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Hyperglycemia In Toddlers Symptoms

Hypos & Hypers

Hypos & Hypers

Hypoglycaemia The scariest thing for any parent of a small child who has type 1 is the constant fear of a hypoglycaemia, of ‘hypo’ – low blood glucose. Not everyone will have the same symptoms when they have a hypo; however, the symptoms usually follow the same pattern for each person. It is VERY important that friends and family of young children in particular know what the symptoms are for the person in question, especially as these symptoms may not be recognised by themselves, and that they know what to do in such circumstances. In recent weeks with Aliena (now aged 5), she has been experiencing extremely serious hypos which are affecting her in a completely different way to normal – before she would just say she was tired and hungry, but recently she has violent, almost feral behaviour…kicking and screaming, even biting, and is impossible to console often for up to 15 minutes, but when she does calm, and back to normal, she (thankfully) has no recollection of the fit. My nurses have assured me that hopefully this is connected to her having low bloods regularly for a long period of time, following a bout of sickness. I pray they are right as although Aliena may have no memory, the fits will scar me for life. It just highlight thought that every child is different and their symptoms will change as they grow. Hypoglycemia occurs when the levels of glucose present in the blood falls below a set point: Below 4 mmol/L Symptoms – from the body (attempting to raise the blood glucose level, by adrenaline for example): Irritability Hunger, feeling sick Trembling Anxiety Throbbing pulse in the chest or abdomen Numbness in the lips, fingers and tongue Looking pale Cold sweats Severe sweating and nightmares (if at nighttime) Symptoms – from the brain (resulting fro Continue reading >>

Acute Emergencies Of Diabetes

Acute Emergencies Of Diabetes

Hypoglycemia: Low Blood Sugar (Insulin Reaction) Warning signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (insulin reaction) happen suddenly. Signs and symptoms can easily be mistaken for misbehavior. The child may not recognize symptoms developing. Severity of a low blood sugar reaction progresses from mild to severe. Severe reactions are preventable by early detection and treatment of low blood sugars. Be familiar with identification and treatment of low blood sugar to avert an emergency situation. Blood sugar can go to low if the child with diabetes has: taken too much insulin not eaten enough food had extra exercise without extra food Mild Hypoglycemia Signs and Symptoms Treatment Behavioral Signs: A wide variety of behaviors can occur. Behavior changes may include: acting quiet and withdrawn being stubborn or restless tantrums of sudden rage confusion inappropriate emotional responses (eg: laughter, crying) poor concentration or day dreaming Shakiness Sweatiness Headache Dizziness Pallor Increased Heart Rate NOTE: It may take the child several hours to recover following a low blood sugar episode. The student should not be expected to perform at optimal levels, but having diabetes should never be an excuse for poor overall school If you don't know what the blood sugar is, treat the symptoms. Never send a child who you suspect is having a low blood sugar to the nurse's office. Send another student to get help if you need it. Give the child some quick-acting sugar such as: 3 - 4 ounces of juice 6 - 8 ounces of REGULAR pop 2 - 4 glucose tablets 5 - 6 lifesavers 6 - 8 ounces Milk Check the blood sugar 20 -30 minutes after treatment. If the blood sugar result is less than 80, or if the child still has symptoms, repeat the quick sugar treatment and blood sugar testing cycle until th Continue reading >>

About Diabetes

About Diabetes

formerly known as Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM). characterized by hyperglycemia due to an absolute deficiency of the insulin hormone produced by the pancreas. patients require lifelong insulin injections for survival. usually develops in children and adolescents (although can occur later in life). may present with severe symptoms such as coma or ketoacidosis. patients are usually not obese with this type of diabetes, but obesity is not incompatible with the diagnosis. patients are at increased risk of developing microvascular and macrovascular complications. Etiology usually (but not always) caused by autoimmune destruction of the beta cells of the pancreas, with the presence of certain antibodies in blood. a complex disease caused by mutations in more than one gene, as well as by environmental factors. Symptoms increased urinary frequency (polyuria), thirst (polydipsia), hunger (polyphagia), and unexplained weight loss. numbness in extremities, pain in feet (disesthesias), fatigue, and blurred vision. recurrent or severe infections. loss of consciousness or severe nausea/vomiting (ketoacidosis) or coma. Ketoacidosis more common in T1D than in T2D. Diagnosis diagnosis is made by the presence of classic symptoms of hyperglycemia and an abnormal blood test. a plasma glucose concentration >=7 mmol/L (or 126 mg/dL) or >=11.1mmol/L ( or 200mg/dL) 2 hours after a 75g glucose drink. in a patient without classic symptoms, diagnosis can also be made by two abnormal blood tests on separate days. in most settings (although not always available in resource-poor countries), another test called HbA1C is done to approximate metabolic control over previous 2-3 months and to guide treatment decisions. Treatment overall aim of treatment is symptom relief and prevention or de Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia - Infants

Hyperglycemia - Infants

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Hyperglycemia And Externalizing Behavior In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Externalizing Behavior In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract OBJECTIVE—Ancedotally, parents report behavioral changes in their diabetic children who have fluctuating blood glucose levels. This study aimed to test associations between intercurrent glycemia and child behavior in an ambulant setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Prepubertal children attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, with type 1 diabetes received glycemic assessment and simultaneous behavioral assessment on two occasions 6 months apart. Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitor over a 72-h period, and parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children at the two study time points. RESULTS—There was a high correlation between intra-individual externalizing and internalizing behavior scores (r = 0.88, P < 0.001 and r = 0.81, P < 0.001, respectively) at the two time points. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was significantly associated with the mean externalizing behavior score (β = 1.7 [95% CI 0.6–2.8], adjusted r2 = 0.088). Percentage of time in the normal (r = −0.2 [−0.3 to −0.5], adjusted r2 = 0.068) and high (r = 0.2 [0.07–0.3], adjusted r2 = 0.089) glycemic ranges were significantly associated with the mean externalizing behavior score. For every 5% increase in time in the normal glycemic range, there was a decrease in the externalizing behavior score of 1.0, and for every 5% increase in time in the high glycemic range there was an increase in the externalizing behavior score of 1.0. There was no significant association between MBG and the mean internalizing behavior score. CONCLUSIONS—Externalizing behaviors were associated with intercurrent glycemic status. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the mechanisms of this association and how it might impact ultimate diabetes outcomes. Pare Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Presentation

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Presentation

History The most easily recognized symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are secondary to hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and DKA. Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia alone may not cause obvious symptoms, although some children report general malaise, headache, and weakness. Children may also appear irritable and become ill-tempered. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are secondary to osmotic diuresis and glycosuria. Glycosuria This condition leads to increased urinary frequency and volume (eg, polyuria), which is particularly troublesome at night (eg, nocturia) and often leads to enuresis in a previously continent child. These symptoms are easy to overlook in infants because of their naturally high fluid intake and diaper/napkin use. Polydipsia Increased thirst, which may be insatiable, is secondary to the osmotic diuresis causing dehydration. Weight loss Insulin deficiency leads to uninhibited gluconeogenesis, causing breakdown of protein and fat. Weight loss may be dramatic, although the child's appetite usually remains good. Failure to thrive and wasting may be the first symptoms noted in an infant or toddler and may precede frank hyperglycemia. Nonspecific malaise Although this condition may be present before symptoms of hyperglycemia or as a separate symptom of hyperglycemia, it is often only retrospectively recognized. Symptoms of ketoacidosis These symptoms include the following: Additional symptoms Hyperglycemia impairs immunity and renders a child more susceptible to recurrent infection, particularly of the urinary tract, skin, and respiratory tract. Candidiasis may develop, especially in the groin and in flexural areas. Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 11 mmol/L to 20 mmol/L, and 11 mmol/L to 14 mmol/L in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 20 mmol/L in adults and above 14 mmol/L in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Light-headedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odour. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your blood sugar levels continue to ri Continue reading >>

Ati Peds Diabetes Mellitus

Ati Peds Diabetes Mellitus

Sort S&S of DM Hypoglycemia (BG< 60) S&S - ANS RESPONSES= RAPID ONSET, hunger, lightheadedness, and shakiness, HA, anxiety, irritability, pale/cool skin, diaphoresis, normal or shallow resps, tachycardia, palpitations -IMPAIRED CEREBRAL FUNCTION=GRADUAL ONSET- strange or unusual feelings, decrease LOC, difficulty thinking and inability to concentrate, change in emotional behavior, slurred speech, HA, blurred vision, seizures leading to coma Hyperglycemia (BG> 250) S&S- thirst, polyuria (early), oliguria (late), N/V, abdominal pain, skin that is warm/dy/flushed with poor turgor, dry mucous membranes, confusion, weak, lethargic, weak pulse, diminished reflexes, rapid/deep resps. fruity odor Self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) 1) How often should the diabetic measure their glucose? 1) BG check before meals and at bedtime 2) Follow or ensure that the child follows the proper procedure for blood sample collection and use of a glucose meter. Client Education - Instruct the child to check the accuracy of the strips with the control solution provided. - Advise the child to keep a record of the SMBG that includes time, date, serum glucose level, insulin dose, food intake, and other events that may alter glucose metabolism, such as activity level or illness. Nursing Care VS, BG (other MEDs, diet, and/or activity), I&O, weight. ■ Skin integrity (close attention to feet and skin folds) ■ Visual or Sensory alterations (tingling, numbness)? ■ Infections -exercise patterns ◯ EXAM EYES, DENTAL, & health visits REGULARLY TIME meals (factoring activity, insulin onset & peak) 15 g of carbs= 1 carbohydrate exchange. ◯ Teach appropriate techniques for SMBG, including obtaining blood samples, recording and responding to results, and correctly handling supplies and equipment. ◯ As Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Low Blood Sugar | Symptoms And Causes

Hypoglycemia And Low Blood Sugar | Symptoms And Causes

What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? While each child may experience symptoms of hypoglycemia differently, the most common include: shakiness dizziness sweating hunger headache irritability pale skin color sudden moodiness or behavior changes, such as crying for no apparent reason clumsy or jerky movements difficulty paying attention or confusion What causes hypoglycemia? The vast majority of episodes of hypoglycemia in children and adolescents occur when a child with diabetes takes too much insulin, eats too little, or exercises strenuously or for a prolonged period of time. For young children who do not have diabetes, hypoglycemia may be caused by: Single episodes: Stomach flu, or another illness that may cause them to not eat enough fasting for a prolonged period of time prolonged strenuous exercise and lack of food Recurrent episodes: accelerated starvation, also known as “ketotic hypoglycemia,” a tendency for children without diabetes, or any other known cause of hypoglycemia, to experience repeated hypoglycemic episodes. medications your child may be taking a congenital (present at birth) error in metabolism or unusual disorder such as hypopituitarism or hyperinsulinism. Continue reading >>

Children And Diabetes

Children And Diabetes

Tweet Throughout the world, incidences of diabetes are on the rise, and consequently so is diabetes amongst children. Most children are affected by type 1 diabetes in childhood. However, the number of children and young adults affected by type 2 diabetes is beginning to rise, particularly in America. Approximately 90% of young people with diabetes suffer from type 1 and the number of patients who are children varies from place to place. A figure of 17 per 100,000 children developing diabetes each year has been reported. As metabolic syndrome, obesity and bad diets spread, so too have the first incidences of type 2 diabetes, previously incredibly rare. Further relevant pages Diabetes & pregnancy Juvenile diabetes Keeping your kids free from diabetes Teenage diabetes and blood glucose testing How is diabetes caused in children? The actual causes of the diabetic condition are little understood, in both children and adults. It is widely speculated that diabetes occurred when inherited genetic characteristics are triggered by environmental factors such as diet or exercise. Many type 1 diabetic children do not have diabetes in their families however, so the exact cause remains a mystery. Type 2 diabetes amongst children is usually caused by an extremely bad diet from a very young age, coupled with a sedentary lifestyle without exercise. Tweet Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose levels) due to the body: Being ineffective at using the insulin it has produced; also known as insulin resistance and/or Being unable to produce enough insulin Type 2 diabetes is characterised by the body being unable to metabolise glucose (a simple sugar). This leads to high levels of blood glucose which over time may damage the organs of Continue reading >>

Sugar Levels Affects Behavior Of Children With Diabetes

Sugar Levels Affects Behavior Of Children With Diabetes

Behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity In children with type 1 diabetes, are associated with high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Dr. Fergus J. Cameron stated that, "It has always been important to try and normalize blood glucose levels for long-term health and in addition to this it now appears that it is also important to normalize blood glucose levels to optimize behavior.” Cameron, of the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues note in their paper that "parents of children with type 1 diabetes often report that they can detect elevations in their child’s blood glucose due to changes in outward behavioral patterns. These reports, however, are entirely anecdotal, and to date, there has been little direct inquiry in this phenomenon." The researchers therefore investigated this issue in a study of 42 children ages 5 to 10 years who had type 1 diabetes for more than 2 years. The average A1C at recruitment was 8.2 percent. A1C is a commonly used measure of blood sugar that reflects the average levels in the past 2 to 3 months; a normal level is less than 7.0. Forty children were receiving insulin in a twice-daily mixing regime and two were receiving insulin in a three to four injection regime. Each subject wore a continuous glucose monitor over a 72-hour period on two occasions 6 months apart. Parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children at both time points. The overall average blood glucose value was higher than normal, as was the average externalizing behavior score. The overall average percentage of time spent in the high glycemic ranges was 42.4 percent. A statistically significant association was observed between the average blood glucose and the average externalizing behavior score. "For every 5-perc Continue reading >>

What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Blood Sugar Problems In Children?

What Are The Signs & Symptoms Of Blood Sugar Problems In Children?

Carbohydrates are sugars the body uses for its energy needs. Sugars can be simple, like glucose, or complex, like the sugars that make up pasta, bread and rice. Children can have several blood sugar problems. These include disorders of carbohydrate metabolism, in which the child’s body cannot properly process certain complex sugars; hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar; and hyperglycemia, or high blood sugar. Video of the Day There are several disorders of carbohydrate metabolism. According to the Merck Manual, children with glycogen storage diseases have difficulty changing glycogen, the storage form of unused glucose, back into simple sugars for energy use. These disorders can be fatal. Symptoms of glycogen storage diseases include low blood sugar, which can cause confusion, lethargy and seizures, and protrusion of the abdomen, as the liver becomes enlarged with the unused and unprocessed glycogen. Children with these disorders also can have growth retardation and frequent infections. Another disorder of carbohydrate metabolism is galactosemia, a condition in which newborn babies are born unable to process galactose into simpler sugars. The accumulation of galactose causes jaundice, lose of appetite, diarrhea and frequent serious bacterial infections. Hypoglycemia, or low blood sugar, results when the quantity of glucose in the blood falls to levels that impair the functioning of the body’s tissues. According to the Children’s Hospital Boston, the causes of hypoglycemia in children include a delayed or missed meal, especially in children with diabetes who take sugar-lowering drugs; hyperinsulinism, in which the child’s pancreas secretes too much insulin, lowering blood sugar; and certain congenital conditions. Symptoms of hypoglycemia include jitteriness, shakines Continue reading >>

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs when the sugar levels in your blood are too low. Many people think of hypoglycemia as something that only occurs in people with diabetes. However, it can also occur in people who don’t have diabetes. Hypoglycemia is different from hyperglycemia, which occurs when you have too much sugar in your bloodstream. Hypoglycemia can happen in people with diabetes if the body produces too much insulin. Insulin is a hormone that breaks down sugar so that you can use it for energy. You can also get hypoglycemia if you have diabetes and you take too much insulin. If you don’t have diabetes, hypoglycemia can happen if your body can’t stabilize your blood sugar levels. It can also happen after meals if your body produces too much insulin. Hypoglycemia in people who don’t have diabetes is less common than hypoglycemia that occurs in people who have diabetes or related conditions. Here's what you need to know about hypoglycemia that occurs without diabetes. Everyone reacts differently to fluctuations in their blood glucose levels. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may include: You may have hypoglycemia without having any symptoms. This is known as hypoglycemia unawareness. Hypoglycemia is either reactive or non-reactive. Each type has different causes: Reactive hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia occurs within a few hours after a meal. An overproduction of insulin causes reactive hypoglycemia. Having reactive hypoglycemia may mean that you’re at risk for developing diabetes. Non-reactive hypoglycemia Non-reactive hypoglycemia isn't necessarily related to meals and may be due to an underlying disease. Causes of non-reactive, or fasting, hypoglycemia can include: some medications, like those used in adults and children with kidney failure any d Continue reading >>

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Type 1 Diabetes High Blood Sugar Symptoms

Wondering about the signs and symptoms of hyperglycemia—or high blood sugar? High blood sugar occurs in type 1 diabetes when the body has too much glucose/food or not enough insulin. Having hyperglycemia symptoms doesn’t immediately put you in danger but regular high blood-sugar levels over time does. That’s because they can lead to complications including blindness, heart disease, kidney failure and amputation. What are the symptoms of high blood sugar? – Thirst – Frequent urination – Stomach pain – Blurry vision – Increased Hunger Other signs of hyperglycemia With high blood sugar, you may also experience drowsiness, exhaustion, nausea or vomiting, confusion, fruity or sweet-smelling breath, impaired concentration and sweating. And, having very high blood-glucose levels for an extended period can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). DKA happens when the body starts to burn fat and body tissue for energy. This releases toxic acids called ketones that build up in the blood and urine—and can lead to a diabetic coma. So if you’re experiencing any of the above signs or symptoms, it’s important to get checked out by your doctor. The earlier high blood-sugar issues are treated, the better. Your support is more critical than ever Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Lightheadedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your Continue reading >>

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