventilation. Buffers will not help in this case, and may make the situation worse because infusion of NaHCO3 results in the immediate formation of CO2. For every mole of proton neutralized by bicarbonate, an equimolar amount of CO2 is produced. The futility of using NaHCO3 in a situation where ventilation is inadequate can be appreciated by the Henderson-Hesselbalch equation: pH - pK1 + log [HCO3-]/[CO2] (pK1 = 6.1) When ventilation is impaired, use of NaHCO3 will move the pH toward the pK of the equation, which is 6.1. In order to achieve a pH of 7.4, the molar ratio of HCO3 to CO2 must be 20:1. Thus, correction of acidosis depends on the removal of CO2. CO2 elimination depends on minute ventilation and pulm Continue reading >>

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  1. anonymous

    (Anonymous because I don't care to talk about my weight on the Internet.)
    In the spirit of self-experimentation, and with the intention of losing some weight, I decided to see what would happen if I modified my diet to reduce carbohydrate intake. For the last month or so I've been eating a diet that gets about 15% of calories from carbs, on average about 50-75g of carbs per day. (Which is to say: substantial carb restriction, but more carbs than you would consume on something like Atkins.) I lost 2-4 pounds, all of it in the first two weeks. This is within the normal range of fluctuation of my weight.
    In many ways this was not what I expected from reading other people's accounts and talking to friends. People close to me have lost between 8 and 15 pounds on a diet similar to mine with little effort. I expected to be eating fewer calories but feeling full; in fact, on the days I tracked calories, it seemed that I was eating about as many calories as usual. People reported feeling an increase in energy level or alertness; I did not. People reported "cravings" for carb-rich foods; I had none. Basically, I have spent the last month eating very differently from the way I usually eat, but feeling more or less the same, and losing weight (if at all) at a pace so slow that I'm not sure anything's really going on. Why? I can think of a few possible reasons my experience might have been different from other people's.
    1. It's possible that here are large individual metabolic differences between people, so that some people will lose significant weight on low-carb diet and others (like me) won't.
    2. People's "carb cravings" seemed often to be related to sugar; I don't have much of a sweet tooth and my normal diet doesn't contain a lot of added sugar.
    3. I am only slightly overweight -- I started at 6'1" and about 198 (now 195), or BMI 26.
    4. My normal diet contains lots of carbs, but much of this comes in the form of whole grain (e.g. large portions of whole wheat pasta and whole wheat bread.) So maybe reducing these is less beneficial than cutting out soda, white bread, and candy?
    6. I guess it's also possible that only extreme "Atkins-style" diets (say 20g carb per day) are effective, and what I'm doing is not substantially different from eating hundreds of grams of carbs per day.
    7. I probably didn't eat as much vegetable as I should have. My diet was heavily weighted towards meat, cheese, and eggs, with some non-starchy vegetables included as an afterthought.
    8. I haven't been doing serious aerobic exercise (I commute by bike about 20 mins / day and that's it.) In the scientific spirit, I didn't add exercise when I started the diet because I wasn't exercising before, and I'm curious about the effect of the diet.
    Have other people here had experiences like mine? Did I do low-carb wrong, or is there a reason (one of the above, or another) that low-carb is not going to be a viable weight-loss strategy for me?

  2. sanka

    If you think 50-75g of carbs is a substantial restriction, you are mistaken. Try less than 10, or more like 5 and you will see the weight loss. 50-75 carbs a day is a normal diet to me, maybe even a little high, but mostly because I stay away from breads and pastas and prepared food.

  3. miyabo

    People horribly exaggerate the numbers when they tell friends and family how much they've lost. Realize that with a very serious diet and exercise program, you might lose 10 lbs a month -- and with an average diet and no extra exercise, you might lose 3 lbs a month. To even notice changes that small, you have to be absolutely scientific about measuring your weight -- take a moving average of the last couple of days, use a digital scale, don't weigh clothes.
    Also, I believe the current medical consensus is that low carb might work, but only if it's extreme. I don't think anyone has even suggested that 20% or 30% less carbs would even do anything.

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