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Insulin Resistance Keto

Insulin Resistance From The Ground Up With Ivor Cummins

Insulin Resistance From The Ground Up With Ivor Cummins

Carl Franklin and Richard Morris talk to Ivor Cummins about his work with Hungarian Biologist Gabor Erdosi based on research that paints a more detailed picture of how insulin resistance happens. It turns out that adipose tissue (fat cells) have a much bigger role to play in metabolic dysfunction than previously thought. This is a fascinating discussion. Ivor Cummins is a Chemical Engineer who spent 25 years in Engineering Lead and Engineering Manager positions. He has worked in the Medical Device, Special Purpose Equipment and Electronic Component industries, always gravitating towards the most complex interactions where the Physics comes alive. His specialty throughout has been leadership in Complex Problem Solving Methodology (Comparative Analysis, Mechanistic Analysis and Experimental/Statistical Inference) - the ultimate destination was always Root Cause Resolution in the minimum timeframe. Following less-than-ideal blood test results he went back to his Biochemical Engineering roots and intensively studied the mechanistic physics and primary drivers of Dyslipidemia, elevated GGT and Serum Ferritin. Ivor has analysed several hundred related papers and studies carried out over the past 5 decades, and a few prior to this period. He found the value of the technical expertise gained during his career to be of paramount, indeed crucial importance in this odyssey, realizing that to be successful in determining root cause and solution in this complex arena, required far more than a general medical background. Ketogenic Forums Richard's Tumor NIDDM and its metabolic control predict coronary heart disease in elderly subjects. Association of glycaemia with macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 35): prospective observational study Ivors prese Continue reading >>

Keto Diet Mastery: Your Comprehensive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

Keto Diet Mastery: Your Comprehensive Guide To The Ketogenic Diet

What if you could train your body to burn fat more efficiently and speed up your metabolism without restricting calories? If you’re struggling to lose those last 5 pounds or wondering why the muffin top just won’t budge (despite eating clean and exercising), you may find the answers you’re looking for in this keto diet master guide. What Is the Keto Diet? The ketogenic (aka: “keto”) diet is a high-fat, low-carb diet that puts your body in a natural fat-burning metabolic state called ketosis (1). This is done by heavily restricting carbs and focusing on high fat, moderate protein meals (in some cases protein may be also be heavily restricted). According to PubMed, the classical ketogenic diet contains a 4:1 ratio of fat to proteins and carbs. In other words, the principle of the keto diet is to “eat fat to burn fat”. Now, the keto diet is often grouped with other high-fat, low-carb diets such as the Paleo or Atkins diets. But the reason these diets boast fat burning benefits in the first place is because they promote ketosis. Therefore, the ketogenic diet isn’t so much a “diet”, but more so the basis of these diets, and the biochemical reaction that occurs when you train your body to burn fat for fuel instead of carbs. While the ketogenic diet has become popular for weight loss, studies have also shown numerous other health benefits of following a keto diet. For example, studies have shown it may help reverse type 2 diabetes and reduce symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and autism (2)(3). In fact, the keto diet was first used in the 1920s not as a weight loss diet, but a natural treatment to prevent seizures in epilepsy patients (4). With that said, let’s look closer at how the ketogenic diet can work for dramatic weight loss, and other Continue reading >>

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21, Ketogenic Diets, And Insulin Resistance

Fibroblast Growth Factor 21, Ketogenic Diets, And Insulin Resistance

Dear Sir: I read with interest the article by Domouzoglou and Maratos-Flier (1), which summarizes current knowledge on fibroblast growth hormone 21 (FGF21) and provides insights into the potentially promising applications of this endocrine factor in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Studies in mice fed a ketogenic diet greatly contributed to the understanding of the physiologic roles of FGF21. Domouzoglou and Maratos-Flier emphasize that ketogenic diets lead to weight loss and improvement in insulin sensitivity (1). Although I agree with the effect on body weight, I am more skeptical about the effect of ketogenic diets on insulin sensitivity. Indeed, using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique, which is the gold standard to assess insulin sensitivity, we recently showed that mice fed a ketogenic diet developed profound hepatic insulin resistance compared with mice fed regular feed pellets, as reflected by decreased suppression of endogenous glucose production during the clamp (2). Importantly, this effect was observed with the same ketogenic diet used in previous studies (3, 4). In our study, hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to a significant increase in hepatic diacylglycerol content, leading to protein kinase Cϵ activation and subsequent impairment in insulin signaling at the level of insulin receptor substrate-2 tyrosine phosphorylation, showing a key role of dietary fat intake in the development of insulin resistance (2). Interestingly, insulin resistance measured in mice fed a ketogenic diet did not correlate with indexes of insulin sensitivity such as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI). Indeed, these ind Continue reading >>

Keto And Metabolism, Part 5

Keto And Metabolism, Part 5

Insulin resistance is a two-pronged problem closely and causally related to obesity and disease. Last week we discussed insulin, insulin resistance, and the first prong to why it’s so damaging to our bodies, oxidative stress. I encourage you to go back and refresh your memory on those points because this week we’re wrapping up our series on metabolism by talking about the second prong of the insulin resistance problem, and also the big kahuna for obese people everywhere: Fat Storage. One of the main reasons people turn to Ketogenic living is because they have body fat they want to lose, and keto is extremely efficient at burning it off during ketosis. How does all that fat get there anyway? Why is it that keto helps us not only burn fat but also reduce fat storage in the first place? When it comes to fat creation and storage, there are several factors involved, but the primary hormone that directs fat storage and accumulation is our old friend insulin. As discussed last week, insulin opens the door to our cells and forces excess glucose out of the blood and into the cells of our muscles and/or organs, and fat tissue. But that’s not all! It is also responsible for pushing any excess fatty acids floating around in our blood into the cells as well. So it not only puts extra sugar into our cells for storage (which can then be converted into fat molecules), it also puts fat into storage. A problem that the medical community is mildly baffled by is an inconsistency in our liver function caused by excessive insulin and insulin resistance. When insulin is released, it tells a normal liver to stop producing glucose from protein (via gluconeogenesis) and to also stop producing fat. In an insulin resistant liver, however, scientists have found that the presence of insulin do Continue reading >>

Insulin Resistance! ..... And Chocolate Brains

Insulin Resistance! ..... And Chocolate Brains

Okay, so not the sexiest topic but very timely... As we’ve got the sweetest holiday coming up in just one week, I’ve got to drop some knowledge regarding Insulin Resistance so you can keep yourself and your loved ones safe. Oh and read to the end where I give you an awesome recipe for Chocolate Brains! If you’re "meeting" me for the first time EVER, my name is Kate Jaramillo and I am a Ketogenic Lifestyle Expert, the Creator of Ketogenic Living 101, 102 and the Ketogenic Living Coach Certification, a Badass Wellness Advocate, and a #girlmom. Soooo Insulin Resistance: Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas. The role of insulin is to allow cells of the body to take in glucose to be used as fuel or stored as body fat. When blood sugar levels are elevated, the pancreas runs into overdrive to create enough insulin to remove that sugar from the bloodstream. What ends up happening is that the cells build up a tolerance to the insulin being produced, they stop responding, and blood sugar levels elevate. This is Insulin Resistance. Initially, insulin resistance shows no symptoms, but eventually someone who is insulin resistant may experience weight gain mostly in the midsection (belly fat), lethargy, hormonal imbalances like irregular periods and PCOS, sleep disturbances, brain fog, high blood pressure, High triglyceride levels, which leads to heart disease and a slew of other issues, and constant hunger. Insulin resistance may develop into pre-Diabetes and Type-2 Diabetes, which will cause many other health issues and symptoms. Think you are insulin resistant? You may want to test your fasting blood glucose levels. If they are above 100, consider what you ate the night before and if it was carb and/or sugar-heavy, cut those out and test again. If you’re still hig Continue reading >>

Are You Insulin Resistant?

Are You Insulin Resistant?

Finding out you are insulin resistant doesn't mean much unless you understand what that implies, and how it effects your health. Insulin resistance is an condition in which the body is not responding properly to the hormone insulin. If faulty insulin signaling is not treated, it can develop into worsening conditions of metabolic syndrome, pre diabetes, and finally type 2 diabetes. What Causes the Insulin Resistant Condition? The insulin resistant condition is rooted in the metabolic effects of a high carb diet in combination with a lack of exercise. Weight gain is a symptom of insulin resistance, rather than a cause. Carbohydrates are foods which contain either some form of sugar or starch, or both. For instance, orange juice is full of fructose, a type of sugar, and white potatoes contain large amounts of starch. Both types of carbohydrate are broken down in the body into glucose, a simple sugar, which your cells can use for energy to do all the things that cells do. Since too much glucose in your body can be toxic, your pancreas releases a powerful hormone called insulin. Insulin works to control the amount of glucose in your bloodstream. It acts to quickly move glucose from your bloodstream and push it into your cells where it can be burned or stored. But there's a catch. To get the glucose into the cells, the cell's glucose "storage tanks" have to be empty. This is logical when you think about it. Imagine what would happen if you tried to fill up your car's gas tank if it were already full. And just like running a car burns up gasoline, when a person exercises, the glucose which is already in the glucose tanks get used. Now there is room for insulin to push the glucose made from the last meal into the muscle cell for fuel. If a person exercises frequently, lots of c Continue reading >>

Ketoadaptation And Physiological Insulin Resistance

Ketoadaptation And Physiological Insulin Resistance

This is where the magic happens. Rat pups, fed a flaxseed oil-based ketogenic diet from weaning onward – note the drop-off in ketones after 2 weeks (Likhodii et al., 2002): Patient history: these rats have been “low carb” their whole lives. Side note: flaxseed oil is very ketogenic! (Likhodii et al., 2000): Flaxseed oil-based ketogenic diet produced higher ketones than 48h fasting; the same can’t be said for butter or lard. PUFAs in general are more ketogenic than saturated fats in humans, too (eg, Fuehrlein et al., 2004): Crisco keto (adult rats) (Rho et al., 1999): At this point, please just note the stunning consistency in the drop-off of ketones. Experiment 1 & 2 (above) are adult rats; they went through a period of high carb chow dieting, unlike experiment 3 and the rats in the first study, who were weaned onto ketogenic diets. Still same phenomenon: ~few weeks after initiation of ketogenic diet = breakpoint; ketones decline. Ketoadaptation: why do ketone levels decline? This happened in both rat studies above, Phinney 1983, and in many “n=1” practitioners. Possible explanation 1 (ketoadaptation): rat milk is kind of like a low carb diet; high in fat, but not low enough in other stuff to be ketogenic. -Hooded seal milk is practically heavy cream: imagine the amount of suction pups must need to apply. Poor mom, that’s gotta hurt; fortunately, lactation only lasts 4 days. -Rat milk is super-high protein. Therefore, weaning to the flaxseed oil-based keto diet is what really initiates ketoadaptation… which seems to take 2-3 weeks (judging by the decline in ketones [this is explained further below]). Possible explanation 2 (physiological insulin resistance): free fatty acids released faster then they’re burned, accumulate in skeletal muscle, induce mil Continue reading >>

A Practical Guide To Carb Tolerance And Insulin Sensitivity

A Practical Guide To Carb Tolerance And Insulin Sensitivity

One of the biggest reasons why people go Paleo is the metabolic benefits. Most people find Paleo to be very therapeutic for a whole cluster of carb-related problems: high blood sugar (or the rollercoaster of highs and lows), insulin resistance, and all the related issues. These issues can make weight loss difficult or impossible, but on the flip side, addressing them through diet can make it easier and more pleasant than you ever thought could happen! On the other hand, though, there are a lot of myths and half-truths floating around about diet, exercise, and carb metabolism. So here’s a quick review of what it all means, and the evidence supporting various different complementary strategies for improving your carb tolerance (preview: it’s so much more than dietary carbs). Note: This article is not written for diabetics. Diabetes is a very complicated disease and strategies that are right for other people might not be appropriate. If you have diabetes, see a doctor! What Is “Carb Tolerance”/Insulin Sensitivity? (If you already know how insulin and glucose work, this section has nothing new for you; just skip down to the next one) Very simply put, insulin sensitivity (or “carb tolerance” in everyday language) is a healthy hormonal state that allows your body to digest and store carbohydrates without a problem. In healthy people, here’s how it works: You eat something with carbs (let’s say a potato, but it could be anything). Your digestive system breaks down the starch in that potato into glucose. Glucose is a simple sugar – this is the form of carbohydrate that you’ll either use for energy or store as fat. Your blood sugar temporarily rises as the glucose enters the bloodstream. This is not a big problem, because… Insulin (produced in the pancreas) Continue reading >>

I Went On The Silicon Valley Diet Craze That Encourages Butter And Bacon For 2 Months — And It Vastly Improved My Life

I Went On The Silicon Valley Diet Craze That Encourages Butter And Bacon For 2 Months — And It Vastly Improved My Life

Bacon became my new best friend on the ketogenic diet.Business Insider A diet that goes against conventional wisdom on healthy eating is gaining momentum among Silicon Valley tech workers. And it involves eating a lot of fat. The ketogenic, or "keto," diet — which first became popular in the 1920s as a treatment for epilepsy and diabetes — limits carbohydrates to no more than 50 grams a day, which is the rough equivalent of a plain bagel or a cup of white rice. By comparison, dietary guidelines laid out by the US Department of Agriculture recommend consuming between 225 and 325 grams of carbs a day. On the keto diet, the body goes into starvation mode and taps its fat stores for fuel. Studies suggest the low-carb, high-fat diet may promote weight loss, dull hunger, and stave off age-related diseases. More research is needed on its long-term effects, especially in healthy people. An increasing number of health nuts — from the internet entrepreneur Kevin Rose to the podcaster Tim Ferriss — swear by the keto diet. I spent the past two months eating bacon, butter, and avocados to see why the keto movement is so popular. I am no stranger to diets. I've cut sugar, counted points on Weight Watchers, and swapped solid food for Soylent, a venture-capital-backed meal-replacement shake. Here's me eating a doughnut.Melia Robinson/Business Insider I gave up breakfast for a week and drank this caffeinated meal-replacement shake instead » But those usually don't last long. I love food. I'm a chronic snacker. Melia Robinson/Business Insider When I first learned about the keto diet, it caught my interest because dieters could eat seemingly unlimited amounts of healthy fats, like cheese, nuts, avocado, eggs, butter — foods that have high "point values" on Weight Watchers and a Continue reading >>

The Link Between Cancer, Insulin Resistance And A Ketogenic Diet

The Link Between Cancer, Insulin Resistance And A Ketogenic Diet

Research done by Dr Dominic D’Agostino, Dr Thomas Seyfried and Dr Gary Fettke has revealed that cancer is predominantly a metabolic disease and not a genetic one as previously thought. “Most cancer scientists have historically thought that cancer was a genetic disease, but only 5-10% of cancer is hereditary,” says Dr D’Agostino. A metabolic disease is one that disrupts normal metabolism, the process of converting food to energy on a cellular level. The mitochondria generate the energy that our cells need to do their job – and are often referred to as the powerhouses of the cells. When carbs (made up of glucose) are ingested, they cause the blood glucose levels to rise. The hormone insulin, responsible for regulating energy usage – in particular our relationship to carbs – is secreted by the pancreas because a high blood glucose concentration is toxic for human tissues as it damages the structure of all proteins. According to Dr Fettke, we can only metabolise about one teaspoon (4 grams) of glucose at once and the rest is stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen, or if this cannot happen, it is stored as fat. The more carbs ingested, the more insulin is produced, the more our body becomes resistant. Insulin resistance occurs when the body does not respond to insulin correctly. This results in increased blood glucose levels, which can’t be stored in the liver or muscles, so must be stored as fat. This is discussed in great detail, by Prof Noakes, in the Beginner Banting Online Program. Insulin is therefore the fat storing hormone, which leads to an expanding waistline. If a high carb diet is followed, and if unchecked, it can lead to obesity, metabolic syndrome (a combination of obesity, hypertension and gout) and to type 2 Diabetes. The long-term damag Continue reading >>

10 Graphs That Show The Power Of A Ketogenic Diet

10 Graphs That Show The Power Of A Ketogenic Diet

The low-carb, high-fat ketogenic diet is a proven way to lose weight (1). It also has powerful benefits against type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome, and may even help treat cancer (2, 3, 4). Additionally, it has been used to treat epilepsy since the 1920s (2). Here are 10 graphs that show the many powerful benefits of a ketogenic diet. Source: Johnstone AM, et al. Effects of a high-protein ketogenic diet on hunger, appetite, and weight loss in obese men feeding ad libitum. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008. Over 20 studies have shown that a low-carb or ketogenic diet can help you lose weight. The weight loss is usually much greater than with a high-carb diet (5). In the graph above, the ketogenic group in the study lost more weight, despite the fact that their protein and calorie intake were equal to the non-ketogenic group (6). The ketogenic group was also less hungry and found it easier to stick to the diet. This suggests that a low-carb or ketogenic diet provides a distinct "metabolic advantage" over a high-carb diet, although this is still being debated (7, 8, 9, 10). The ketogenic diet is effective for weight loss. It is superior to a high-carb diet, and may even provide a metabolic advantage. Source: Volek JS, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women. Nutrition and Metabolism, 2004. Abdominal obesity, or excess belly fat, is a serious risk factor for all sorts of metabolic diseases (11, 12). This kind of stored fat can increase the risk of heart disease, type 2 diabetes and premature death (12). Interestingly, a ketogenic diet is a very effective way to lose belly fat. As shown in the graph above, a ketogenic diet reduced total weight, body fat a Continue reading >>

#125: Food Aversions, Keto “freedom”, & Low Carb Diets For Insulin Resistance

#125: Food Aversions, Keto “freedom”, & Low Carb Diets For Insulin Resistance

Here’s the notes for episode #125 of The Paleo Women Podcast. Be sure to check back every Tuesday for a new episode, and head over to iTunes or Stitcher to subscribe! To leave a review for the podcast (HORRAY!), go to: In this episode, Stefani and Noelle discuss food aversions, keto “freedom”, and low carb diets for insulin resistance. Got a question you’d like us to answer? Email us at [email protected]. 10% of the funds we receive from our sponsors is donated directly to our partner charity, Thistle Farms, a place where women survivors of abuse, addiction, trafficking and prostitution receive help and support through residential programs, therapy, education, and employment opportunities. Because we get paid per download, you are actively supporting Thistle Farms by downloading our podcast each week. [17:05] Food Aversions and Keto “Freedom” [32:17] Low Carb Diets for Insulin Resistance Noelle’s website: Stefani’s website: Paleovalley We have a brand new offer from Paleovalley to share with you that we are incredibly excited about. Paleovalley not only offers Grass-Fed Organ Complex, a gently freeze-dried organ supplement in pill form that contains beef liver, heart, brain and kidney, they also high quality snacks and collagen supplements on their website. Now, when you use the promotion code paleowomen at check out, you’ll get 30% OFF your entire order. You can try their grass-fed beef sticks, which are made from 100% grass-fed beef preserved through a natural fermentation process that gives probiotics to the sticks, or their superfood bar, which is made with grass-fed collagen. To take advantage of this special deal, simply go to and use the code paleowomen at check out. Thanks for your support, and for listening! We absolutely love being Continue reading >>

A High-fat, Ketogenic Diet Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance In Mice, Despite Increasing Energy Expenditure And Preventing Weight Gain

A High-fat, Ketogenic Diet Causes Hepatic Insulin Resistance In Mice, Despite Increasing Energy Expenditure And Preventing Weight Gain

Go to: Low-carbohydrate, high-fat ketogenic diets (KD) have been suggested to be more effective in promoting weight loss than conventional caloric restriction, whereas their effect on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism and the mechanisms by which they may promote weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to explore the role of KD on liver and muscle insulin sensitivity, hepatic lipid metabolism, energy expenditure, and food intake. Using hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps, we studied insulin action in mice fed a KD or regular chow (RC). Body composition was assessed by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Despite being 15% lighter (P < 0.001) than RC-fed mice because of a 17% increase in energy expenditure (P < 0.001), KD-fed mice manifested severe hepatic insulin resistance, as reflected by decreased suppression (0% vs. 100% in RC-fed mice, P < 0.01) of endogenous glucose production during the clamp. Hepatic insulin resistance could be attributed to a 350% increase in hepatic diacylglycerol content (P < 0.001), resulting in increased activation of PKCε (P < 0.05) and decreased insulin receptor substrate-2 tyrosine phosphorylation (P < 0.01). Food intake was 56% (P < 0.001) lower in KD-fed mice, despite similar caloric intake, and could partly be attributed to a more than threefold increase (P < 0.05) in plasma N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine concentrations. In conclusion, despite preventing weight gain in mice, KD induces hepatic insulin resistance secondary to increased hepatic diacylglycerol content. Given the key role of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in the development of type 2 diabetes and the widespread use of KD for the treatment of obesity, these results may have potentially important clinical implications. Keywords: nonalcoholic fatty liv Continue reading >>

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

How Does Fat Affect Insulin Resistance And Diabetes?

According to the Centers for Disease Control, 29 million people in America have diabetes and 86 million have prediabetes. Insulin resistance is recognized as a predictor of type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and obesity. But what causes insulin resistance? In this NutritionFacts.org video, Dr. Michael Greger talks about how fat affects insulin resistance, and about how the most effective way to reduce insulin sensitivity is to reduce fat intake. We’ve also provided a summary of Dr. Greger’s main points below. Insulin Resistance of People on High-Fat Diets vs. High-Carb Diets In studies performed as early as the 1930s, scientists have noted a connection between diet and insulin intolerance. In one study, healthy young men were split into two groups. Half of the participants were put on a fat-rich diet, and the other half were put on a carb-rich diet. The high-fat group ate olive oil, butter, mayonnaise, and cream. The high-carb group ate pastries, sugar, candy, bread, baked potatoes, syrup, rice, and oatmeal. Within two days, tests showed that the glucose intolerance had skyrocketed in the group eating the high-fat diet. This group had twice the blood sugar levels than the high-carb group. The test results showed that the higher the fat content of the diet, the higher the blood sugar levels would be. What Is Insulin Resistance? It turns out that as the amount of fat in the diet goes up, so does one’s blood sugar spikes. Athletes frequently carb-load before a race because they’re trying to build up fuel in their muscles. We break down starch into glucose in our digestive tract; it circulates as blood glucose (blood sugar); and it is then used by our muscle cells as fuel. Blood sugar, though, is like a vampire. It needs an invitation to enter our cells. And that invit Continue reading >>

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

Dear Mark: Does Eating A Low Carb Diet Cause Insulin Resistance?

157 Comments Despite all the success you might have had with the Primal way of life, doubts can still nag at you. Maybe it’s something you read, or something someone said to you, or a disapproving glance or offhand comment from a person you otherwise respect, but it’s pretty common when you’re doing something, like giving up grains, avoiding processed food, or eating animal fat, that challenges deeply-and-widely held beliefs about health and wellness. It doesn’t really even matter that you’re losing weight or seem to be thriving; you may still have questions. That’s healthy and smart, and it’s totally natural. A question I’ve been getting of late is the effect of reducing carb intake on insulin sensitivity. It’s often bandied about that going low carb is good for folks with insulin resistance, but it’s also said that low carb can worsen insulin resistance. Are both true and, if so, how do they all jibe together? That’s what the reader was wondering with this week’s question: Hi Mark, I’ve been Primal for a few months now and love it. Lowering my carbs and upping my animal fat helped me lose weight and gain tons of energy (not too shabby for a middle-aged guy!). However, I’m a little worried. I’ve heard that low carb diets can increase insulin resistance. Even though I’ve done well and feel great, should I be worried about insulin resistance? Do I need to increase my carb intake? I always thought low carb Primal was supposed to improve insulin function. Vince Going Primal usually does improve insulin sensitivity, both directly and in a roundabout way. It improves directly because you lose weight, you reduce your intake of inflammatory foods, you lower systemic inflammation (by getting some sun, smart exercise, omega-3s, and reducing or dea Continue reading >>

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