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Hyperglycemia Ketoacidosis Symptoms

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis & Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State

Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by having blood glucose >13.9 mmol/L, arterial pH <7.3 in adults or venous pH <7.3 in pediatrics, bicarbonate <15 mEg/L, moderate ketonuria or ketonemia and anion gap >14. Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic state in adults is described as having blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, arterial pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L, mild ketonuria or ketonemia, effective serum osmolality >320 mOsm/kg and variable anion gap. While hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic state in pediatric patients have blood glucose >33.3 mmol/L, venous pH >7.3, bicarbonate >15 mEq/L and altered mental status or severe dehydration. Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. mrsmimby

    Hi,
    I wondered if anyone had any tips on breastfeeding my baby who has been diagnosed with epilepsy, please? In particular I want to know:
    If there are any foods/drinks I should avoid?
    If there is any particular diet I should adopt (I have been reading about ketognic diets, but have no idea if I adopt it will any benefits be passed on to my baby?
    Are there any supplements I should take or avoid? - e.g. evening primrose oil, other sources of omegas 3, 6 & 9, and B vitamins?
    If any research has been done about this topic?
    Thank you so much if you can help with any of this. It feels like such a small window of opportunity (the period for which you breastfeed) and I want to get it right and not waste any time in doing so.
    Thank you
    Mrs M

  2. Dutch mom

    Quote :

    (I have been reading about ketognic diets, but have no idea if I adopt it will any benefits be passed on to my baby? Hello Mrs M, welcome on CWE,
    I didn't breastfeed my babies so I can't give you advice about that.
    I have 3 kids, twins (boy & girl age 6) and my eldest son (age 10) who has a bad childhood E-syndrome called Lennox Gastaut syndrome. He is on the ketogenic diet for over 5 years which does control his seizures for 80-90%. He's med free since 4+ years now.
    But as you were refering to the ketogenic diet: this is not a diet you can do yourself, being a mom to a baby with E. It's a diet for kids with (a maligne type of) epilepsy and is worth a try when meds don't help.
    The KD can be done by young children and babies. If your baby is diagnosed with an intractable type of epilepsy or when he/she has one of certain childhood epilepsy syndromes, meds usually don't work. In these cases it's worth trying the ketogenic diet for him/her. There's a formula called Ketocal (or Ketocal Infant in a lower ratio for very young kids) made by Nutricia. The diet is only on prescription and with good guidance and monitoring by a ketogenic dietist and a neurologist.
    Never try the KD on your own! This can be dangerous for your child!
    More info on the KD on www.matthewsfriends.org

  3. Loudmouth

    DON'T take evening primrose oil, it is known to cause seizures, and according to my last OB consultant, does come through in small quantities in the breast milk. As for anything else, I would advise not eating or drinking anything with aspartame in, as that can also be present in your milk, (and quite a few people have found that eliminating sweeteners from thier diet lowers the amount of seizures) oh, and a daft one that is nothing to do with epilepsy, grapes will give a baby a runny tummy.

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My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. JAMES

    A carbonyl group refers to the oxygen double bonded to a carbon. A ketone is a type of carbonyl group. The easiest way to tell if it is a ketone is if it is in the middle of the molecule. If it is, then it is a ketone. If the carbonyl is at the terminus of a molecule, then it is a aldehyde.

  2. Simon Moore

    Answer:

    Carbonyl is a type of functional group. Ketones are a class of organic compounds that contain this functional group.
    Explanation:
    Carbonyl is the functional group -C=O
    In simple terms, ketones are a class of organic compound that contain a carbonyl group between two other alkyl groups. For example





    C

    H


    3

    C
    (
    C

    H


    3

    )
    =

    O (Acetone)

    They can be derived from the oxidation of secondary alcohols.

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A lecture on the recognition, pathogenesis, and management of diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state. Use of the VA and Stanford name/logos is only to indicate my academic affiliation, and neither implies endorsement nor ownership of the included material.

Hyperglycemic Crises

What They Are and How to Avoid Them One type results in about 100,000 hospitalizations a year with a mortality rate of under 5%. The other is thought to cause fewer hospitalizations, yet the mortality rate is about 15%. Severe hyperglycemic conditions, known as diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS), involve very serious imbalances in blood chemistry and usually require that a person be hospitalized until normal blood chemistry is restored. Because they can occur in anyone with diabetes, everyone should know what causes them, how to prevent them, how they are treated, and when to seek medical attention. The body in balance Glucose metabolism is a complex balancing act. In people who don’t have diabetes, a number of interconnected processes help the body to use glucose and keep blood glucose levels in the normal range. The body constantly balances glucose extracted from foods and produced by the liver with glucose utilization by the body’s tissues. When there is ample glucose in the bloodstream, the liver converts some of it into glycogen for storage. When the body needs more energy, such as during a prolonged period of fasting or activity, the li Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Nathanael Schulte

    No. In fact, being in ketosis already makes it easier to go longer. Fasting (water only) definitely cuts deeper than just a ketogenic diet, and especially if you have some insulin resistance going on, it may be the only way to effectively reverse it.
    The best resource out there on the topic is the book “The Complete Guide to Fasting” by Dr. Jason Fung & Jimmy Moore.
    Read it, and give it a try. It’s worth it.

  2. Ron Hunter

    A big reason for fasting is to manage insulin levels and insulin resistance. You would choose to fast independently of putting your body into a state of ketosis. Ketosis would actually make it easier to fast since the body is already adapted to using its fat and the ketones as fuel.

  3. Ann Moskowitz Meyers

    Are you talking about fasting for religious reasons, such as for Ramadan or Yom Kippur? If so, both Islam and Judaism allow curtailing fasting for medical reasons. I can’t speak in detail about Islam, but Judaism would prohibit fasting if one might become ill, must eat to take medications, if a woman is pregnant, if a person is elderly, or if the person is too young.

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