diabetestalk.net

In The Renal Response To Metabolic Acidosis Quizlet

Renal Response To Acid/base Disorders

Renal Response To Acid/base Disorders

processes that shift threshold of kidneys for bicarb excretion to higher values -have low K in plasma, so intracellular K shifts out of cell and HCO3- follows -to make up for charge loss, H+ enters cell -now with increased H+, intracellular concentrations of HCO3- driven down because reaction being pushed in opposite direction -this favors HCO3- regeneration and reabsorption how does aldosterone excess maintain alkalosis -excess aldosterone acts on proton/ATPase and Na+ channels -leads to Na reabsorption and this makes lumenal charge more negative so H+ secreted -need to create more H+ and this also leads to formation of HCO3- -this increase in HCO3- is then reabsorbed via Cl/HCO3 channel how does volume depletion maintain alkalosis -low volume triggers RAAS, and increased AT2 stimulates Na/H exchange -causes aldosterone excess, which promotes alkalosis by stimulating proton pump and causing hypokalemia how does loss of gastric fluid result in alkalosis -when bicarb is high, loss in urine must be accompanied by Na or K -volume depletion then activates aldosterone system which exacerbates hypokalemia and increases H+ secretion How do diuretics effect ECF and bicarb concentrations? leads to decrease in ECF and increased HCO3- conc -contraction alkalosis-fluid you lose through diuretics doesn't have much bicarb (mostly H2O), but conserving bicarb so conc increases -renal dysfunction (renal tubular acidosis) *First 2 are normal anion gaps, rest are increased anion gap -primary correction mech is NH4 production increased -decreased cell pH results in more Na/H exchanger activity -allosteric activation of transporters (NHE-3) -insertion of transporters into membrane from intracellular stores (NHE-3 and H-ATPase) -->(NH4 production requires more glutamine so transporters expr Continue reading >>

Part 6: Davenport Diagram & Renal Response To Metabolic Alkalosis/acidosis

Part 6: Davenport Diagram & Renal Response To Metabolic Alkalosis/acidosis

-6 quadrants to represent respiratory/ metabolic acidosis/alkalosis (chronic/acute for resp) -if outside quadrants assume its a mixed acid-base disorder -assume enough time has elapsed for full compensatory response What does Davenport Diagram show for Metabolic Acidosis? (3) -presents with dec pH & dec [HCO3-] (at constant pCO2) -body compensates by decreasing pCO2 by increasing respiratory rate (shown on graph by lowering lines of pCO2) What does Davenport Diagram show for Metabolic Alkalosis? (3) -presents with increased pH & increased [HCO3-] (at constant pCO2) -body compensates by increasing pCO2 by decreasing respiratory rate (shown on graph by raising lines of pCO2) What does Davenport Diagram show for Respiratory Acidosis ? (4) -top left part of graph (acute & chronic resp) -presents with decreased pH, increased [HCO3-] & increased pCO2 -acute refers to decrease in pH because of increased pCO2 -becomes chronic when bicarbonate levels increase a lot (out of range of acute compensation) to compensate for higher pH What does Davenport Diagram show for Respiratory Alkalosis? (4) -bottom right part of graph (acute & chronic resp) -presents with inc pH, dec [HCO3-] & dec pCO2 -acute refers to inc in pH because of decrease pCO2 -becomes chronic when bicarbonate levels decrease a lot (out of range of acute compensation) to compensate for lower pH Davenport Diagram for Non-HCO3- Buffer (4) -minimize the increase in free [H+] that CO2 can produce -Bnon-HCO3-= buffering power of non0HCO3- -large amount of CO2 must flux through the reaction before the free concentrations of HCO3- & H+ rise sufficiently to satisfy the H-H equation -low amounts of CO2 can influence free concentrations of HCO3- & H+ to satisfy the H-H equation 1. Kidney fails to excrete acids formed in body 2 Continue reading >>

Renal: Acid Base Disorders

Renal: Acid Base Disorders

Decrease in HCO3/CO2 ratio - pH lower than normal value of 7.4 It can be due to a primary change in arterial PCO2 or to a primary change in HCO3 concentration. Increase in HCO3/CO2 ratio - pH higher than normal value of 7.4 - alkalosis It can be due to a primary change in arterial PCO2 or to a primary change in HCO3 concentration. If this is the primary change in the acid-base disturbance, one will expect a metabolic disorder. If this is the primary change in the acid-base disturbance, one will expect a respiratory disorder. To find this, one must know the following: 3.adequate compensation or mixed disorder? This involves the following characteristics: - respiratory (minutes) or renal (hours to days) compensation This is an acid-base map for mapping disorders. Shows that PRIMARY disturbance and the COMPENSATION will be directionally similar. ex. if the PRIMARY disturbance is a fall in PCO2 then the compensation will be a reduction in Plasma HCO3. The compensation cannot be past normal (ex. if your pH is low, compensation will raise pH but it will still be low). Arterial blood profile: pH , PCO2 , HCO3 - Inhibition of central respiratory drive or muscular defect RECALL that renal compensation takes time, pH can be very disrupted acutely Chronically kidney will increase H+ excretion Arterial blood profile: pH , PCO2 , HCO3 - Stimulation of central respiratory drive - Hypoxemia (high altitude, severe anemia) RECALL that renal compensation takes time, pH can be very disrupted acutely Chronically, kidney will decrease excretion of H+ Arterial blood profile: pH , HCO3, PCO2 - increased production/ingestion of fixed acid - Diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, etc Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base balance is an important determinant of protein ______ & ______ structure, function (When pH goes out of normal range these proteins are denatured ) All enzymatic functions are sensitive to this ion Relationship between respiratory system & acid-base balance -Determines affinity of Hb for O2, in alveolar capillaries - release in tissue capillaries -Respiratory rate directly affected by [H+] in resp center of brainstem + carotid body for rapid regulation of pH and pCO2 -Variations in alveolar ventilation volume cause acidosis and alkalosis Relationship b/w digestive system & acid-base balance -Acid in stomach hydrolyzes protein molecules -Digestive enzymes in stomach dependent on low pH to function (trypsin) -Alkaline secretions of biliary and pancreatic ducts neutralize gastric secretions -Enzymes in duodenum/sb act in a neutral pH environment (amylase lipase) Relationship b/w excretory system & acid-base balance -Acid , -Phos, -SO4 excreted from body by kidneys -Kidneys play role in long term (>24o) pH control -Rate of acid excretion dependent on degree of renal function and hormonal factors -At 37oC [H+] and [OH-] are both 100 nanomoles/L or 0.0000001 moles/L 7.35 to 7.45 (slightly alkaline not neutral) -Inversely related (negative in logarithm equation important) [H+] in plasma higher than normal (already slightly alkaline) quantity of Acid or Alkali required to return the plasma in-vitro to a normal pH (7.4) under standard conditions difference between commonly measured anions and cations i.e unmeasured anions such as lactate, oxalic acid increased in anion gap metabolic acidosis Role of intracellular and extracellular buffer, respiratory, and renal mechanisms in maintaining normal blood pH -Because the lungs can eliminate this it's called respiratory acid Continue reading >>

Metabolic Acidosis And Alkalosis

Metabolic Acidosis And Alkalosis

What is the problem when pH and HCO3 both depressed? What is the problem when pH and HCO3 both elevated? What is the problem when pH depressed and pCO2 elevated? What is the problem when pH elevated and pCO2 depressed? What is the appropriate respiratory response to metabolic acidosis? What is the appropriate respiratory response to metabolic alkalosis? What is the appropriate metabolic response to respiratory acidosis? What is the appropriate metabolic response to respiratory alkalosis? In what setting do you find inappropriate compensations? Acid-base problems may be due to what 3 issues? - Excess acid (retention/generation/ingestion) - Excessive or inadequate ventilatory response - In any person they may have any or all of the above issues How can you tell when there is excess acid? - anion gap: HCO3 ratio can be used to diagnose mixed metabolic disorders in patient w/ metabolic acidosis: -- normal anion gap = normal anion gap acidosis alone -- anion gap = HCO3 = anion gap acidosis alone -- anion gap < HCO3 = mixed anion gap + normal anion gap acidosis -- anion gap > HCO3 = mixed anion gap + metabolic alkalosis What happens to the [Cl-] when HCO3 drops? - Increase in [Cl-] to maintain neutral charge resulting in a normal AG How can you diagnose mixed metabolic disorders? 2. Compare acid gained to change in buffer and match to one of the 4 possible mixed disorders -- mixed anion gap + normal anion gap acidosis Causes of increased AG metabolic acidosis (MUDPILES) What does an increased osmolar gap and anion gap usually indicate? - Estimated osmolality = (2*[Na]) + [glucose] + [urea] What do you look for in high AG acidosis? - Find it and stop it (not replace buffer) What do you look for in normal AG acidosis Diagram of HCO3 reabsorption in the PCT cell - HPO4 takes up Continue reading >>

Chapter 7- Acid Base Balance And Regulation

Chapter 7- Acid Base Balance And Regulation

-Breakdown of phosphorous-containing proteins (phosphoric acid) -anaerobic metabolism of glucose (lactic acid) -metabolism of body fats (fatty and ketone acids) -transport of CO2 in the blood as HCO3 liberates H+ ions. Under normal conditions, H+ and HCO3 ion concentrations in the blood are regulated by: Chemical buffer system, respiratory system, renal system. 1st line of defense. responds within a fraction of a second. Inactivates H+ ions and liberates HCO3 ions in response to acidosis, or generates more H+ ions and decreases HCO3 concentration in response to alkalosis. The chemical buffer system is composed of Acts within 1-3 minutes by increasing/decreasing rate and depth of breathing to offset acidosis or alkalosis, respectively. Respiratory System response to metabolic Acidosis increases the rate and depth of breathing, causing the CO2 to decrease and pH to increase. Respiratory System response to metabolic alkalosis Decreases rate and depth of breathing, increasing the CO2 and decreasing pH. Body's most effective acid-base balance monitor and regulator. Requires a day or more to correct pH. Renal System response when extracellular fluids are acidic Retains HCO3 and excretes H+ ions into urine, causing the blood pH to increase. Renal System response when extracellular fluids are alkaline Retains H+ and excretes basic substances (primarily HCO3) into the urine, causing the blood pH to decrease. Proton donors. When they dissolve in water, they release H+ (protons) and anions. The acidity of a solution is directly related to___ The acidity of a solution reflects only the ______ hydrogen ions, not the ____ hydrogen ions. Reflects only the free H+ ions, not those bound to anions. HCl (hydrochloric acid), HC2H3O2 (acetic acid, often abbreviated as HAc), and H2CO3 (carb Continue reading >>

Pathophysiology Quiz #10

Pathophysiology Quiz #10

input=output *regulation of Hydrogen ions in body fluids Buffer systems are composed of two or more chemicals. Stronger acids and bases are converted into weaker acids and bases. Buffer systems minimize pH changes: Important in many different cellular processes. Major buffering system used to maintain pH of mammalian blood. Carbon dioxide is an acid -> as CO2 increases so does H+ due to the following: Therefore as increase/decrease CO2, you increase/decrease H+. Increase rate/depth breathing -> decrease CO2, pH high hyperventalation, blowing off CO2 >acids if you lose to much acid, you become alkaline Decrease rate/depth of breathing -> increase CO2, pH low Increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ion concentration. Stimulates the respiratory center in the brain, increases rate and depth of breathing. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion concentrations decrease. Chemical buffer systems do not eliminate the acid or base from the body, it just converts a strong acid/base into a weak acid/base -> this minimizes the change in pH. Ultimately the body must eliminate excess acid/base Respiratory Mechanisms. Renal Mechanisms. Kidneys may also excrete/conserve H+ ions, or excrete/conserve HCO3 (base). Lungs remove CO2, Kidneys remove HCO3, high heart rate hinders CO2 removal. Increase in carbon dioxide or hydrogen ion concentration stimulates the respiratory center in the brain and increases rate and depth of breathing. Carbon dioxide and hydrogen ion concentrations decrease Lungs can only rid CO2..so kidneys are necessary to help rid/excrete or reabsorb HCO3 and/or H+ (protons). Changes are long terms and takes several weeks. Non-CO2 acids produced during metabolism. Fixed acids: Phosphoric acid, lactic acid, sulfuric acid. Respiratory Imbalances: alterations in the carbonic acid (CO Continue reading >>

Renal Control Of Acid-base Balance

Renal Control Of Acid-base Balance

What is the effect of excess H+ on plasma Ca2+? Increased H+ = more free Ca2+ = hypocalcemia, increased serum calcium What two factors do the strength of a buffer to minimize pH change depend on? -Mixture of weak acid and its conjugate base in aqueous solution -Chemical buffers minimize but don't completely prevent pH changes caused by strong acid or base Ability ('strength') of buffer to minimize pH changes depends on: -Concentrations of buffer system components -Nearness of buffer's pKa to pH of solution What controls the concentration of the volatile acid in the body? In chemical equilibrium with CO2, a volatile gas: H2CO3 <-> CO2 + H2O Pulmonary ventilation controls H2CO3 concentration in body fluids Fixed acids: non-carbonic acids generated metabolically (e.g. sulfuric, phosphoric acids) Initially neutralized by buffers in body fluids What is the equation for oxidative metabolism of CO2? Nonvolatile acids: Lactic acid, ketone acids, sulfuric acid, phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid Removed by kidneys through urine (cannot be removed by ventilation) What are the 3 lines of defense against pH changes? Patient with acidosis has H+ go into RBCs and is buffered by Hb What is the equation for calculation of pH? Why is bicarbonate a useful buffer system? (2) -System is open = concentrations of HCO3- and CO2 are easily adjusted by respiration and renal function What happens in a closed system response vs. open system response to a strong acid? What is the renal response to excess acid? (2) -Additional H+ is secreted into lumen, excreted primarily as ammonium (NH4+) What is the renal response to excess base? (2) -Incomplete reabsorption of filtered HCO3- -Secretion of HCO3- in collecting duct (by intercalated cell) The body cannot produce enough urine to get rid of free [H Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

o The most general effect of pH changes are on enzyme function o Also effect excitability of nerve and muscle cells o Alkalosis: > 7.45, CNS stimulation, convulsion, coma o Drawn from artery- radial, brachial, femoral o Caution must be taken with patient on anticoagulants Heparin, Coumadin, aspirin takes longer for clotting, can bleed out o Derangement of hydrogen and bicarbonate concentrations in body fluids are common in diseases processes o Acids can be defined as a proton (H+) donor o Molecules which dissociate in solution to release H+ o Physiologically important acids include: o These acids are dissolved in body fluids Molecules capable of accepting a hydrogen ion (OH-) o Acceptable rang of pH in the extracellular fluid is accomplished by three main mechanism (know hierarchy) 1. Chemical buffers: react rapidly (less than a second) 2. Respiratory regulation: react rapidly (seconds to minutes) 3. Renal regulation: slow reaction (minutes to hours) expresses hydrogen ion concentration in water solutions water ionizes to a limited extent to form equal amounts of H+ ions and OH- o Acidosis and alkalosis can arise in tow fundamentally different ways Cannot be eliminated by respiratory system 1) cellular metabolism of carbohydrates release CO2 as a waste product cellular metabolism of carbohydrates release CO2 as a waste product CO2 diffuses into the bloodstream where the reaction CO_2+ H_2 O H_2 CO_3 H^++HCO_3^- Carbonic acid is a weak acid. It is not really alkalotic or acidotic Carbonic acid occurs in red blood cells and is convenient for arterial blood gas If you go to the left you are getting rid of something through respiration If you go to the right you are getting rid of something metabolically May stimulate HCl by the parietal cells of the stomach o Parietal cel Continue reading >>

Renal Ch9 - Acid-base Disorders

Renal Ch9 - Acid-base Disorders

In order to maintain pH Kidneys try to compensate to respiratory acid-base disorders and lungs try to compensate for metabolic disorders Compensation NEVER Over-Corrects pH! (As a rule, compensation restores pH toward normal, but Not completely TO normal) - If pH is acidemic (pH < 7.4), acidosis is the primary acid-base disorder and if pH is alkalemic (pH > 7.4), alkalosis is the primary Compensation in Metabolic Acidosis vs Respiratory Acidosis 1.) In metabolic acidosis (low pH, low HCO3), alveolar ventilation increases creating a respiratory alkalosis (low PCO2) in order to return pH toward the normal range 2.) In Respiratory acidosis (low pH, high PCO2), kidneys excrete H+ and create a metabolic alkalosis (high HCO3) in order to return pH toward the normal range Degree of Compensation: Metabolic Disorders Every 1mmol/L drop in [HCO3] expect 1mmHg drop in PCO2 (from 40) Every 1mmol/L rise in [HCO3] expect 0.6mmHg rise in PCO2 Degree of Compensation: Respiratory Disorders Every 10mmHg rise in PCO2 Expect 1mmol rise in HCO3 Every 10mmHg rise in PCO2 Expect 3.5mmol rise in HCO3 Every 10mmHg fall in PCO2 Expect 2mmol fall in HCO3 Every 10mmHg fall in PCO2 Expect 4mmol fall in HCO3 Mixed Respiratory/Metabolic Acid-Base Disorder May be present if change in PCO2 is inappropriate for change in HCO3 (or vice versa) e.g. Metabolic Acidosis w/ Serum [HCO3] = 16 - if actual PCO2 has dropped 20mmHg --> implies presence of an additional respiratory alkalosis (e.g. metabolic acidosis and respiratory alkalosis in aspirin intoxication) the calculated difference between cations and anions in the blood - roughly equal to the negative charge contributed by proteins Anion Gap is Calculated for 2 Main Reasons 1.) to help determine etiology of a metabolic acidosis 2.) to determine if a com Continue reading >>

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

Acid-base Balance Flashcards | Quizlet

What is the normal regulated ECF (plasma) pH range? What are the primary acid-base disturbances called? What are the two major response systems to acid base disturbances and what speeds are they? because CO2 is rapidly eliminated from the lungs What catalyzes the reversible CO2 hydration reaction in the blood? What is the primary difference between a volatile and non-volatile acid? lungs can't get rid of non-volatile acids The net gain/loss of this non-volatile (fixed) acid in the GI tract is normally zero Lactic acid, ketoacids etc are non-volatile (fixed) acids produced by what? What are the 3 major non-volatile (fixed) acids? substance that prevents major pH change when H+ is added to the solution What is formed when CO2 is added to the blood? What is the most important extracellular buffer? This important urinary buffer is found in the renal tubule What is the pK of H2PO4/HPO4 buffer pair? What is the most important intracellular buffer? The 4 most important intra and extracellular buffers are... What is the most important buffer pair in the blood and what is its pK? In the blood, which two 2 components of the bicarbonate buffer system are in equilibrium? What does the solubility coefficient for CO2 in blood do? relates the PCO2 to the amount of dissolved CO2 In the blood, the H2CO3/CO2 relationship is directly linked by what? What buffers are available during diabetic ketoacidosis? What does acid-base disturbance during respiratory failure cause? What occurs during respiratory acidosis caused by respiratory failure? increase in PCO2 causes decrease in pH despite buffers Excessive loss of HCO3- via the kidneys will cause what acid-base abnormality? What is the difference between the PCO2 and 'Total CO2' ('CO2' in hospital records)? Western diets, which are typicall Continue reading >>

Step 1 Secrets: Acid-base

Step 1 Secrets: Acid-base

Via Cl/HCO3 exchange process in the colon. Nonanion gap metabolic acidosis can alternatively be described as what? What are the two causes of nonantion gap metabolic acidosis? In appropriate renal response to nonanion gap metabolic acidosis, what should be excreted? In acidosis, failure of the kidney to excrete NH4 is called what condition? What are the three renal tubular acidosis? Renal compensation for acute respiratory acidosis Renal compensation for chronic respiratory acidosis Renal compensation in acute respiratory alkalosis Renal compensation in chronic respiratory alkalosis High altitude and pregnant women lead to what? Volume depletion leads to what? What is trying to be retained? What hormone comes into play and what does it do? Contraction alkalosis. Retain Na = increased bicarbonate reabsorption. Aldosterone promotes Na retention in exchange for K and H in distal tubule Hypokalemia leads to what? What is renal trying to do to correct this? How are K and H shifting trancellulary? Intracellular acidification leads to what renally? Metabolic alkalosis. K retention results in increased H secretion in distal tubule. K shifts out, H shifts in resulting in lowered H. Intracellular acidification stimulates increased ammonia production - increased secretion of H in NH4 at proximal tubule Metabolic alkalosis - through volume depletion and hypokalemia Metabolic alkalosis - defective Na/K/Cl, mimics loop diuretic Metabolic alkalosis - defective Na/Cl, mimics thiazides Metabolic alkalosis - Defect in Na channel in DCT - permanent activation. Not spironolactone, only triameterene or amiloride 11 Beta-hydroxysteroid deficiency causes what? Metablic alkalosis, defect of the enzyme that normally breaks down cortisol Metabolic alkalosis. Primary hyperaldosteronism. Hyperten Continue reading >>

Chapter 25 - Fluids Flashcards | Quizlet

Chapter 25 - Fluids Flashcards | Quizlet

the various body compartments contain the required amount of water, proportioned accodring to their needs. Rapid movement between ECF and ICF in response to changes in osmotic concentration of ECF and reach equilibrium within minutes to hours primary way in which water moves in and out of body compartments. The concentrations of solutes in the fluids are a major determinant of fluids. volume of ICF is larger than ECF (volume of water inside the cells). 1. Water absorbed across digestive epithelium - gained 2. Water vapor lost at skin and lungs - lost compounds that dissociate into ions (Na, Cl, etc.) develops when water losses outpace water gains. Loss of water - ECF concentration increases - water moves out of ICF to ECF to get both isotonic, similar to before the fluid loss. 3. found and secreted at kidneys. in bodily fluids 2. moves between fluid compartments and regulate osmotic pressure between compartments. 1. most abundant material in the body (98% stored in bone). 2. structural component of bones and teeth, essential for maintenance of muscle tone, and excitability of nervous and muscle tissue. 1. stored in bone matrix, but 1% remain is intracellular - cofactor 2. activates enzyme systems involved in metabolism of carbs and proteins and essential for membrane function When sodium gains equal sodium losses, attached with water balance because wherever sodium goes, water follows Decreased levels of Sodium - Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus inhibited - ADH secretion decreases (suppress thirst and increase water loss) - water loss reduces ECF volume, concentrates ions - increase levels Increased levels of Sodium - osmoreceptors in hypothalamus stimulated - ADH secretion ( restricts water loss and stimulates thirst) - water shifts out of ICF to ECF, increasing ECF volu Continue reading >>

Acid-base Regulation A&p 2 201

Acid-base Regulation A&p 2 201

Increased sodium levels in the ECF result what? -stimulation of osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus stimulation of osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus Choose the correct statement regarding water balance and sodium balance. -Reduced blood pressure results in increased ECF volume. -Increased blood volume results if the ECF volume increases. -Natriuretic peptide release results in decreased water loss in urine. -Decreased aldosterone release is an endocrine response to decreased blood volume and blood pressure. Increased blood volume results if the ECF volume increases. stimulates water conservation by the kidneys. it exists when the rate of urinary potassium excretion matches the rate of digestive tract absorption. the primary mechanism of potassium secretion involves diffusion. the activity of ion pumps is regulated by circulating levels of rennin. roughly 98 percent of the potassium content of the human body is in the ECF. it exists when the rate of urinary potassium excretion matches the rate of digestive tract absorption. is promoted by chronically low body fluid pH. results from aldosteronism when sodium loss and potassium loss are overstimulated. can be induced by several diuretics, which increase the volume of urine produced. is produced by high potassium concentrations in the ECF. can be induced by several diuretics, which increase the volume of urine produced. associated with the reabsorption of sodium from the distal tubules and collecting ducts. Which characteristic is correct regarding a buffer system in body fluids? It generally consists of a combination of a weak acid and the anion released by its dissociation. Adding hydrogen ions to the solution upsets the equilibrium and results in the formation of additional molecules of the strong acid. The anion in a buf Continue reading >>

Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Final Flashcards | Quizlet

Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate? Hint 1. Think about how a coffee filter works. C. nitrogenous waste particles, such as urea Blood cells and large particles, such as proteins, are not allowed to filter through a healthy __________. What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration? Hint 1. What was the primary driving force for filtration from a capillary? B. hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure) B. hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure) Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged? Hint 1. If a filter is damaged, it would let particles through that it normally would not filter. If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease? Hint 1. Proteins in the plasma would increase the osmotic pressure of the blood. True/False: osmotic pressure opposes filtration, increasing osmotic pressure would decrease net filtration. Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm Hg, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg. Hint 1. Remember that hydrostatic pressure pushes water away and osmotic pressure draws water in. The ________ is a capillary plexus that parallels the nephron loop (loop of Henle). The step in kidney function where fluid is forced out of the blood is __________. Typical renal blood flow is about ________ ml/min under resting conditions. Sympathetic stimulation of the kidney can do all of the following, except B. produce powerful vasoconstriction of the afferent arterioles. E. increase the glomerular filtration rate. E. increase the glomerular filtration rate. Th Continue reading >>

More in ketosis