Can High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia) Cause Seizures?
Seizures can be triggered by too low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) and maybe by too high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). But overall, they are commonly linked with a condition called epilepsy. Furthermore, they also can be a warning sign of other health conditions. What else you need to know about the truth of seizures and hyperglycemia? Seizure – what actually is it? To control the movement of your body, your brain needs to send some small electrical signals around the body. For this mechanism, your body is equipped with a lot of nerves – these nerves acts as carrier for those signals. Theoretically, seizure occurs when the brain sends abnormal /wrong signals which then eventually can affect the way of the body’s function. Epilepsy is the most popular problem of nervous system that often linked with seizure. And it can affect people of all ages. But as written before, epilepsy is not the single reason of this symptom. The following are other health conditions that also can be potential to cause seizure: Toxoplasmosis or tapeworm (this is a kind of parasitic infection). Encephalitis or meningitis sometime also can trigger seizures. Certain health conditions that have developed since birth (connatural problems)! Imbalance glucose of bloodstream (particularly such as hypoglycemia /too low blood glucose). Aneurysm (a kind of structural defect that occurs in the brain). Problems that damage to the brain such as an injury of head, brain tumor, brain surgery, and stroke. In addition – an extremely fiver (especially if it occurs rapidly) and withdrawals of illegal drugs, certain prescription medications, or even abusing alcohol may also trigger and cause seizure. Can hyperglycemia or high blood sugar cause seizures? It is clear that hypoglycemia or too low blood sugar can be Continue reading >>
Sweet Seizures – Epilepsia Partialis Continua
Ragesh Panikkath MDa, Joaquin Abeal Lado MDb Correspondence to Ragesh Panikkath MD Email: [email protected] SWRCCC : 2013;1.(3):29-31 doi: 10.12746/swrccc2013.0103.032 ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Abstract Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) refers to focal and recurrent seizures that happen every few seconds to minutes for extended periods of time. The most common causes of these seizures are stroke, Rasmussen’s encephalitis (in children), and viral encephalitis. Metabolic disorders, like hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS),infrequently cause EPC. Correction of the HHS stops the EPC and eliminates the need for antiepileptic drugs. Synaptic transmission in the central nervous system requires normal glucose concentrations. Hyperglycemia can lower the seizure threshold, and this possibly explains the development of seizures in patients with HHS. Keywords: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, epilepsia partialis continua, focal seizures, diabetes ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... Introduction Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) refers to focal and recurrent seizures that happen every few seconds to minutes for extended periods of time.1 Cerebrovascular stroke, Rasmussen’s encephalitis, a Continue reading >>
Why Does My Dog Have Seizures
A dog may seizure for any number of reasons. Just because a dog has a seizure does not mean that the dog has epilepsy. Just because I have a running nose does not mean that I have a cold. I could have a reaction to someone's perfume, I could have a sinus infection, I could have allergies, I could have ... . There are many tests to determine what exactly I have that is causing my running nose. However, there is no test in the medical industry for the existence of epilepsy (primary, inherited or idiopathic). To determine whether a dog has epilepsy or something else, a veterinarian or neurologist arrives at their diagnosis by a process of elimination. They determine what is not and then, hopefully, come to a logical conclusion as to what it is. The following is a list of conditions which can cause seizures in dogs. Each condition is discussed in the following sections: 6. hyper' and 'hypo' Conditions Hyperglycemia Hypoglycemia Hypoxia or Hypoxemia Hepatic Encephalopathy or Liver Disease Renal (kidney) disease Hyperkalemia Hyperlipoproteinemia "garbage" poisoning) Tick Bites Toxoplamosis (Toxo) loss of vision motor coordination seizures Disease Process Pressure Red _BC_ (cmm) White_BC_(cmm) Protein_mg/dl Normal <170 <5 <5 <25 Canine Distemper Encephalitis <120 23 19 49 Toxoplasma Encephalitis 256 2 17 94 Cuterebra Encephalitis - 10 280 98 Canine Primary Reticulosis - - 58 90 Focal Myelomalacia (infract) - 187 4 57 The text book Handbook of Veterinary Neurology, by Oliver and Lorenz, discusses the neurological exam. The first chapter is devoted to the discussion of the neurologic examination. In lay person's terms, the neurological exam evaluates how the nerves of the limbs are "talking" or communicating to the central nervous system and the brain and how the brain is respon Continue reading >>
Diabetic Seizures – What Are They? Symptoms, Causes, And Treatments
A diabetic seizure is a serious medical condition and without emergency treatment, it has proven to be fatal. Extremely low levels of sugar in the diabetic’s blood cause these seizures. That is why it is so important for those who have diabetes to monitor and control their blood sugar. What Are the Causes? A number of different things can actually cause a diabetic seizure to occur. It could happen because too much insulin is injected, or because the diabetic did not eat right after taking insulin. Some of the other potential causes include not eating meals regularly or drinking too much alcohol. Even certain oral diabetes medications can make the body produce excess insulin. Those who are exercising too much without taking into account how this will affect their insulin levels will also be at a greater risk of suffering a diabetic stroke. No matter what causes the seizure, it is always a medical emergency and those who have one need immediate medical attention. What Are the Symptoms? When entering the first stages of a diabetic seizure, the person may exhibit a number of different symptoms. Some of the most common symptoms include: Sweating Clamminess Drowsiness Confusion Bodily shakes Hallucinations Rapid and unexpected emotional changes Weakness in the muscles Anxiety Vision changes Loss of ability to speak clearly After these initial symptoms, the next phase of symptoms begin and the danger level rises. Now, the person may stare into space and be non-communicative and uncontrollable body movements and contractions of the muscles may occur. In some cases, the diabetic will be unaware of the movements and may even fall into unconsciousness. What Is the Prevention and Treatment? The best way to deal with this problem is by ensuring it does not occur in the first place Continue reading >>
Focal Seizures As A First Manifestation Of Nonketotic Hyperglycemia
I report two elderly females who developed repetitive focal seizures as their first manifestations of nonketotic hyperglycemia In the second patient, the seizures were constantly induced by active or passive movements of the involved arm. With a control of the hyperglycemia, the seizures stopped in both cases. Contrary to previous reports, the focal seizures of the second case seemed to respond to parenteral administration of phenytoin. Continue reading >>
Complex Partial Seizure As A Manifestation Of Non-ketotic Hyperglycemia: The Needle Recovered From Haystack?
Abstract We present a case of a 75-year-old gentleman with undiagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus presenting with acute onset expressive dysphasia and right hemi-paresis with no prior history of seizure. He developed clusters of stereotypical complex partial seizures which were refractory to anti-epileptic agents. He was not known to have diabetes and his brain MRI was normal. His random blood sugar measurement on admission to hospital was 30 mmol/L with HbA1c measurement of 14.8%. His seizures terminated completely when his hyperglycemia was corrected with insulin and rehydration therapy. J Clin Med Res. 2016;8(6):478-479 doi: Full Text: HTML PDF Continue reading >>
Does Diabetes Cause Seizures?
Diabetes is a chronic condition in which insulin, the hormone that modulates the metabolism of sugar in the body, is either completely absent or ineffective in its function. Patients with diabetes usually present with abnormally high levels of glucose, or sugar, in their blood stream. With treatment, sugar levels are normalized, but can sometimes drop too low. Both high and low blood sugar can cause seizures in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemic seizures Hyperglycemia is the condition in which blood sugar is at abnormally high levels. High blood sugar leads to hyper-excitability of the neurons that make up the central nervous system, including the brain. Neurons need a normal level of glucose, their main source of energy, to function correctly. With the brain's overexcited imbalance, hyperglycemic seizures can be be triggered. In other words, too much sugar makes the neurons work too much, predisposing them to “short circuit,” causing a seizure. Hypoglycemic seizures Low blood sugar can also lead to seizures. Hypoglycemic seizures are actually more common than hyperglycemic seizures. The reason seems to be related to the fact the brain depends completely on body’s sugar to work, since it doesn’t produce its own glucose. It is difficult to predict at what level of glucose a patient will have a seizure, as patients with chronic high levels of glucose may have seizures at a higher level than does who have normal blood sugar. Low blood sugar reduces the activity of neurons in the brain. In the absence of this regulated function, the neurons respond by reducing the activity across synapses, the microscopic spaces in between neurons that propagate the brain’s activities and preserve bodily function. This in turn leads to a seizure. Other electrolyte imbalances Poorly Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia-induced Involuntary Movements: 2 Case Reports And A Review Of The Literature
1From the SUNY Downstate Medical Center, James J. Peters VAMC, Bronx, New York, and Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, New York 2Department of Neurology, James J. Peters VAMC, Bronx, New York, and Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York City, New York 3VHA NY Harbor Healthcare System - Brooklyn Campus, Brooklyn, New York. Objective: Autonomic and peripheral neurologic manifestations of hyperglycemia are commonly seen in clinical practice; acute hyperglycemia-induced involuntary movements (HIIM) are rarer and less well known. In this article we describe 2 patients with HIIM and review the scientific literature to better characterize the clinical and pathophysiologic features of these disorders. Methods: A literature search was performed using the PubMed database. Whenever possible, the most recent publication on a topic was utilized, with a 20-year cutoff time since publication. Articles were selected based on the quality of presented data or citations utilized. Results: HIIM can present in a variety of ways including seizures, hemichorea-hemiballismus (HCHB) and, very rarely, tremor. While HIIM are more commonly seen in patients with long-standing, uncontrolled diabetes, they can also be the initial presentation of diabetes. The precise pathophysiology of HIIM remains unknown; however, at least for HCHB, it is hypothesized that hyperglycemia increases the metabolism of the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), thereby lowering the seizure threshold. It may also cause regional cerebral vascular insufficiency. Treatment of HIIM differs from that for seizures and other movement disorders in that it relies primarily on glucose control. Conclusion: It is important to recognize hyperglycemia as a cause of involuntary movements so as to provi Continue reading >>
High Blood Sugar In Dogs
Hyperglycemia in Dogs A dog with abnormally high levels of glucose in the blood is said to have hyperglycemia. A simple carbohydrate sugar that circulates in the blood, glucose is a major source of energy for the body, of which normal levels range between 75-120mg. Insulin, a hormone that is produced and released by the pancreas into the bloodstream when glucose levels rise, plays a key role in maintaining normal sugar levels. Low levels or absolute deficiency of insulin results in abnormally high blood sugar levels. Some of the causes for hyperglycemia may be pancreatitis, and the resulting inability to produce insulin; normally occurring hormones, especially in female dogs; diet; and infections of the body (such as teeth, or urinary tract). Middle aged and older dogs are more at risk for developing hyperglycemia, and it is more common in female dogs than in males. Any breed can be affected, but some smaller breeds appear to be more disposed, including beagles, cairn terriers, dachshunds, miniature poodles and schnauzers. Symptoms and Types Clinical symptoms may vary depending on the underlying disease/condition. Your dog may not be showing any serious symptoms, especially those if the increased sugar is thought to be temporary, hormonal, or stress induced hyperglycemia. Some of the more common symptoms include: Depression Weight loss Excessive hunger Dehydration Bloodshot eyes (due to inflamed blood vessels) Liver enlargement Nerve damage in legs Severe depression (in cases of very high blood sugar levels) Non-healing wounds;infection is increased as the excess sugar feeds fungal and bacterial invaders Tissue damage (due to oxidizing [burning] effect of the excess sugar in the tissue) Causes Other than high stress situations, harmful drug interactions (such as with he Continue reading >>
Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment. Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms.  During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose.  However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>
Seizures And Non-ketotic Hyperglycemia
Several types of epileptic seizures have been observed in nonketotic hyperglycemia. They rarely begin as generalized tonic-clonic seizures, but often as partial seizures that generalize secondarily . Indeed, these seizures, especially motor seizures, are most often partial, and they may be followed by a postictal motor deficit , , . They may be tonic, clonic, tonic-clonic, and affect limbs, the face, or one half of the body. They are sometimes elicited or set off by movement , , , even passive or active elevation of a limb (arm or leg). The seizures are then followed by a refractory period during which movement will not provoke a seizure . Visual seizures have been described, in the form of colored flashes or, more rarely, elaborate hallucinations, sometimes associated with versive phenomena of the eyes and head . There are also anecdotal reports of aphasic (associated most often with partial motor effects , ), pilomotor , and gyratory seizures . Epileptic seizures associated with nonketotic hyperglycemia are often recurrent, and states of “petit mal” are seen in the form of epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) , ,   . In these cases, the seizures tend to occur at an early stage of hyperglycemia, while osmolarity is still normal or only slightly elevated. They stop when hyperosmolar coma starts, and the prognosis is then unfavorable . Seizures usually stop once hyperglycemia is under control , . The time elapsed between control and seizure cessation ranges from 24 hours to several days , ; it averaged 4 days in the studies by Lammouchi et al.  Neurological examination of these patients is usually normal, although some have peripheral neuropathies, probably related to the length of time th Continue reading >>
Hyperglycemia Associated With Seizure Control In Status Epilepticus
Abstract Background Status epilepticus (SE) is a serious neurological condition and has a high mortality rate. Factors associated with seizure control measures in nonneurointensive care units (non-NICU) are limited. Methods Adult patients diagnosed with SE at Khon Kaen hospital, Thailand from October 1st, 2010 to September 30th, 2012 were enrolled. Patients were categorized as having controlled seizures and having uncontrolled seizures. Controlled seizures were defined as seizures that were aborted without any recurrence, while uncontrolled seizures were defined as unstoppable or recurrent seizures. Clinical factors were analyzed to find factors associated with uncontrolled SE. Results During the study period, there were 211 patients diagnosed with SE. Of those, 57 patients (27.01%) were in the group with controlled SE. Plasma glucose and serum albumin were two significant factors with adjusted ORs (95% CI) of 1.008 (1.001, 1.027) and 0.166 (0.059, 0.466) that differentiated patients with controlled seizures from patients with uncontrolled seizures. Central nervous system infections and cardiac arrests were also completely associated with the uncontrolled SE in the multivariate logistic analysis. Conclusions In the etiology of SE, high plasma glucose and low serum albumin levels were associated with uncontrolled seizures in patients with SE in the non-NICU setting. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Status Epilepticus”. Continue reading >>
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Nonketotic Hyperglycemia-related Epileptic Seizures
Abstract To investigate nonketotic hyperglycemia (NKH)-related epileptic clinical features and pathogenesis, and improve the diagnosis and treatment. Clinical data, including the clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, imaging studies and other information, of 13 patients with hyperglycemia-related epilepsy in our department were retrospectively analyzed. Blood glucose levels of the 13 patients when admitted to the hospital ranged between 24.7-34.6 mmol/L (average 28.3 mmol/L), their plasma osmolality ranged between 290–332 mOsm/L (average 308 mOsm/L), and their ketone results were negative. Among them, seven had convulsions, 4 had upper limbs and facial twitching, and 2 had bust twitch. Imaging findings could not detect accountable lesions related to seizures. EEG mainly showed spikes, slow waves, and scattered sharp slow waves. Insulin combined short-term antiepileptic drugs, allowed the epilepsy to be effectively controlled without recurrence. Patients with episodes of NKH epilepsy increased significantly with hyperglycemia. Raising awareness of the disease, early diagnosis, and very early lowering the hyperglycemia levels, can effectively control the seizures. Lowering blood glucose is an effective way to control blood glucose levels. Material and methods This research has been approved by the ethics committee of the Second Hospital affiliated to Nantong University. Informed consent has been obtained and this investigation has been conducted according to the principles expressed in the Declaration of Helsinki. Thirteen cases of NKH-related epileptic seizures were treated from December 2009 to October 2014 in our neurosurgery department. Among them, 8 were males, and 5 females, aged 45–80 years old (mean age: 54 ± 2 years old). Their diabetes duration was bet Continue reading >>
Seizures In Hyperglycemic Patients.
Abstract AIM OF STUDY: To study the pattern of seizures in hyperglycemic patients and its correlation with serum osmolality, blood sugar and serum sodium. MATERIALS AND METHODS: (Study period June 1999-June 2000) Forty patients who presented with first time seizures and who were detected to be diabetic were included in the study. All patients had detailed history, clinical examination blood sugar, BUN, serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, serum calcium estimation. EEG and CT head scan was also done. The seizures were classified as per ILAE classification (1981). The study group was further divided into Group A--those with normal CT (n 24) and Group B-- those showing infarcts in CT scan (n 16). The control group (n 40) were matched for age and had first occurrence of seizures and CT showed infarct and were euglycemic. All the investigations were done for the control group as well. Statistical analysis was done using ANOVA. RESULTS: None of the patient had diabetic ketoacidosis. Patients in study group had statistically significant incidence of (1) Focal seizures with or without generalisation (100%); (2) Visual hallucination (25%); (3) Epilepsia partialis continua (20%). Comparing the subgroups (A and B) complex partial seizures and visual hallucination was significant at 5% level in the group A (NKH with normal CT). Ninety percent in the study group had increased serum osmolality (Vs 22.5% in the control group). Duration (eight days Vs 1) and frequency (15 per day vs 1.45) were positively correlated with RBS > S.osmolality > S.sodium. CONCLUSION: 1. Long duration and frequent focal motor seizures with or without secondary generalisation occurs in NKH which at times may be the first manifestation of DM. 2. Complex partial seizures, visual hallucination and epilepsia par Continue reading >>