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Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Epidemiology And Pathogenesis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also called hyperosmotic hyperglycemic nonketotic state) are two of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. They each represent an extreme in the hyperglycemic spectrum. The epidemiology and the factors responsible for the metabolic abnormalities of DKA and HHS in adults will be discussed here. The clinical features, evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of these disorders are discussed separately. (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis" and "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Treatment".) EPIDEMIOLOGY Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is characteristically associated with type 1 diabetes. It also occurs in type 2 diabetes under conditions of extreme stress such as serious infection, trauma, cardiovascular or other emergencies, and, less often, as a presenting manifestation of type 2 diabetes, a disorder called ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus. (See "Syndromes of ketosis-prone diabetes mellitus".) DKA is more common in young (<65 years) patients, whereas hyperosmolar hyperglycemic s Continue reading >>

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  1. mikeroger

    I tested with Keto Stix im getting DEEP dark purple and i am FULL HYDRATED
    I started getting dark purple ever since i been doing Cardio every morning on an empty stomacH(best fat burner ever)
    This boosts up my fat burning all day long, ever since i used to get light pink now im at Dark purple All day , even before any meal
    or after meals
    i drink like 20 gallons of water daily , im always hydrated so i know im showing huge amounts of ketones and thats GOOD
    they say they if the body is produce huge amounts of ketones and not all of them are burned but they are dumped in urine so its as if they were burned!!!!!
    So i say THE DARKER THE COLOR(FULLY HYDRATED) THE BETTER AND THE MORE FAT U LOSE.
    Fatty acid breakdown create ketones and they circulate in the blood stream waiting to be burned by cells but if a period of time passes without them being needed they are dumped in blood stream, so its as if u burned fat! for free! hah
    After 3 days of doing cardio on an empty stomach on this ketogenic diet, my pants size 36 are SLipping badly!they are VERY loose, i cant wear them without a belt. Thats amazing.
    Every time i do cardio on empty stomach when my glycogen is empty , my carbs are low 20 grams and my fat is high, my body goes DIRECTLY for the fat stores the minute i put my foot on that treadmill.
    right after the 30 min cardio i noticed Huge results !!, fat melt down, i bet im losing like alot

  2. mikeroger

    i also noticed that Atkin diet is not a high protein diet, its a high fat diet.
    Fat = Ketogenic with a 10% conversion to glucose
    Protein = Half/Half with a 58% conversion to glucose
    Carbohydrates = Glucogenic 100% conversion to glucose
    so it makes sense to eat HIGH FAT, Moderate protein not high protein and low carbs.
    diet should always be 75%-80% Fat and the rest Protein and around 20 grams of carbs daily not more.
    coupled with a Morning Cardio on an empty stomach , ull be burning like crazy and the entire day because of that 20-30 min cardio will tripple the fat burning of fat stores.
    Dont eat 6 meals a day, you want to give your body a chance to burn stored fat. Eat 3 meals a day and maybe a 4th being a snack at night like celery or something.
    If you get kicked out of ketosis take 1000MG of alpha lipoic acid supplement 3 times daily and itll kick you back into ketosis within 24 hours or less.
    Also brisk walks on an empty stomach= direct fat burner , then go eat your breakfast after your morning exercise.
    Take a Fat Burner Pill in the morning like STacker 2 or xenedrine or whichever, Caffein does NOT kick you out of ketosis.
    Caffeine + 50 grams of carbs = insulin spike.
    CAffeine ALONE will NOT do Any thing to insulin it will actually bring you deeper into ketosis. So taking caffeine on empty stoamch will really pump you up for exercise and into fat burning.
    Lyle mcdonald the Ketogenic guru explained it all in his book.
    Calories DO MATTER , lyle said it , eating too many calories and u wont lose anything. U gotta eat less than you burn so those people telling you to eat 2000 calories or 2500 calories u wont lose anything. There has to be a caloric deficit if your not exercising, so if your maintenance level is 2000 cals , u gotta eat under 2000. Lyle mcdonald recomends a deficit of around 300 to maximum 1000 cals below maintenance.
    Id say 500 is good. so if ur maintenance is 2000 cals, u gotta eat 1500 cals. It will not kick you into starvation mode, starvation mode occurs when u eat like 100 calories a day. so stop paranoing.
    Lyle mcdonald did the CKD diet/ Bioopus he was eating 1500 calories a day for 4 weeks during his ketogenic diet. so trust me, count the calories , count the fat, count the protein and count the carbs they all matter.
    if u just eat unlimited fat and protein, ull lose water weight first then ull stall for months, and then ull lose anothe couple pounds again , jeez it may take u years before ur done.
    and by then u wont be young anymore ull be old and unable to enjoy slim youth=\
    hehe
    I say any diet that stalls you for 6 months is BS, id do the induction for 1-2 months to lose every ounce of fat, then go on Maintenance level. We sure dont wanna spends years losing fat.
    also doing body building will build muscles but burns fat TOO SLOW compared to cardio. so to speed up fat burning , do CARDIO dont rely on muscles to do it for you, it takes too damn long to add muscle pounds and 1 pound muscle only burns 50 caories , it can take weeks /month to gain 1 pound of muscle, but doing cardio for 20 mins can burn you a wooping 500 calories =\ do the math

  3. suze_c

    So all of a sudden you are an Atkins guru, not long ago as I recall you were bashing this forum.... You have described what and how it is FOR YOU! Most times, and yes there are exceptions to the rules, deep purple on ketostix can indicate not enough water intake.
    Quote:

    i drink like 20 gallons of water daily , Excuse me, but there is NO WAY you could be drinking that much water.You would become water intoxicated.Water intoxication occurs when a person swallows enough water to lower significantly the concentration of salt (sodium) in the blood. The causes the brain to swell, which in turn produces a decreased level of consciousness progressing from lethargy to stupor to coma.
    Info on Overhydration & Water Intoxication(click here)
    Quote:

    Dont eat 6 meals a day, you want to give your body a chance to burn stored fat. Eat 3 meals a day and maybe a 4th being a snack at night like celery or something. Are you not familiar with eating ALSO being a metabolism booster? For SOME ppl it is better for them to eat more mini-meals, than fewer bigger ones. And it depends on a person's size how much calories they should eat... I have steadily lost on a diet of 2200 calories per day, which according to your logic is IMPOSSIBLE!!
    Don't get me wrong... I am GLAD your plan works for you, BUT please do not say that what you are doing is going to work for everybody, because it simply will NOT!

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