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Insulin Resistance Keto

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 29 million people in America have diabetes and 86 million have prediabetes. Insulin resistance is recognized as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. But what causes insulin resistance? In this NutritionFacts.org video, Dr. Michael Greger talks about how fat affects insulin resistance, and about how the most effective way to reduce insulin sensitivity is to reduce fat intake. We’ve also provided a summary of Dr. Greger’s main points below. Insulin Resistance of People on High-Fat Diets vs. High-Carb Diets In studies performed as early as the 1930s, scientists have noted a connection between diet and insulin intolerance. In one study, healthy young men were split into two groups. Half of the participants were put on a fat-rich diet, and the other half were put on a carb-rich diet. The high-fat group ate olive oil, butter, mayonnaise, and cream. The high-carb group ate pastries, sugar, candy, bread, baked potatoes, syrup, rice, and oatmeal. Within two days, tests showed that the glucose intolerance had skyrocketed in the group eating the high-fat diet. This group had twice the blood sugar levels than the high-carb group. The test results showed that the higher the fat content of the diet, the higher the blood sugar levels would be. What Is Insulin Resistance? It turns out that as the amount of fat in the diet goes up, so does one’s blood sugar spikes. Athletes frequently carb-load before a race because they’re trying to build up fuel in their muscles. We break down starch into glucose in our digestive tract; it circulates as blood glucose (blood sugar); and it is then used by our muscle cells as fuel. Blood sugar, though, is like a vampire. It needs an invitation to enter our cells. And that invit Continue reading >>

How Optimize Your Diet For Your Insulin Resistance

How Optimize Your Diet For Your Insulin Resistance

Lately, I’ve seen a number of common themes come up at low carb conferences and online. The contentious questions tend to run along the lines of: I did really well on a low carb diet initially, but my fat loss seems to have stalled. What gives? What should I do now? If protein is insulinogenic should I actively avoid protein as well as carbs if my goal is to reduce insulin because low insulin = weight loss? If eating more fat helped kick start my weight loss journey, then why does eating more fat seem to make me gain weight now? This article outlines some quantitative parameters around these contentious questions and helps you chose the most appropriate nutritional approach. Coming from a diabetes headspace, I’ve seen firsthand the power of a low carb diet in reducing blood glucose and insulin levels. As a Type 1 Diabetic, my wife Moni has been above to halve her insulin dose with a massive improvement in energy levels, body composition and mood. If your blood glucose levels are high, then chances are your insulin levels are also high. Insulin is the hormonal “switch” that causes us to store excess energy as body fat in times of plenty.[1] Lower levels of insulin in times of food scarcity then enable us to access to the stored energy on our body.[2] You can actively manage the fat storing potential of your diet by managing the insulin load of the food you eat. The chart below shows that our glucose response is fairly well predicted by the carbohydrates we eat. (note: The “glucose score” is the area under the curve of glucose response to various foods tested over the three hours relative to glucose which gets a score of 100%.) [3] [4] Having high blood glucose levels is bad news.[5] The chart below shows the correlation between HbA1c (a measure of your averag Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

Ketogenic diets around the world have been known to be extremely effective in helping improve health and lose weight fast. The diet takes into account and addresses the underlying causes of your weight gain, which could include things such as hormonal imbalances. With the ketogenic diet, you are restricting your net carb intake to under 50 grams a day. With the number of restricted carbs, your body needs to reset its way of getting the fuel that it needs. See how a diet high in healthy fats can help improve insulin resistance by changing the bodies preferred fuel source from glucose to ketones. What is Insulin and Insulin Resistance Insulin is a fat storing hormone formed by the pancreas that enables your body to manage glucose and sugars from carbs within the food. It prevents blood sugar levels from hyperglycemia or reaching too high or hyperglycemia which is too low. Insulin resistance has many symptoms including sugar cravings, weight gain, high blood pressure, high cholesterol.(1) Insulin resistance is also linked to type 2 diabetes. Therefore, cutting out or reducing sugar in your meal planning will help prevent becoming diabetic. The worrying thing about insulin resistance is symptoms take a long time to appear. When symptoms surface such as weight gain, multiple other problems may creep up. Why You Gain Weight Insulin in your body helps to regulate your blood sugar levels. Blood sugar also referred to as glucose is the primary fuel in the body for energy and brain function. When blood sugar rises, the insulin your pancreas releases move the glucose into your bloodstream. If there is glucose in your system your body will burn it first for fuel. If your body is already filled with higher glucose levels, more cannot be broken down for fuel. So because of this, your Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet – Diabetes Cure?

Ketogenic Diet – Diabetes Cure?

[HD: This is the second part of my duo about Diabetes and the Ketogenic Diet. In Part 1, Why This Endocrinologist Hates Diabetes, I discuss…uh…why I hate diabetes. You don’t have to read Part 1 to appreciate Part 2, but I recommend it just for context.] The available strategies for weight management in type 2 diabetics don’t work very well. It’s not that the advice to eat less and move more is bad, but people just aren’t very good at following it in a way that is sustainable, producing lasting results. On top of that, I give them diabetes medications (e.g. insulin) that may impede their progress. So, I ask: what can we do to control blood sugar and reduce weight, which will ultimately lead to better long-term control of glucose levels by reducing insulin resistance? Enter the Ketogenic Diet! Those of you who are familiar with not only my writing style, but also what gets my quack-o-meter dialed up to 11, are probably thinking, “Ooh…I can’t wait to see HD rip KD a new one. Let’s get it on!” As much as I enjoy debunking extreme diets based on lousy/no science (hcg diet, anyone?), I also enjoy presenting ideas that are extreme, but also may have merit. This is one of those times. So what is a ketogenic diet (KD)? There are plenty of sites where you can dig into the details, so I’ll present just a quick overview. In general, it’s a very low-carbohydrate diet that tends to be high in fat. There are various iterations, but a common macronutrient percentage-of-daily-calories breakdown would be 70/20/10 fat/protein/carb. 70% fat?! That sounds revolting! I’m clicking back over to my Twitter feed now. See ya! Listen, I’m with you. I don’t have any desire to eat ketogenically. I trim every last bit of fat off my steak before a bite enters my mouth. Continue reading >>

#125: Food Aversions, Keto “freedom”, & Low Carb Diets For Insulin Resistance

#125: Food Aversions, Keto “freedom”, & Low Carb Diets For Insulin Resistance

Here’s the notes for episode #125 of The Paleo Women Podcast. Be sure to check back every Tuesday for a new episode, and head over to iTunes or Stitcher to subscribe! To leave a review for the podcast (HORRAY!), go to: In this episode, Stefani and Noelle discuss food aversions, keto “freedom”, and low carb diets for insulin resistance. Got a question you’d like us to answer? Email us at [email protected] 10% of the funds we receive from our sponsors is donated directly to our partner charity, Thistle Farms, a place where women survivors of abuse, addiction, trafficking and prostitution receive help and support through residential programs, therapy, education, and employment opportunities. Because we get paid per download, you are actively supporting Thistle Farms by downloading our podcast each week. [17:05] Food Aversions and Keto “Freedom” [32:17] Low Carb Diets for Insulin Resistance Noelle’s website: Stefani’s website: Paleovalley We have a brand new offer from Paleovalley to share with you that we are incredibly excited about. Paleovalley not only offers Grass-Fed Organ Complex, a gently freeze-dried organ supplement in pill form that contains beef liver, heart, brain and kidney, they also high quality snacks and collagen supplements on their website. Now, when you use the promotion code paleowomen at check out, you’ll get 30% OFF your entire order. You can try their grass-fed beef sticks, which are made from 100% grass-fed beef preserved through a natural fermentation process that gives probiotics to the sticks, or their superfood bar, which is made with grass-fed collagen. To take advantage of this special deal, simply go to and use the code paleowomen at check out. Thanks for your support, and for listening! We absolutely love being Continue reading >>

The Great Medical Disconnect

The Great Medical Disconnect

There is probably no greater disconnect in medicine than the root cause of obesity. Even if you think you already know the answer to this “obvious” question, it’s still worth reading on. The reason this question matters, of course, is clear to everyone. Obesity (and more broadly the syndrome we define as metabolic syndrome) predisposes us to virtually every disease afflicting us in the modern age. Above is a simple graphic from the journal Nature showing the linkage between obesity and all of its sequela. When you are obese, your risk of disease goes up. This is not disputed. Here is where the controversy starts…what actually makes us obese? Obesity is a disorder of fat accumulation – fat cells accumulate too much fat, relative to how much fat the body breaks down. Conventional wisdom, however, says obesity is a disorder of eating too much and/or exercising too little. These are not the same thing. Let’s turn to a well-respected source of medical information, Lehninger’s Principles of Biochemistry (the so-called “bible” of biochemistry). Go to the index and query, what makes fat cells fat? (the technical way of asking this question is, what causes adipose cells to accumulate triglycerides) and you’ll get the following response: “High blood glucose elicits the release of insulin, which speeds the uptake of glucose by tissues and favors the storage of fuels as glycogen and triacyglycerols, while inhibiting fatty acid mobilization in adipose tissue.” Let me translate this: Eating glucose (carbohydrates) increases insulin levels in our body. Insulin drives glucose into liver and muscle cells as glycogen (in small, finite amounts) and into fat cells as triglycerides (in unlimited amounts). Insulin also inhibits the breakdown and utilization of fat. Pa Continue reading >>

A High-fat, Ketogenic Diet Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance In Mice, Despite Increasing Energy Expenditure And Preventing Weight Gain

A High-fat, Ketogenic Diet Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance In Mice, Despite Increasing Energy Expenditure And Preventing Weight Gain

Go to: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P < 0.001) than RC-fed mice because of a 17% increase in energy expenditure (P < 0.001), KD-fed mice manifested severe hepatic insulin resistance, as reflected by decreased suppression (0% vs. 100% in RC-fed mice, P < 0.01) of endogenous glucose production during the clamp. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to a 350% increase in hepatic diacylglycerol content (P < 0.001), resulting in increased activation of PKCε (P < 0.05) and decreased insulin receptor substrate-2 tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0.01). Food intake was 56% (P < 0.001) lower in KD-fed mice, despite similar caloric intake, and could partly be attributed to a more than threefold increase (P < 0.05) in plasma N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine concentrations. In conclusion, despite preventing weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications. Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liv Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

Ketogenic Diet And Insulin Resistance

What is Insulin? Insulin is a fat storing blood sugar regulating master hormone that is involved in multiple body functions beyond its metabolic role. A few examples include triglyceride and fat synthesis, electrolyte balance of sodium and potassium, feeding behaviors and cognitive and emotional brain function. What is Insulin Resistance? Insulin resistance (IR), might also known as syndrome X or metabolic syndrome, is a cluster of symptoms (weight gain, cravings and increased appetite, skin tags, gum disease, low energy) and health risk factors (abnormal, not necessarily high, blood sugar, high triglycerides and cholesterol, polycystic ovarian syndrome, high blood pressure) all resulting from abnormal insulin function. What is important to know is that just like diabetes, with IR there may be no symptoms at all. Insulin resistance is an early-stage in Type 2 diabetes but not everyone with IR will develop diabetes. Fifty percent of those with essential hypertension are insulin resistant. (1). How Many People Are Affected by Insulin Resistance? IR is more common than you think, in the United States, an estimated 60 to 70 million individuals are affected by insulin resistance, that’s 1 out of 4 people. More than 40% of individuals older than 50 years may be at risk for insulin resistance; however, it can affect anyone at any age (2) especially overweight children and adolescents regardless of race. You can connect with this link to see a table of the prevalence of insulin resistance by country. Causes of Insulin Resistance There are several causes of insulin resistance: Genetics and family history of diabetes, pre-diabetes Ethnic origin (African American, Alaska Native, American Indian, Asian American, Hispanic/Latino, or Pacific Islander American) Age Hormone malfuncti Continue reading >>

10 Graphs That Show The Power Of A Ketogenic Diet

10 Graphs That Show The Power Of A Ketogenic Diet

The low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diet is a proven way to lose weight (1). It also has powerful benefits against type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and may even help treat cancer (2, 3, 4). Additionally, it has been used to treat epilepsy since the 1920s (2). Here are 10 graphs that show the many powerful benefits of a ketogenic diet. Source: Johnstone AM, et al. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008. Over 20 studies have shown that a low-carb or ketogenic diet can help you lose weight. The weight loss is usually much greater than with a high-carb diet (5). In the graph above, the ketogenic group in the study lost more weight, despite the fact that their protein and calorie intake were equal to the non-ketogenic group (6). The ketogenic group was also less hungry and found it easier to stick to the diet. This suggests that a low-carb or ketogenic diet provides a distinct "metabolic advantage" over a high-carb diet, although this is still being debated (7, 8, 9, 10). The ketogenic diet is effective for weight loss. It is superior to a high-carb diet, and may even provide a metabolic advantage. Source: Volek JS, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2004. Abdominal obesity, or excess belly fat, is a serious risk factor for all sorts of metabolic diseases (11, 12). This kind of stored fat can increase the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and premature death (12). Interestingly, a ketogenic diet is a very effective way to lose belly fat. As shown in the graph above, a ketogenic diet reduced total weight, body fat a Continue reading >>

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

157 Comments Despite all the success you might have had with the Primal way of life, doubts can still nag at you. Maybe it’s something you read, or something someone said to you, or a disapproving glance or offhand comment from a person you otherwise respect, but it’s pretty common when you’re doing something, like giving up grains, avoiding processed food, or eating animal fat, that challenges deeply-and-widely held beliefs about health and wellness. It doesn’t really even matter that you’re losing weight or seem to be thriving; you may still have questions. That’s healthy and smart, and it’s totally natural. A question I’ve been getting of late is the effect of reducing carb intake on insulin sensitivity. It’s often bandied about that going low carb is good for folks with insulin resistance, but it’s also said that low carb can worsen insulin resistance. Are both true and, if so, how do they all jibe together? That’s what the reader was wondering with this week’s question: Hi Mark, I’ve been Primal for a few months now and love it. Lowering my carbs and upping my animal fat helped me lose weight and gain tons of energy (not too shabby for a middle-aged guy!). However, I’m a little worried. I’ve heard that low carb diets can increase insulin resistance. Even though I’ve done well and feel great, should I be worried about insulin resistance? Do I need to increase my carb intake? I always thought low carb Primal was supposed to improve insulin function. Vince Going Primal usually does improve insulin sensitivity, both directly and in a roundabout way. It improves directly because you lose weight, you reduce your intake of inflammatory foods, you lower systemic inflammation (by getting some sun, smart exercise, omega-3s, and reducing or dea Continue reading >>

Keto Diet Mastery: Your Comprehensive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

Keto Diet Mastery: Your Comprehensive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

What if you could train your body to burn fat more efficiently and speed up your metabolism without restricting calories? If you’re struggling to lose those last 5 pounds or wondering why the muffin top just won’t budge (despite eating clean and exercising), you may find the answers you’re looking for in this keto diet master guide. What Is the Keto Diet? The ketogenic (aka: “keto”) diet is a high-fat, low-carb diet that puts your body in a natural fat-burning metabolic state called ketosis (1). This is done by heavily restricting carbs and focusing on high fat, moderate protein meals (in some cases protein may be also be heavily restricted). According to PubMed, the classical ketogenic diet contains a 4:1 ratio of fat to proteins and carbs. In other words, the principle of the keto diet is to “eat fat to burn fat”. Now, the keto diet is often grouped with other high-fat, low-carb diets such as the Paleo or Atkins diets. But the reason these diets boast fat burning benefits in the first place is because they promote ketosis. Therefore, the ketogenic diet isn’t so much a “diet”, but more so the basis of these diets, and the biochemical reaction that occurs when you train your body to burn fat for fuel instead of carbs. While the ketogenic diet has become popular for weight loss, studies have also shown numerous other health benefits of following a keto diet. For example, studies have shown it may help reverse type 2 diabetes and reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and autism (2)(3). In fact, the keto diet was first used in the 1920s not as a weight loss diet, but a natural treatment to prevent seizures in epilepsy patients (4). With that said, let’s look closer at how the ketogenic diet can work for dramatic weight loss, and other Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet: Insulin, Sugar And Inflammation

Ketogenic Diet: Insulin, Sugar And Inflammation

You can view the first part of this series here: The Ketogenic Diet Part 1: What is Keto? Have you ever wondered about the link between sugar and inflammation? Do you know what you can do to reduce inflammation in the body? Let’s explore the relationship between insulin, sugar and inflammation, and weight gain, beginning with what we put in our mouth. How does sugar cause inflammation? After you eat excess carbohydrates (sugar) and/or too much protein, your blood glucose stays at a higher level longer because the glucose can’t make it into the cells of the muscles. This toxic glucose is like tar in the bloodstream, clogging arteries, binding with proteins to form damaging AGEs (advanced glycation end-products), and causing inflammation in the body. What happens when you have high levels of inflammation in the body? High inflammation is triggered by glucose, which sets off a chain reaction in your body. High levels of glucose causes triglycerides to go up, increasing your risk for coronary artery disease. Then, sugars (and starches) get stored as fat. Because the cells of the musculature basically have a crust over top of them (called glycation), the cells aren’t taking glycogen in from the bloodstream, and are therefore considered “resistant.” Additionally, you can’t even metabolize stored fat since insulin stops the production of the fat-burning enzyme lipase! You can exercise all you want, but if you continue to eat oatmeal before your workouts, you will never be a fat-burner: you will remain a sugar-burner and you will continue to become insulin resistant. If the above information isn’t bad enough, I have more bad news: when you’re insulin resistant, the pancreas begins to mistakenly believe, “if a little insulin isn’t working, I’ll just produce Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity And Numerous Aging Markers

Ketogenic Diet Improves Insulin Sensitivity And Numerous Aging Markers

A physician conducted a decade-long experiment on the health effects of a ketogenic diet, using himself as the laboratory rat; he experienced improvement in insulin sensitivity, body fat, lipids, blood sugar, and other markers A ketogenic diet requires carbohydrate and protein restriction, with 50 to 80 percent of calories coming from fats; this forces your body to shift toward using ketones as its primary fuel source, instead of glucose Although your brain is more dependent on glucose than your heart, your liver can produce a ketone-like compound that your brain can efficiently use for energy Scientists extended the lifespan of mice by 20 percent by suppressing the activity of just one gene that helps control metabolism and energy balance; this is further evidence that longevity is tied to insulin signaling The best way to jumpstart your fat-burning/ketone-producing engine is by drastically reducing your consumption of sugar and grains, fasting intermittently, and maintaining a consistent exercise routine By Dr. Mercola We are just beginning to understand the biological intricacies of aging. A growing body of research is challenging the belief that aging is beyond your control, prompting scientists to begin thinking about ways we can slow our aging clocks to a slow crawl. Although this is a relatively new branch of science, there are some factors that appear to be key in controlling how quickly you age. One major factor seems to be insulin signaling and the metabolic "engines" you have running day to day, which are largely controlled by the foods you eat. In the first featured video, Dr. Peter Attia discusses how a ketogenic diet can optimize your metabolism. But before I discuss the specifics of this, I want to tell you about a remarkable mouse study, presented in the Continue reading >>

The Link Between Cancer, Insulin Resistance And A Ketogenic Diet

The Link Between Cancer, Insulin Resistance And A Ketogenic Diet

Research done by Dr Dominic D’Agostino, Dr Thomas Seyfried and Dr Gary Fettke has revealed that cancer is predominantly a metabolic disease and not a genetic one as previously thought. “Most cancer scientists have historically thought that cancer was a genetic disease, but only 5-10% of cancer is hereditary,” says Dr D’Agostino. A metabolic disease is one that disrupts normal metabolism, the process of converting food to energy on a cellular level. The mitochondria generate the energy that our cells need to do their job – and are often referred to as the powerhouses of the cells. When carbs (made up of glucose) are ingested, they cause the blood glucose levels to rise. The hormone insulin, responsible for regulating energy usage – in particular our relationship to carbs – is secreted by the pancreas because a high blood glucose concentration is toxic for human tissues as it damages the structure of all proteins. According to Dr Fettke, we can only metabolise about one teaspoon (4 grams) of glucose at once and the rest is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, or if this cannot happen, it is stored as fat. The more carbs ingested, the more insulin is produced, the more our body becomes resistant. Insulin resistance occurs when the body does not respond to insulin correctly. This results in increased blood glucose levels, which can’t be stored in the liver or muscles, so must be stored as fat. This is discussed in great detail, by Prof Noakes, in the Beginner Banting Online Program. Insulin is therefore the fat storing hormone, which leads to an expanding waistline. If a high carb diet is followed, and if unchecked, it can lead to obesity, metabolic syndrome (a combination of obesity, hypertension and gout) and to type 2 Diabetes. The long-term damag Continue reading >>

Insulin Sensitivity And Glucose Tolerance Are Altered By Maintenance On A Ketogenic Diet

Insulin Sensitivity And Glucose Tolerance Are Altered By Maintenance On A Ketogenic Diet

The ketogenic diet (KD) is a low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet that is used for a variety of health-related effects. This type of diet is effective at suppressing seizure activity in children with refractory epilepsy (1) and has perhaps more commonly been implemented as a dietary strategy by which weight maintenance or weight loss is the desired outcome. It has been demonstrated that restriction of dietary carbohydrates results in positive effects on cardiovascular parameters. Consuming this type of diet favorably affects body adiposity and improves features of metabolic syndrome in humans (2,3,4,5,6). Although studies evaluating the efficacy and metabolic effects of KDs have increased in recent years, the effects of macronutrient-controlled diets remain controversial in the literature. Insulin has potent short-term and long-term effects on energy intake and glucose homeostasis. In the short term, insulin release is cephalic; the brain initiates insulin secretion by directing messages through the vagus nerves to the pancreas as opposed to direct pancreatic stimulation of insulin-secreting cells. Cephalic insulin is most readily observed at the onset of a meal and consists of a short burst of insulin that is preabsorptive with regard to the ingested food. After consumption of a meal, insulin secretion increases and is sustained, because one of insulin’s roles is to prepare the body for the increase in glucose that accompanies food intake and to control the increased levels and use of glucose (7). In the long term, insulin’s role as an adiposity signal is well known, with increased plasma insulin levels resulting from increased body weight. Together, the short- and long-term effects of insulin allow for proper glucose homeostasis and assist in the regulation of body wei Continue reading >>

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