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Hyperglycemia Ketoacidosis Symptoms

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My Site - Chapter 15: Hyperglycemic Emergencies In Adults

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) should be suspected in ill patients with diabetes. If either DKA or HHS is diagnosed, precipitating factors must be sought and treated. DKA and HHS are medical emergencies that require treatment and monitoring for multiple metabolic abnormalities and vigilance for complications. A normal blood glucose does not rule out DKA in pregnancy. Ketoacidosis requires insulin administration (0.1 U/kg/h) for resolution; bicarbonate therapy should be considered only for extreme acidosis (pH7.0). Note to readers: Although the diagnosis and treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in adults and in children share general principles, there are significant differences in their application, largely related to the increased risk of life-threatening cerebral edema with DKA in children and adolescents. The specific issues related to treatment of DKA in children and adolescents are addressed in the Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Adolescents chapter, p. S153. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are diabetes emergencies with overlapping features. With insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia causes urinary Continue reading >>

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  1. hmb13

    I'm on Day 7 and feeling like crap. I've had a blazing headache pretty much continuous since Day 2. At first I thought it was due to the caffeine withdrawal, but now that I'm on Day 7, it can't possibly be that. In addition, my head just feels like it's in a fog -- I can't concentrate or focus very well, my energy levels are incredibly low, my mouth feels like cotton and I'm drinking water constantly, and for the past couple days I've started to feel minor chest pains (like someone is squeezing my heart).
    My cousin, who is a nurse, warned me this cleanse might send me into ketosis, which can become acidosis, and both conditions are unhealthy and put stress on the liver. Can someone please explain? Are my symptoms a sign of ketosis or acidosis? I was doing the Whole30 to hopefully change my relationship with food (always an adversarial relationship before -- restriction mentality) and to cleanse my gut from inflammatory foods, but so far it's just making me feel terrible. I had probably a 75% compliant diet before starting Whole30, so this hasn't been a huge shift for me -- what I'm experiencing *isn't* just "carb flu".
    Here's what my typical meals have been:
    Breakfast
    -1 cup coffee (black)
    -2 eggs & 2-3 slices of bacon, or 1/2 sweet potato & 2-3 slices bacon, or 1 C. spaghetti squash w/1/3 c. browned ground pork & sauteed sweet peppers (for any of these, I would use 1/2 tsp. or so of coconut oil in the pan)
    -1/2 - 3/4 c. berries & bananas
    Lunch
    -Salad of mixed greens, assorted fresh veggies, 1/2 c. browned ground pork w/homemade balsamic vinagrette
    Afternoon snack
    -Handful of nuts, a piece of fruit, or fresh veggie slices
    **Sometimes I'm so ravenous by the time I get home, I have to have another snack of a hard-boiled egg the minute I walk in the door in order to have enough energy to cook dinner
    Dinner
    I've been cooking a lot of the meals from the WellFed book -- Moroccan Meatballs over spaghetti squash with cumin carrots on the side, or Salmon a l'Afrique du Nord with Brussels Sprouts. Last night I had grilled lamb & veggie kabobs.
    I've also been taking fermented cod liver oil supplements every day (I'm Vit D deficient).
    Can someone please help? Do I just need to stick it out a while longer, or am I doing something wrong? I'm becoming ineffective at work between this constant headache and the low energy levels. My cousin is begging me to at least eat gluten-free oats or white rice so I get some energy that is more easily available to my brain.
    Help before I give this up completely!

  2. Robin Strathdee

    First question: Do you exercise? If you do, there's no way your carb intake is enough to support your activity levels. If you don't, you could possibly be okay, but if you're used to a higher carb intake then your body is probably freaking out. I would suggest making sure you have a starchy carb at every meal and see if that helps your energy levels smooth out. The Whole30 is not intended to be a specifically low carb program, and from what I understand ketosis and ketoacidosis come from an extreme absence of carbohydrate in the diet (I'll check in with Melissa for confirmation).
    Second question: Could you be coming down with an illness? It's really common for all the changes in your body during a Whole30 to temporarily lower your defenses and make you a little more susceptible to nasty little bugs.
    I'm going to pass this question on to Melissa, too, in case she has anything to add.

  3. Emily

    I agree with your cousin that you need more carbs, but get them from sweet potatoes, spaghetti squash, acorn squash, butternut squash, pumpkin (I love this time of year) instead of grains. And hang in there- you are right in the toughest part.

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Hyperglycemia is the term given to when your blood sugar levels are higher than 10 mmol/L. Blood sugar levels levels exceeding 7 mmol/L can damage internal organs, however, symptoms may not develop until blood glucose levels exceed 15 mmol/L so it's worth knowing about the symptoms of hyperglycemia and how to recognise the symptoms. Read more about hyperglycemia at: http://www.diabetes.co.uk/Diabetes-an...

Hyperglycemia

University of California San Francisco, Fresno, California Edited By: David A. Wald Temple University School of Medicine Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Objectives The objectives of this module will be to: Review the classic presentation of a patient with hyperglycemia, including DKA and HHS. Review the diagnostic work up of the hyperglycemic patient. Review the principles of managing a patient with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia complicating diabetes ranges from the asymptomatic and benign in patients with mild to moderate uncomplicated hyperglycemia to the life-threatening (i.e. diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS). DKA and HHS represent a spectrum of complications from diabetes and differ mainly in the level of hyperglycemia, extent of dehydration and presence and degree of ketoacidosis. Each condition revolves around insulin deficiency, either absolute or relative. DKA and HHS are the most serious, acute metabolic complications of diabetes. Generally DKA occurs in younger patients (<65 y/o) with Type 1 diabetes and usually evolves rapidly over 24 hours. HHS usually occurs in older patients (>65 y/o) with poorly controlled Type 2 diabetes and evolves ov Continue reading >>

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  1. Fwatuheard

    Sorry if this question has been asked a million times, but the search didn't get me what I was looking for.
    I've been on a TKD for 2 days now, and I'm not quite sure if I'm doing all of this correctly. I can't really monitor my diet down to the calorie due to my job, but I'm using common knowledge to steer clear of carbs (bread, rice, beans, fruit, etc, etc). I'm estimating that I've been consuming around 40-50 carbs a day with the bulk of it coming from my post-workout shake.
    From you keto pros out there, do you think I can achieve ketosis with my current carb intake, or should I restrict carbs even further? I'm starting to feel like I should restrict carbs totally save for my carb up day at the end of the week ala the CKD.
    All I all I got the basics down, but I think I need a little more guidance. Any help would be much appreciated.

  2. timmymayes

    I was into ketosis within 3 days...but i did a 3 day fast to get into it. I think it can take up to 10 days depending....I think thats the duration of induction on atkins.

  3. �STFU!ˇN�LIFT!

    how the HELL do you not eat for 3 days ?
    one day even omg

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Practice Essentials Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an acute, major, life-threatening complication of diabetes that mainly occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes, but it is not uncommon in some patients with type 2 diabetes. This condition is a complex disordered metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, ketoacidosis, and ketonuria. Signs and symptoms The most common early symptoms of DKA are the insidious increase in polydipsia and polyuria. The following are other signs and symptoms of DKA: Nausea and vomiting; may be associated with diffuse abdominal pain, decreased appetite, and anorexia History of failure to comply with insulin therapy or missed insulin injections due to vomiting or psychological reasons or history of mechanical failure of insulin infusion pump Altered consciousness (eg, mild disorientation, confusion); frank coma is uncommon but may occur when the condition is neglected or with severe dehydration/acidosis Signs and symptoms of DKA associated with possible intercurrent infection are as follows: See Clinical Presentation for more detail. Diagnosis On examination, general findings of DKA may include the following: Characteristic acetone (ketotic) breath od Continue reading >>

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  1. Longisland2NC

    Hi Everyone - I am new to Keto, and REALLY excited about changing my eating style (and bad habits!) - but I am not gonna lie, I am a bit *scared* about going from a low fat diet (pounded into my head for years!) and switching up to a High Fat one. But after all the research and reading (and seeing amazing success stories) I am ready to JUST DO IT!
    My question is, Do you initially gain some weight first when starting Keto - or does your body *get it* right away because of the very low carbs? I just want to be prepared to not have a $&it Fit if I get on the scale in a few days and see the number go up and not down
    Thanks in advance for any info - and if anyone would like to add me, I would love some motivated friends!!! ~Kathy

  2. jillwhite12

    I dropped about 10 lbs the first week and haven't stopped losing! Fats are good for you...just keep repeating it to yourself

  3. JisatsuHoshi

    Lose. normally it's water weight during induction due to the decrease of Carbs.
    1gram of Carbs hold 4 grams of water weight.
    Bf% should start to go down once fats become primary source of energy.

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