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In this video I discuss what are complex carbohydrates, and some foods that contain them. I also discuss what is starch food, and I cover some starchy foods. I also look at what are polysaccharides, and what are oligosaccharides, and how some oligosaccharides are prebiotic foods. Transcript (partial with notes). What are complex carbohydrates? Complex carbohydrates are made up of monosaccharides, or simple sugar molecules, not the table sugar that might come to mind, and these molecules are joined together to form long chains. There are mainly two classifications of complex carbohydrates, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Oligosaccharides consist of 3 to 10 simple sugars joined together such as fructo-oligosaccharides which consist of a short chain of fructose molecules. Most oligosaccharides are not digested in the body because we lack an enzyme to break them down, meaning that some of them are a form of fiber. Some forms of oligosaccharides act as a prebiotic, which means they promote the growth of good gut bacteria. Foods that contain oligosaccharides include chicory root, artichokes, onions, garlic and asparagus. Polysaccharides consist of more than 10 simple sugars joined

Structure Of The Insulin Receptorinsulin Complex By Single Particle Cryoem Analysis

This is an unedited manuscript that has been accepted for publication. Nature Research are providing this early version of the manuscript as a service to our customers. The manuscript will undergo copyediting, typesetting and a proof review before it is published in its final form. Please note that during the production process errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers apply. Structure of the Insulin ReceptorInsulin Complex by Single Particle CryoEM analysis The insulin receptor (IR) is a dimeric protein that plays a crucial role in controlling glucose homeostasis, regulating lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism, and modulating brain neurotransmitter levels1,2. IR dysfunction has been associated with many diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and Alzheimers disease1,2,4. The primary sequence has been known since the 1980s5, and is composed of an extracellular portion (ectodomain, ECD), a single transmembrane helix and an intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Insulin binding to the dimeric ECD triggers kinase domain auto-phosphorylation and subsequent activation of downstream signaling molecules. Biochemical and mutagenesis data have i Continue reading >>

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  1. betterfretter

    According to Arnold's encyclopedia, going into a ketogenic state causes your body to burn amino acids for energy which is bad for muscle maintenance/growth. (Not quoting directly, but that's the gist)
    Been reading some new research:
    According to the American Heart Association (AHA) Nutrition Committee, "Some popular high-protein/low-carbohydrate diets limit carbohydrates to 10 to 20 g/d, which is one fifth of the minimum 100 g/day that is necessary to prevent loss of lean muscle tissue [1]." Clearly, this is an incorrect statement since catabolism of lean body mass is reduced by ketone bodies (possibly through suppression of the activity of the branched-chain 2-oxo acid dehydrogenase), which and probably explains the preservation of lean tissue observed during very-low-carbohydrate diets. Unfortunately, the leading exercise physiology textbook also claims a "low-carbohydrate diet sets the stage for a significant loss of lean tissue as the body recruits amino acids from muscle to maintain blood glucose via gluconeogenesis [2]." Thus, it is certainly time to set the record straight.
    Source: http://www.jissn.com/content/1/2/7
    What are your thoughts on this? Ketosis is OK for fat loss while maintaining/growing?

  2. myhipsi

    According to Arnold's encyclopedia, going into a ketogenic state causes your body to burn amino acids for energy which is bad for muscle maintenance/growth.
    This is correct. Carbohydrates are protein sparing and glucose (the end product of carbohydrate) is REQUIRED for explosive muscular contraction/tension. So, if you fail to eat adequate amounts of carbohydrate to replenish glycogen stores, it will have a definite impact on strength. When glucose is severely lacking in the diet, the body will ramp up gluconeogenesis which is when the body uses fats and AMINO ACIDS to produce the required glucose your body uses, so you end up converting much of the protein you eat (and possibly muscle tissue itself) into glucose for fuel.
    In short: Ketosis (severe carbohydrate restriction) can be used as a dietary tool for people that are severely overweight/obese and SEDENTARY. For those that endeavor into weight training/body building or any other high performance based activity/sport, carbohydrates are required maximum performance.

  3. Bojangles010

    Yep. Did a research paper on this and came to the same conclusion. Keto is fantastic for weight loss, but not for any type of athletes or those looking to gain strength/mass. I really like your quick summary.

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Visit our website for text version of this Definition and app download. http://www.medicaldictionaryapps.com Subjects: medical terminology, medical dictionary, medical dictionary free download, medical terminology made easy, medical terminology song

Definition: Insulin

Insulin is a hormone that lowers the level of glucose (a type of sugar) in the blood . It's made by the beta cells of the pancreas and released into the blood when the glucose level goes up, such as after eating. Insulin helps glucose enter the body's cells, where it can be used for energy or stored for future use. In diabetes, the pancreas doesn't make enough insulin or the body can't respond normally to the insulin that is made. This causes the glucose level in the blood to rise. Continue reading >>

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  1. manohman

    Why can't fat be converted into Glucose?

    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?

  2. Czarcasm

    manohman said: ↑
    So the reason cited is that beta oxidation/metabolism of fats leads to formation of acetyl coa, a 2 carbon molecule, and that because of that it cannot be converted back into glucose.
    Why exactly is that the case?
    If Glucogenic amino acids can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates and then turn back into glucose via gluconeogensis, then why cant Fatty Acids which yield Acetyl Coa. Can't you just have Acetyl Coa enter the citric acid cycle and produce the same intermediates that the glucogenic amino acids creat?
    Click to expand... Both glucose and fatty acids can be stored in the body as either glycogen for glucose (stored mainly in the liver or skeletal cells) or for FA's, as triacylglycerides (stored in adipose cells). We cannot store excess protein. It's either used to make other proteins, or flushed out of the body if in excess; that's generally the case but we try to make use of some of that energy instead of throwing it all away.
    When a person is deprived of nutrition for a period of time and glycogen stores are depleted, the body will immediately seek out alternative energy sources. Fats (stored for use) are the first priority over protein (which requires the breakdown of tissues such as muscle). We can mobilize these FA's to the liver and convert them to Acetyl-CoA to be used in the TCA cycle and generate much needed energy. On the contrary, when a person eats in excess (a fatty meal high in protein), it's more efficient to store fatty acids as TAG's over glycogen simply because glycogen is extremely hydrophilic and attracts excess water weight; fatty acids are largely stored anhydrously and so you essentially get more bang for your buck. This is evolutionary significant and why birds are able to stay light weight but fly for periods at a time, or why bears are able to hibernate for months at a time. Proteins on the other hand may be used anabolically to build up active tissues (such as when your working out those muscles), unless you live a sedentary lifestyle (less anabolism and therefore, less use of the proteins). As part of the excretion process, protein must be broken down to urea to avoid toxic ammonia and in doing so, the Liver can extract some of that usable energy for storage as glycogen.
    Also, it is worth noting that it is indeed possible to convert FA's to glucose but the pathway can be a little complex and so in terms of energy storage, is not very efficient. The process involves converting Acetyl-CoA to Acetone (transported out of mitochondria to cytosol) where it's converted to Pyruvate which can then be used in the Gluconeogenesis pathway to make Glucose and eventually stored as Glycogen. Have a look for yourself if your interested: http://www.ploscompbiol.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002116.g003/originalimage (and this excludes the whole glycogenesis pathway, which hasn't even begun yet).
    TLDR: it's because proteins have no ability to be stored in the body, but we can convert them to glycogen for storage during the breakdown process for excretion. Also, in terms of energy, it's a more efficient process than converting FA's to glycogen for storage.

  3. soccerman93

    This is where biochem comes in handy. Czarcasm gives a really good in depth answer, but a simpler approach is to count carbons. The first step of gluconeogenesis(formation of glucose) requires pyruvate, a 3 carbon molecule. Acetyl Co-A is a 2 carbon molecule, and most animals lack the enzymes (malate synthase and isocitrate lyase) required to convert acetyl co-A into a 3 carbon molecule suitable for the gluconeogenesis pathway. The ketogenic pathway is not efficient, as czarcasm pointed out. While acetyl co-A can indeed be used to form citric acid intermediates, these intermediates will be used in forming ATP, not glucose. Fatty acid oxidation does not yield suitable amounts of pyruvate, which is required for gluconeogenesis. This is part of why losing weight is fairly difficult for those that are overweight, we can't efficiently directly convert fat to glucose, which we need a fairly constant supply of. Sorry, that got a little long-winded

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Control Your Blood Sugar - This You Need To Control Sugar In The Blood! To control blood sugar you need a diet. Often in diabetics, pre-diabetics, diabetes type 2 and to control sugar blood, important nutrients that are in these foods are lowest. Consumption of Graviola is very good in treatment of diabetes, helping to control diabetes by lowering blood sugar levels. Dragon fruit (Pitaya) help to lower blood glucose levels in type 2 diabetes. Coconut milk can be part of your diet because it is detoxifying, it accelerates fat burning and protects the heart, maintains the health of the thyroid gland, stimulates insulin secretion and prevents diabetes.

Tips For Blood Sugar Control When You Have Type 2 Diabetes

Check your blood sugar levels at least once a day with a blood glucose meter, and keep a record of the readings. Know what’s normal, high, and low. You’ll be able to spot patterns and give your health care team the information they need to craft a treatment plan for when things get off-track. Even when you’re eating healthy food, you can have too much of a good thing. A good rule of thumb: Fill half your plate with fruits and vegetables, and split the other half between a lean protein and a grain. It's a good way to bulk up your meals. And since your body doesn’t digest it, it doesn’t raise your blood sugar. Shoot for 50 grams a day. Fruits and veggies with the skin on, whole grains, and legumes are all good sources. Carbohydrates turn right into glucose after you eat them. So it’s extra important to keep them in check. When you choose your carbs, give your body the good stuff: fruits, veggies, whole grains, and beans. Ease up on less healthy options, like white bread and white rice. When you have diabetes, you feel hotter faster than other people. A hot body doesn't deal with blood sugar as well. Wear loose-fitting, cool clothes and a hat. Head for the air conditioning Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Lmalhoit

    Anyone ever fasted away a cold? I've read a few things about how it might help, maybe because of autophagy. Any science out there on this?

  2. Jason_v

    a cold has nothing to do with autophagy. that is where the body eliminates its own, damaged cells. a cold is a viral infection that the body fights off. the last thing you would probably want to do is start fasting ( a hormetic stress on the body) when its attempting to rally its resources and fight something off. fasting is great when applied correctly but its not magic.

  3. Lmalhoit

    I know this article may not be totally legit, but I guess I was thinking more along the lines of building immunity. Http://authoritynutrition.com/can-fasting-fight-the-flu-or-cold/

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