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Hyperglycemic Attack

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

High Blood Sugar (hyperglycemia)

Glucose, a type of sugar, is the main source of energy used in your body and comes from carbohydrates. The hormone insulin helps your body’s cells use it – your pancreas produces insulin and releases it into your blood when the amount of glucose in your blood rises, which is usually right after you eat. This all happens so that your blood glucose levels don’t get too high. When you have high blood glucose levels, also known as hyperglycemia, you not only have a higher risk of developing diabetes, but it also increases your risk of heart disease. Elevated blood sugar requires your body to create more insulin, which speeds the development of plaque in your arteries. This increases the risk for heart attack and stroke. High levels of blood sugar over time can also damage your kidneys, eyes and nerves. Anyone with diabetes, prediabetes or a family history of diabetes should monitor and manage their blood sugar in order to reduce the risk of developing heart disease. Diagnosing High Blood Sugar A blood glucose test is a blood test that tells you if your level of glucose, or blood sugar, is within a healthy range. Fasting plasma glucose, or FPG, is a common test used to diagnose and monitor diabetes or prediabetes. A healthcare provider may recommend a blood glucose test if you have symptoms of diabetes. These include increased thirst, unexplained weight loss, increased urination, tiredness, blurred vision and sores that don't heal. Sometimes people with prediabetes or diabetes don't have any symptoms. If you are overweight, obese, or have other risk factors for diabetes like high blood sugar, your healthcare provider may recommend this test. Other risk factors for diabetes include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, physical inactivity and a family history of diabet Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Children: Causes, Signs & Symptoms

Hyperglycemia In Children: Causes, Signs & Symptoms

Hyperglycemia can tremendously affect the future health of children worldwide. Read this lesson to learn what hyperglycemia is, its signs and symptoms, and major causes of this condition. Childhood Hyperglycemia An excess of circulating sugar in the blood is known as hyperglycemia. Sugar, or glucose, comes from our diet, and the glucose ingested by food or drink is normally broken down by the insulin hormone to be used as energy. Josh, a 7-year-old boy anxious to start the school year, has not felt like himself for quite a few weeks. His mom is concerned and schedules an appointment with the family doctor. Signs of Hyperglycemia Other than feeling fatigued and unusually thirsty, Josh and his mother have no other complaints. The doctor completes a physical exam finding Josh to be quite healthy despite the symptoms. Doctor Smith decides to ask a few questions to determine whether or not Josh may be presenting with hyperglycemia. Doctor Smith asks Josh and his mom if he is experiencing any of the other following symptoms of hyperglycemia: Increased urination Headaches Nausea or vomiting Dry mouth Stomach pains Doctor Smith suspects that Josh may be hyperglycemic, placing him at high risk for diabetes. Josh was able to explain that his head had been hurting, and his mom confirmed an increase in urination. Doctor Smith was concerned that Josh might be dealing with: Hyperglycemia- a condition resulting in high blood sugar levels, usually the result of poor diet and exercise routines, or Diabetes Type I- a disease in which the body's immune system attacks the pancreas, an organ that produces and secretes insulin Diabetes Type II- also described as varying degrees of insulin resistance, making it difficult to transport glucose into cells to be used as energy Josh was sent for b Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Hyperglycemia In Diabetes

Print Diagnosis Your doctor sets your target blood sugar range. For many people who have diabetes, Mayo Clinic generally recommends target blood sugar levels that are: Between 80 and 120 mg/dL (4 and 7 mmol/L) for people age 59 and younger who have no other underlying medical conditions Between 100 and 140 mg/dL (6 and 8 mmol/L) for people age 60 and older, those who have other medical conditions, such as heart, lung or kidney disease, or those who have a history of low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) or who have difficulty recognizing the symptoms of hypoglycemia Your target blood sugar range may differ, especially if you're pregnant or you develop diabetes complications. Your target blood sugar range may change as you get older, too. Sometimes, reaching your target blood sugar range is a challenge. Home blood sugar monitoring Routine blood sugar monitoring with a blood glucose meter is the best way to be sure that your treatment plan is keeping your blood sugar within your goal range. Check your blood sugar as often as your doctor recommends. If you have any signs or symptoms of severe hyperglycemia — even if they're subtle — check your blood sugar level. If your blood sugar level is 240 mg/dL (13 mmol/L) or above, use an over-the-counter urine ketones test kit. If the urine test is positive, your body may have started making the changes that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. You'll need your doctor's help to lower your blood sugar level safely. Glycated hemoglobin (A1C) test During an appointment, your doctor may conduct an A1C test. This blood test indicates your average blood sugar level for the past two to three months. It works by measuring the percentage of blood sugar attached to hemoglobin, the oxygen-carrying protein in red blood cells. An A1C level of 7 perc Continue reading >>

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycaemia is the medical term for a high blood sugar (glucose) level. It's a common problem for people with diabetes. It can affect people with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes, as well as pregnant women with gestational diabetes. It can occasionally affect people who don't have diabetes, but usually only people who are seriously ill, such as those who have recently had a stroke or heart attack, or have a severe infection. Hyperglycaemia shouldn't be confused with hypoglycaemia, which is when a person's blood sugar level drops too low. This information focuses on hyperglycaemia in people with diabetes. Is hyperglycaemia serious? The aim of diabetes treatment is to keep blood sugar levels as near to normal as possible. But if you have diabetes, no matter how careful you are, you're likely to experience hyperglycaemia at some point. It's important to be able to recognise and treat hyperglycaemia, as it can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Occasional mild episodes aren't usually a cause for concern and can be treated quite easily or may return to normal on their own. However, hyperglycaemia can be potentially dangerous if blood sugar levels become very high or stay high for long periods. Very high blood sugar levels can cause life-threatening complications, such as: diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) – a condition caused by the body needing to break down fat as a source of energy, which can lead to a diabetic coma; this tends to affect people with type 1 diabetes hyperosmolar hyperglycaemic state (HHS) – severe dehydration caused by the body trying to get rid of excess sugar; this tends to affect people with type 2 diabetes Regularly having high blood sugar levels for long periods of time (over months or years) can result in permanent damage to parts Continue reading >>

First Aid For People With Diabetes

First Aid For People With Diabetes

The prevalence of diabetes increased 382% from 1988 to 2014. According to the National Diabetes Statistics Report, this growth correlates with the upsurge of visits to the emergency room from people in a life-threatening diabetic crisis. As the condition continues to rise so does the likelihood of providing first aid for someone with diabetes. Understanding Diabetes First-aid providers have important choices to make before providing care to a diabetic. The best way to effectively manage a diabetic emergency is through understanding the mechanisms behind the medical condition. Every cell in the body requires glucose as a foundation of energy. People with diabetes, though needing glucose, have an inability to process, or metabolize, it efficiently because the pancreas is either producing too little insulin or none at all—either way, glucose can accumulate to dangerously high levels. A healthy pancreas regulates the production of insulin proportionate to the amount of glucose in the blood. Classification of Diabetes Type 1 diabetes is primarily an autoimmune condition manifesting in children and young adults. These people do not produce insulin; they require routine injections of insulin to aid in glucose metabolism. Without insulin injections type 1 diabetics cannot use the sugar in their blood for energy. People with Type 2 diabetes produce small amounts of insulin, or they cannot properly use the insulin hormone, also known as insulin resistance. This condition usually develops later in life. Many people with type 2 diabetes use diet, exercise, and other non-insulin medications. Some Type 2 diabetics however, may require supplemental insulin. What is a Diabetic Emergency? With six million people using insulin in the United States, the incidence of too much or too litt Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia: When Your Blood Glucose Level Goes Too High

Hyperglycemia means high (hyper) glucose (gly) in the blood (emia). Your body needs glucose to properly function. Your cells rely on glucose for energy. Hyperglycemia is a defining characteristic of diabetes—when the blood glucose level is too high because the body isn't properly using or doesn't make the hormone insulin. You get glucose from the foods you eat. Carbohydrates, such as fruit, milk, potatoes, bread, and rice, are the biggest source of glucose in a typical diet. Your body breaks down carbohydrates into glucose, and then transports the glucose to the cells via the bloodstream. Body Needs Insulin However, in order to use the glucose, your body needs insulin. This is a hormone produced by the pancreas. Insulin helps transport glucose into the cells, particularly the muscle cells. People with type 1 diabetes no longer make insulin to help their bodies use glucose, so they have to take insulin, which is injected under the skin. People with type 2 diabetes may have enough insulin, but their body doesn't use it well; they're insulin resistant. Some people with type 2 diabetes may not produce enough insulin. People with diabetes may become hyperglycemic if they don't keep their blood glucose level under control (by using insulin, medications, and appropriate meal planning). For example, if someone with type 1 diabetes doesn't take enough insulin before eating, the glucose their body makes from that food can build up in their blood and lead to hyperglycemia. Your endocrinologist will tell you what your target blood glucose levels are. Your levels may be different from what is usually considered as normal because of age, pregnancy, and/or other factors. Fasting hyperglycemia is defined as when you don't eat for at least eight hours. Recommended range without diabet Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

HHS is a condition of: Extremely high blood sugar (glucose) level Decreased alertness or consciousness (in many cases) Buildup of ketones in the body (ketoacidosis) may also occur. But it is unusual and is often mild compared with diabetic ketoacidosis. HHS is more often seen in people with type 2 diabetes who don't have their diabetes under control. It may also occur in those who have not been diagnosed with diabetes. The condition may be brought on by: Infection Other illness, such as heart attack or stroke Medicines that decrease the effect of insulin in the body Medicines or conditions that increase fluid loss Normally, the kidneys try to make up for a high glucose level in the blood by allowing the extra glucose to leave the body in the urine. But this also causes the body to lose water. If you do not drink enough water, or you drink fluids that contain sugar and keep eating foods with carbohydrates, the kidneys may become overwhelmed. When this occurs, they are no longer able to get rid of the extra glucose. As a result, the glucose level in your blood can become very high. The loss of water also makes the blood more concentrated than normal. This is called hyperosmolarity. It is a condition in which the blood has a high concentration of salt (sodium), glucose, and other substances. This draws the water out of the body's other organs, including the brain. Risk factors include: Impaired thirst Limited access to water (especially in people with dementia or who are bedbound) Older age Poor kidney function Poor management of diabetes, not following the treatment plan as directed Stopping insulin or other medicines that lower glucose level Continue reading >>

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

Diabetes Mellitus And Infectious Diseases: Controlling Chronic Hyperglycemia

As the incidence of diabetes mellitus continues to rise, common focus areas for diabetes control are blood glucose levels, diet, and exercise. Addressing and controlling these factors as well as other factors associated with diabetes are essential for a better quality of life; however, awareness of an increased risk of infections is also warranted in diabetes patients with chronic hyperglycemia. The immune system is comprised of two subcategories: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. Innate immunity, the first line of defense, is activated when a pathogen initially presents itself. This portion of immunity is inherited at birth and is not specific in its mechanism of defense. In addition, it serves the overall immune system by alerting specific cells of pathogen invasion to activate the adaptive immune system. The innate immune system has physical and chemical mechanisms of response. These include but are not limited to sneezing, coughing, sweating, maintenance of normal body temperature, and gram-positive normal flora on the skin. Adaptive immunity is a very specific aspect of a properly functioning immune system that provides protection against previous infections experienced by the host. These responses are mediated by lymphocytes, which consist of natural killer (NK) cells, B cells and T cells. Vaccinations and exposure to pathogens benefit the adaptive immune system by establishing immunologic memory. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Complications of Chronic Hyperglycemia Patients with uncontrolled diabetes are considered immunosuppressed due to the negative effects of elevated blood sugars on the immune system. Hyperglycemia impairs overall immunity through diffe Continue reading >>

Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia

Nondiabetic Hyperglycemia

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW: What is nondiabetic hyperglycemia? Nondiabetic hyperglycemia means your blood glucose (sugar) level is high even though you do not have diabetes. Hyperglycemia may happen suddenly during a major illness or injury. Instead, hyperglycemia may happen over a longer period of time and be caused by a chronic disease. Why is it important to manage hyperglycemia? Hyperglycemia can increase your risk for infections, prevent healing, and it make it hard to manage your condition. It is important to treat hyperglycemia to prevent these problems. Hyperglycemia that is not treated can damage your nerves, blood vessels, tissues, and organs. Damage to arteries may increase your risk for heart attack and stroke. Nerve damage may also lead to other heart, stomach, and nerve problems. What increases my risk for nondiabetic hyperglycemia? A medical condition such as Cushing syndrome or polycystic ovarian syndrome Surgery or trauma, such as a burn or injury Infections, such as pneumonia or a urinary tract infection Certain medicines, such as steroids or diuretics Nutrition given through a feeding tube or IV A family history of diabetes or gestational diabetes Obesity or a lack of physical activity What are the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia? You may not have any signs or symptoms, or you may have any of the following: More thirst than usual Frequent urination Blurred vision Nausea and vomiting Abdominal pain How is nondiabetic hyperglycemia diagnosed and treated? Your healthcare provider will measure your blood sugar level with a blood test. You may be given insulin or other medicines to decrease your blood sugar level. How can I help prevent hyperglycemia? Exercise can help lower your blood sugar when it is high. It also can keep your blood sugar levels steady o Continue reading >>

Hypo Or Hyperglycemic

Hypo Or Hyperglycemic

How to Spot the Warning Signs and Treat Blood Sugar Issues Although some hypo or hyperglycemic attacks can be traced to a specific event, other episodes seem to hit suddenly and arbitrarily, even if you’re keeping a healthy diet and a meticulous medication schedule. Rather than worry about all the things you can’t control, learn how to predict, prepare and treat hypo and hyperglycemic episodes before they get out of hand. Why A Quick Response to Hypoglycemia is Crucial When your blood sugar suddenly drops, you must react swiftly and appropriately so you do not lose consciousness. Unfortunately, that action is more easily said than done: diabetics often become increasingly shaky, sweaty, hungry, angry and confused during a hypo attack, which makes it difficult to understand and communicate what is happening. All this can complicate timely treatment, but knowing how best to react in every hypoglycemic situation will give you an advantage: If you recognize the early warning signs (weakness, shakiness and chills): eat a small amount of concentrated sugar to diminish the danger. A piece of chocolate or candy will do the job, and since the body converts simple sugar into glucose very quickly, you should begin to feel better in a matter of minutes. If you are beginning to lose motor control: a sugary drink (fruit juice or sugar dissolved in milk or water) is a better choice than solid food. It’s helpful if someone holds the cup for you as you drink. If you become confused and uncooperative: your blood sugar is dangerously low, and symptoms can escalate quickly, eventually leading to coma. If you’re unable to take in any sugar, your attack will become a medical emergency. It’s imperative that your family and friends know how to help you during a hypoglycemic episode, Continue reading >>

Controlling Hyperglycemia In The Hospital: A Matter Of Life And Death

Controlling Hyperglycemia In The Hospital: A Matter Of Life And Death

IN BRIEF Six million U.S. hospitalizations per year are accompanied by hyperglycemia. The degree of hyperglycemia may be an important predictor of morbidity and mortality among patients with myocardial infarction or stroke and those undergoing surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass. Hyperglycemia should be aggressively controlled from the time of admission regardless of patients' primary medical problem or previous diabetes status. New methodologies for identifying, monitoring, and treating hyperglycemia are needed. The data on the importance of controlling glucose in hospital settings spans diverse disciplines of medicine. Studies in the areas of stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), bypass surgery, and wound and nosocomial infections all point to the tremendous potential to reduce morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients with hyperglycemia. It is essential to identify hyperglycemia at the time of hospital admission and to implement therapy to achieve and maintain glucose levels as close to normal as possible, regardless of a patient's primary reason for admission or previous diabetes status. In the United States, there are more than 4.2 million hospitalizations annually among people with diabetes.1 Additionally, as many as 1.5 million hospitalized individuals have significant hyperglycemia but no history of diabetes.2 Identification of and therapeutic interventions to treat hyperglycemia must be initiated in tandem with treatment of the presenting medical problem rather than days after admission when many of the acute issues have been addressed. The data presented strongly suggest that an early and aggressive approach to the management of hyperglycemia may reduce mortality, morbidity, excessive hospital stays, and added costs. Why is hyperglyce Continue reading >>

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State: A Historic Review Of The Clinical Presentation, Diagnosis, And Treatment

The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is the most serious acute hyperglycemic emergency in patients with type 2 diabetes. von Frerichs and Dreschfeld described the first cases of HHS in the 1880s in patients with an “unusual diabetic coma” characterized by severe hyperglycemia and glycosuria in the absence of Kussmaul breathing, with a fruity breath odor or positive acetone test in the urine. Current diagnostic HHS criteria include a plasma glucose level >600 mg/dL and increased effective plasma osmolality >320 mOsm/kg in the absence of ketoacidosis. The incidence of HHS is estimated to be <1% of hospital admissions of patients with diabetes. The reported mortality is between 10 and 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality rate in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Despite the severity of this condition, no prospective, randomized studies have determined best treatment strategies in patients with HHS, and its management has largely been extrapolated from studies of patients with DKA. There are many unresolved questions that need to be addressed in prospective clinical trials regarding the pathogenesis and treatment of pediatric and adult patients with HHS. The hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) is a syndrome characterized by severe hyperglycemia, hyperosmolality, and dehydration in the absence of ketoacidosis. The exact incidence of HHS is not known, but it is estimated to account for <1% of hospital admissions in patients with diabetes (1). Most cases of HHS are seen in elderly patients with type 2 diabetes; however, it has also been reported in children and young adults (2). The overall mortality rate is estimated to be as high as 20%, which is about 10 times higher than the mortality in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) (3 Continue reading >>

Causes Of Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Causes Of Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

For patients with type 2 diabetes, the causes of diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) are conditions that increase dehydration and cause extremely high blood sugar levels. It’s important to know the symptoms and signs of HHS to effectively manage and avoid this complication. These are some of the conditions that can cause HHS when a patient already has diabetes: Mismanaged type 2 diabetes Infection Recent surgery Heart attack Stroke Medications that cause dehydration These other risk factors can contribute to this sharp increase in blood glucose levels: Congestive heart failure Stressful infection or medical emergency Inability to drink water (access is limited or patient is physically unable to get water) Old age Kidneys that do not work efficiently Stopping insulin/medications that lower glucose levels Education and management of diabetes are the best ways to prevent this life threatening condition. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

What is diabetic hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome? Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS) is a potentially life-threatening condition involving extremely high blood sugar, or glucose, levels. Any illness that causes dehydration or reduced insulin activity can lead to HHS. It’s most commonly a result of uncontrolled or undiagnosed diabetes. An illness or infection can trigger HHS. Failure to monitor and control blood glucose levels can also lead to HHS. When your blood sugar gets too high, the kidneys try to compensate by removing some of the excess glucose through urination. If you don’t drink enough fluids to replace the fluid you’re losing, your blood sugar levels spike. Your blood also becomes more concentrated. This can also occur if you drink too many sugary beverages. This condition is called hyperosmolarity. Blood that’s too concentrated begins to draw water out of other organs, including the brain. Some possible symptoms are excessive thirst, increased urination, and fever. Symptoms may develop slowly and increase over a period of days or weeks. Treatment involves reversing or preventing dehydration and getting blood glucose levels under control. Prompt treatment can relieve symptoms within a few hours. Untreated HHS can lead to life-threatening complications, including dehydration, shock, or coma. Go to an emergency room or call 911 if you have symptoms of HHS. This is a medical emergency. HHS can happen to anyone. It’s more common in older people who have type 2 diabetes. Symptoms may begin gradually and worsen over a few days or weeks. A high blood sugar level is a warning sign of HHS. The symptoms include: excessive thirst high urine output dry mouth weakness sleepiness a fever warm skin that doesn’t perspire nausea vomiting weight loss leg Continue reading >>

High And Low Blood Sugar Issues

High And Low Blood Sugar Issues

Blood sugar concentrations or blood glucose levels are the amount of sugar or glucose present in your blood stream. Your body naturally regulates blood sugar (glucose) levels as a part your body”s metabolic processes. Glucose or sugar is the primary energy mechanism for cells and blood lipids. Glucose or blood sugar is transported from your intestines or liver to the cells in your body via the bloodstream. The absorption of glucose is promoted by insulin or the hormone produced in the pancreas. If your sugar levels are not balanced you may have high or low blood sugar issues. Low sugar issues are hypoglycemia and high blood sugar indicates that you have hyperglycemia or hyperglycemia symptoms. High or low blood sugar levels cause different problems. Low blood sugar levels can cause dementia, comas or death. High blood sugar is a major cause of damage to your body”s internal organs. Low Blood Sugar Low blood sugar or hypoglycemia indicates the level of glucose in your blood has dramatically dropped below what your body need to function. When your blood sugar drops below 70 milligrams per deciliter symptom will develop. You may feel tired and anxious or weak and shaky. Your heart rate may be rapid and you feel as if you are having a heart attack. Eating something sugary will bring your sugar levels back to normal almost immediately and symptoms will subside. Sugar levels that are below 40 mg/dL cause you to have behavior changes. You may feel very irritable and become weak and confused. You may not realize you need to eat to raise your blood sugar levels. Blood sugar levels below 20 mg/dL will most certainly cause a loss of consciousness or perhaps you will experience seizures. You will need medical care immediately. Hypoglycemia symptoms happen very quickly. If you a Continue reading >>

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