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Hyperglycemic Attack

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome

Tweet Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS), also known as Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS) is a dangerous condition resulting from very high blood glucose levels. HHNS can affect both types of diabetics, yet it usually occurs amongst people with type 2 diabetes. Usually, HHNS is brought on by an illness or infection. What are the major warning signs of HHS for people with diabetes? Elevated blood sugar levels Extreme thirst Warm skin without sweat Fever Confusion or feeling sleepy Vision loss Hallucinations Nausea Weakness down one side of the body Who is at risk of Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State? Periods of illness can significantly raise blood glucose levels, which could lead to Hyperosmolar Hyperglycaemic State (HHS) if medication is not sufficient to lower sugar levels. Having blood glucose levels above 33 mmol/l (600 mg/dl) for extended periods of time presents a risk of HHS occurring. Some serious complications of diabetes, such as Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS), usually manifest themselves amongst older people, who may be less aware of high blood glucose levels and how to treat them. What happens to diabetics who get HHNS? When HHNS affects a person with diabetes, blood sugar levels rise and the body passes excess sugar into the urine. This causes regular bathroom trips, and over time this affects the colour of the liquid. Dehydration can occur if you do not drink liquid regularly, and this can become severe and lead to coma, seizures and even death. What is the best way for people with diabetes to avoid HHNS? If you keep on top of your blood sugar levels, it is possible to avoid HHNS. By checking blood glucose regularly, people with diabetes can take action if a reading falls outside their target blood glucose ra Continue reading >>

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Are People With Diabetes More Prone To Aggression?

Relationship Between Blood Glucose Level and Self-Control Blood sugar can make people do crazy things. According to a recent scientific study on the link between low blood glucose level and relationship clashes (Bushman et al, 2014), being hungry makes an individual generally cranky and act more hostile to others. In the study, couples who are hungry tend to have a much higher tendency to exhibit aggression towards each other and become more impulsive in their reactions. This phenomenon is often referred to “hangry” (meaning feeling angry when you are hungry). If this irritable state can happen to any healthy person who experiences a change in their blood glucose level, imagine the ordeals individuals with diabetes frequently go through on a daily basis. However, do not jump to the conclusion that diabetes leads to aggression. In fact, scientists find a more direct correlation between blood glucose level and self-control. I recommend reading the following articles: In a way, you can visualize self-control as a muscle that requires a lot of energy to sustain so that it does not become ineffective quickly. This energy source comes from the glucose in the blood. So what kind of activities can wear out this “muscle”? Any daily activities that require self-discipline such as forcing yourself to get out of bed early to exercise, resisting from having a soda drink or another cookie with your meal, stopping yourself from smoking, dealing with stressful situations at work and at home, and abstaining yourself from road rage. As you can see, self-control plays a crucial part in restraining inappropriate and aggressive behaviors. So when people are low in glucose, the self-control mechanism cannot function properly to prevent these outbursts of hostile actions. In a researc Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Hyperglycemic Emergencies

Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state have the same cause: insufficient insulin. There are two types of hyperglycemic emergencies: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). These situations require emergency medical intervention, since they can lead to serious conditions such as coma, even death, if left untreated. Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state have the same cause: insufficient insulin. These complications can arise in specific situations, during sick days, for example. Diabetic ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis mainly occurs in people with type 1 diabetes. It is characterized by hyperglycemia often greater than 20 mmol/L, with the presence of ketones in the blood or urine. Ketones are produced from the breakdown of fats. Their accumulation in the blood is toxic for the body. This situation arises when the body lacks insulin and must use its fat reserves for the energy it normally gets from glucose. Diabetic ketoacidosis can arise due to a forgotten or skipped insulin dose, an improper adjustment to the insulin dose, an insulin pump that stops working, or a serious medical problem (e.g., heart attack, pneumonia). The following symptoms are associated with diabetic ketoacidosis: deep, rapid breathing nausea, vomiting abdominal pain decreased consciousness, confusion, agitation, unusual behaviour Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state occurs primarily in people with type 2 diabetes. This state is characterized by hyperglycemia often greater than 30 mmol/L, and severe dehydration. During a hyperglycemic episode, the accumulation of glucose in the blood increases the frequency and volume of urination. This can cause excessive water loss and significant dehydration. Th Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Learn More in these related articles: …in the blood increase, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). As glucose accumulates in the blood, excess levels of this sugar are excreted in the urine. Because of greater amounts of glucose in the urine, more water is excreted with it, causing an increase in urinary volume and frequency of urination… glucose Glucose, one of a group of carbohydrates known as simple sugars (monosaccharides). Glucose (from Greek glykys; “sweet”) has the molecular formula C6H12O6. It is found in fruits and honey and is the major free sugar circulating in the blood of higher animals. It is the source of Carbohydrate, class of naturally occurring compounds and derivatives formed from them. In the early part of the 19th century, substances such as wood, starch, and linen were found to be composed mainly of molecules containing atoms of carbon (C), hydrogen (H), and oxygen (O) and to have the general formula More About Hyperglycemia Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Stroke

Hyperglycemia And Hypoglycemia In Stroke

Practice Essentials Preexisting hyperglycemia worsens the clinical outcome of acute stroke. Nondiabetic ischemic stroke patients with hyperglycemia have a 3-fold higher 30-day mortality rate than do patients without hyperglycemia. In diabetic patients with ischemic stroke, the 30-day mortality rate is 2-fold higher. [1] With regard to hypoglycemia, the condition can mimic acute stroke or symptoms of transient ischemic attack (TIA). [2, 3, 4, 5] Signs and symptoms Hyperglycemia in stroke Patients may come to the attention of clinicians because of preexisting diabetes mellitus Diabetes may also be seen with other risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia High glycemic levels may also be seen in the setting of an acute stroke without a history of diabetes, presumably due to a sympathetic response to the infarct Retinopathy, neuropathy, and peripheral vascular disease may be found in patients with long-standing diabetes Hypoglycemia in strokelike occurrences In the literature, signs of an acute stroke, such as hemiplegia, aphasia, and cortical blindness, have been reported with hypoglycemia. In individuals presenting with low glycemic levels and strokelike symptoms, diabetes mellitus may have been previously diagnosed, and recent changes in the doses of hypoglycemic agents and insulin may have been instituted. In particular, aggressively tight glucose control, either patient driven or clinician directed, may give rise to chronic or recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia. However, if factitious hypoglycemia is suspected, such behavior may have manifested earlier as similar episodes or other factitious behaviors. Symptoms caused by hypoglycemia can occur suddenly and fluctuate, suggesting a vascular etiology. Diagnosis Laboratory studies In the settin Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Your doctor sets your target blood sugar range. For many people who have diabetes, Mayo Clinic generally recommends target blood sugar levels that are: Between 80 and 120 mg/dL (4 and 7 mmol/L) for people age 59 and younger who have no other underlying medical conditions Between 100 and 140 mg/dL (6 and 8 mmol/L) for people age 60 and older, those who have other medical conditions, such as heart, lung or kidney disease, or those who have a history of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) or who have difficulty recognizing the symptoms of hypoglycemia Your target blood sugar range may differ, especially if you're pregnant or you develop diabetes complications. Your target blood sugar range may change as you get older, too. Sometimes, reaching your target blood sugar range is a challenge. Home blood sugar monitoring Routine blood sugar monitoring with a blood glucose meter is the best way to be sure that your treatment plan is keeping your blood sugar within your goal range. Check your blood sugar as often as your doctor recommends. If you have any signs or symptoms of severe hyperglycemia — even if they're subtle — check your blood sugar level. If your blood sugar level is 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) or above, use an over-the-counter urine ketones test kit. If the urine test is positive, your body may have started making the changes that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. You'll need your doctor's help to lower your blood sugar level safely. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test During an appointment, your doctor may conduct an A1C test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It works by measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. An A1C level of 7 perc Continue reading >>

Hypo Or Hyperglycemic

Hypo Or Hyperglycemic

How to Spot the Warning Signs and Treat Blood Sugar Issues Although some hypo or hyperglycemic attacks can be traced to a specific event, other episodes seem to hit suddenly and arbitrarily, even if you’re keeping a healthy diet and a meticulous medication schedule. Rather than worry about all the things you can’t control, learn how to predict, prepare and treat hypo and hyperglycemic episodes before they get out of hand. Why A Quick Response to Hypoglycemia is Crucial When your blood sugar suddenly drops, you must react swiftly and appropriately so you do not lose consciousness. Unfortunately, that action is more easily said than done: diabetics often become increasingly shaky, sweaty, hungry, angry and confused during a hypo attack, which makes it difficult to understand and communicate what is happening. All this can complicate timely treatment, but knowing how best to react in every hypoglycemic situation will give you an advantage: If you recognize the early warning signs (weakness, shakiness and chills): eat a small amount of concentrated sugar to diminish the danger. A piece of chocolate or candy will do the job, and since the body converts simple sugar into glucose very quickly, you should begin to feel better in a matter of minutes. If you are beginning to lose motor control: a sugary drink (fruit juice or sugar dissolved in milk or water) is a better choice than solid food. It’s helpful if someone holds the cup for you as you drink. If you become confused and uncooperative: your blood sugar is dangerously low, and symptoms can escalate quickly, eventually leading to coma. If you’re unable to take in any sugar, your attack will become a medical emergency. It’s imperative that your family and friends know how to help you during a hypoglycemic episode, Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia

Hyperglycemia

Not to be confused with the opposite disorder, hypoglycemia. Hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar (also spelled hyperglycaemia or hyperglycæmia) is a condition in which an excessive amount of glucose circulates in the blood plasma. This is generally a blood sugar level higher than 11.1 mmol/l (200 mg/dl), but symptoms may not start to become noticeable until even higher values such as 15–20 mmol/l (~250–300 mg/dl). A subject with a consistent range between ~5.6 and ~7 mmol/l (100–126 mg/dl) (American Diabetes Association guidelines) is considered slightly hyperglycemic, while above 7 mmol/l (126 mg/dl) is generally held to have diabetes. For diabetics, glucose levels that are considered to be too hyperglycemic can vary from person to person, mainly due to the person's renal threshold of glucose and overall glucose tolerance. On average however, chronic levels above 10–12 mmol/L (180–216 mg/dL) can produce noticeable organ damage over time. Signs and symptoms[edit] The degree of hyperglycemia can change over time depending on the metabolic cause, for example, impaired glucose tolerance or fasting glucose, and it can depend on treatment.[1] Temporary hyperglycemia is often benign and asymptomatic. Blood glucose levels can rise well above normal and cause pathological and functional changes for significant periods without producing any permanent effects or symptoms. [1] During this asymptomatic period, an abnormality in carbohydrate metabolism can occur which can be tested by measuring plasma glucose. [1] However, chronic hyperglycemia at above normal levels can produce a very wide variety of serious complications over a period of years, including kidney damage, neurological damage, cardiovascular damage, damage to the retina or damage to feet and legs. Diabetic n Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

HHS is a condition of: Extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level Decreased alertness or consciousness (in many cases) Buildup of ketones in the body (ketoacidosis) may also occur. But it is unusual and is often mild compared with diabetic ketoacidosis. HHS is more often seen in people with type 2 diabetes who don't have their diabetes under control. It may also occur in those who have not been diagnosed with diabetes. The condition may be brought on by: Infection Other illness, such as heart attack or stroke Medicines that decrease the effect of insulin in the body Medicines or conditions that increase fluid loss Normally, the kidneys try to make up for a high glucose level in the blood by allowing the extra glucose to leave the body in the urine. But this also causes the body to lose water. If you do not drink enough water, or you drink fluids that contain sugar and keep eating foods with carbohydrates, the kidneys may become overwhelmed. When this occurs, they are no longer able to get rid of the extra glucose. As a result, the glucose level in your blood can become very high. The loss of water also makes the blood more concentrated than normal. This is called hyperosmolarity. It is a condition in which the blood has a high concentration of salt (sodium), glucose, and other substances. This draws the water out of the body's other organs, including the brain. Risk factors include: Impaired thirst Limited access to water (especially in people with dementia or who are bedbound) Older age Poor kidney function Poor management of diabetes, not following the treatment plan as directed Stopping insulin or other medicines that lower glucose level Continue reading >>

Causes Of Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Causes Of Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

For patients with type 2 diabetes, the causes of diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) are conditions that increase dehydration and cause extremely high blood sugar levels. It’s important to know the symptoms and signs of HHS to effectively manage and avoid this complication. These are some of the conditions that can cause HHS when a patient already has diabetes: Mismanaged type 2 diabetes Infection Recent surgery Heart attack Stroke Medications that cause dehydration These other risk factors can contribute to this sharp increase in blood glucose levels: Congestive heart failure Stressful infection or medical emergency Inability to drink water (access is limited or patient is physically unable to get water) Old age Kidneys that do not work efficiently Stopping insulin/medications that lower glucose levels Education and management of diabetes are the best ways to prevent this life threatening condition. Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is the most serious acute hyperglycemic emergency in patients with type 2 diabetes. von Frerichs and Dreschfeld described the first cases of HHS in the 1880s in patients with an “unusual diabetic coma” characterized by severe hyperglycemia and glycosuria in the absence of Kussmaul breathing, with a fruity breath odor or positive acetone test in the urine. Current diagnostic HHS criteria include a plasma glucose level >600 mg/dL and increased effective plasma osmolality >320 mOsm/kg in the absence of ketoacidosis. The incidence of HHS is estimated to be <1% of hospital admissions of patients with diabetes. The reported mortality is between 10 and 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality rate in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Despite the severity of this condition, no prospective, randomized studies have determined best treatment strategies in patients with HHS, and its management has largely been extrapolated from studies of patients with DKA. There are many unresolved questions that need to be addressed in prospective clinical trials regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of pediatric and adult patients with HHS. The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a syndrome characterized by severe hyperglycemia, hyperosmolality, and dehydration in the absence of ketoacidosis. The exact incidence of HHS is not known, but it is estimated to account for <1% of hospital admissions in patients with diabetes (1). Most cases of HHS are seen in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has also been reported in children and young adults (2). The overall mortality rate is estimated to be as high as 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (3 Continue reading >>

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

Controlling Hyperglycemia In The Hospital: A Matter Of Life And Death

Controlling Hyperglycemia In The Hospital: A Matter Of Life And Death

IN BRIEF Six million U.S. hospitalizations per year are accompanied by hyperglycemia. The degree of hyperglycemia may be an important predictor of morbidity and mortality among patients with myocardial infarction or stroke and those undergoing surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass. Hyperglycemia should be aggressively controlled from the time of admission regardless of patients' primary medical problem or previous diabetes status. New methodologies for identifying, monitoring, and treating hyperglycemia are needed. The data on the importance of controlling glucose in hospital settings spans diverse disciplines of medicine. Studies in the areas of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), bypass surgery, and wound and nosocomial infections all point to the tremendous potential to reduce morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia. It is essential to identify hyperglycemia at the time of hospital admission and to implement therapy to achieve and maintain glucose levels as close to normal as possible, regardless of a patient's primary reason for admission or previous diabetes status. In the United States, there are more than 4.2 million hospitalizations annually among people with diabetes.1 Additionally, as many as 1.5 million hospitalized individuals have significant hyperglycemia but no history of diabetes.2 Identification of and therapeutic interventions to treat hyperglycemia must be initiated in tandem with treatment of the presenting medical problem rather than days after admission when many of the acute issues have been addressed. The data presented strongly suggest that an early and aggressive approach to the management of hyperglycemia may reduce mortality, morbidity, excessive hospital stays, and added costs. Why is hyperglyce Continue reading >>

Rhymezone: Sentences That Use Hyperglycemic

Rhymezone: Sentences That Use Hyperglycemic

Near rhymes Synonyms / Related Phrases [Example sentences] Descriptive words Definitions Popular Wikipedia articles that use the word hyperglycemic: Minogue is hyperglycemic. —Kylie Minogue Ramsey died October 8, 2015 in her sleep from a hyperglycemic attack. —Elizabeth Ramsey The sudden onset of hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state may occur; however, ketoacidosis is uncommon. —Diabetes mellitus type 2 Remember that the actual concentration of glucose in blood is very low, even in the hyperglycemic. —Blood sugar In the 1920s, Kimball and Murlin studied pancreatic extracts, and found an additional substance with hyperglycemic properties. —Glucagon Regular insulin is the treatment of choice for the two diabetic emergencies diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states. —Regular insulin However, during extreme hyperglycemic episodes, people with diabetes should avoid exercise due to potential complications associated with ketoacidosis. —Exercise physiology Likewise, glucagon is contraindicated in patients with an insulinoma, as its hyperglycemic effect can induce the tumor to release insulin, leading to rebound hypoglycemia. —Glucagon (medication) , who demonstrated that another anionic dye, fuchsine acid, could successfully bind to damaged neurons after a hyperglycemic insult presumably by the same electrostatic mechanism as fluoro-jade. —Fluoro-Jade stain A hyperglycemic maternal environment has also been associated with neonates that are at greater risk for development of negative... —Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy In a hyperglycemic state, the affinity of aldose reductase for glucose rises, causing much sorbitol to accumulate, and using much more... —Polyol pathway ...to provide alerts to their diabetic owners when their blood sugar le Continue reading >>

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