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Hyperglycemia In Toddlers Symptoms

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Can You Have Hypoglycemia Without Having Diabetes?

Hypoglycemia is a condition that occurs when the sugar levels in your blood are too low. Many people think of hypoglycemia as something that only occurs in people with diabetes. However, it can also occur in people who don’t have diabetes. Hypoglycemia is different from hyperglycemia, which occurs when you have too much sugar in your bloodstream. Hypoglycemia can happen in people with diabetes if the body produces too much insulin. Insulin is a hormone that breaks down sugar so that you can use it for energy. You can also get hypoglycemia if you have diabetes and you take too much insulin. If you don’t have diabetes, hypoglycemia can happen if your body can’t stabilize your blood sugar levels. It can also happen after meals if your body produces too much insulin. Hypoglycemia in people who don’t have diabetes is less common than hypoglycemia that occurs in people who have diabetes or related conditions. Here's what you need to know about hypoglycemia that occurs without diabetes. Everyone reacts differently to fluctuations in their blood glucose levels. Some symptoms of hypoglycemia may include: You may have hypoglycemia without having any symptoms. This is known as hypoglycemia unawareness. Hypoglycemia is either reactive or non-reactive. Each type has different causes: Reactive hypoglycemia Reactive hypoglycemia occurs within a few hours after a meal. An overproduction of insulin causes reactive hypoglycemia. Having reactive hypoglycemia may mean that you’re at risk for developing diabetes. Non-reactive hypoglycemia Non-reactive hypoglycemia isn't necessarily related to meals and may be due to an underlying disease. Causes of non-reactive, or fasting, hypoglycemia can include: some medications, like those used in adults and children with kidney failure any d Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia And Externalizing Behavior In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Hyperglycemia And Externalizing Behavior In Children With Type 1 Diabetes

Abstract OBJECTIVE—Ancedotally, parents report behavioral changes in their diabetic children who have fluctuating blood glucose levels. This study aimed to test associations between intercurrent glycemia and child behavior in an ambulant setting. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Prepubertal children attending the Royal Children's Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, with type 1 diabetes received glycemic assessment and simultaneous behavioral assessment on two occasions 6 months apart. Subjects wore a continuous glucose monitor over a 72-h period, and parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children at the two study time points. RESULTS—There was a high correlation between intra-individual externalizing and internalizing behavior scores (r = 0.88, P < 0.001 and r = 0.81, P < 0.001, respectively) at the two time points. Mean blood glucose (MBG) was significantly associated with the mean externalizing behavior score (β = 1.7 [95% CI 0.6–2.8], adjusted r2 = 0.088). Percentage of time in the normal (r = −0.2 [−0.3 to −0.5], adjusted r2 = 0.068) and high (r = 0.2 [0.07–0.3], adjusted r2 = 0.089) glycemic ranges were significantly associated with the mean externalizing behavior score. For every 5% increase in time in the normal glycemic range, there was a decrease in the externalizing behavior score of 1.0, and for every 5% increase in time in the high glycemic range there was an increase in the externalizing behavior score of 1.0. There was no significant association between MBG and the mean internalizing behavior score. CONCLUSIONS—Externalizing behaviors were associated with intercurrent glycemic status. These findings underscore the importance of understanding the mechanisms of this association and how it might impact ultimate diabetes outcomes. Pare Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia In Infants

Hyperglycemia In Infants

What are the other Names for this Condition? (Also known as/Synonyms) High Blood Sugar in Infants Hyperglycemia in Newborns Neonatal Hyperglycemia What is Hyperglycemia in Infants? (Definition/Background Information) Hyperglycemia in Infant is a very common abnormality seen in the metabolism of prematurely born and critically ill newborn children Hyperglycemia is defined as the presence of high levels of glucose (sugar) in blood. The condition occurs due to the lack of sufficient levels of insulin in the body Hyperglycemia in Infants can be the result of gestational diabetes mellitus (a form of type II diabetes) that develops in the mother during pregnancy The signs and symptoms of Neonatal Hyperglycemia may not be apparent during the initial period following birth. The indications of the condition may include frequent urination, dehydration, and increased thirst Undiagnosed and/or untreated hyperglycemia can result in complications such as nerve damage, kidney damage, impaired vision, and greater vulnerability to type II diabetes and heart conditions The mainstay of treatment of Hyperglycemia in Infants is using insulin therapy. With early and adequate treatment of the condition, the prognosis is generally good. In most cases, no long-term effects on the child is noted Who gets Hyperglycemia in Infants? (Age and Sex Distribution) Hyperglycemia in Infants is seen in both term and preterm infants. This form of hyperglycemia (or high blood sugar) is seen in infants shortly after birth; from birth to one month of age Both sexes are equally likely to develop Hyperglycemia. The gender of the baby has no effect on the development of this condition All racial and ethnic groups are generally affected In general, North America has the highest prevalence of diabetes (high blood s Continue reading >>

Ati Peds Diabetes Mellitus

Ati Peds Diabetes Mellitus

Sort S&S of DM Hypoglycemia (BG< 60) S&S - ANS RESPONSES= RAPID ONSET, hunger, lightheadedness, and shakiness, HA, anxiety, irritability, pale/cool skin, diaphoresis, normal or shallow resps, tachycardia, palpitations -IMPAIRED CEREBRAL FUNCTION=GRADUAL ONSET- strange or unusual feelings, decrease LOC, difficulty thinking and inability to concentrate, change in emotional behavior, slurred speech, HA, blurred vision, seizures leading to coma Hyperglycemia (BG> 250) S&S- thirst, polyuria (early), oliguria (late), N/V, abdominal pain, skin that is warm/dy/flushed with poor turgor, dry mucous membranes, confusion, weak, lethargic, weak pulse, diminished reflexes, rapid/deep resps. fruity odor Self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) 1) How often should the diabetic measure their glucose? 1) BG check before meals and at bedtime 2) Follow or ensure that the child follows the proper procedure for blood sample collection and use of a glucose meter. Client Education - Instruct the child to check the accuracy of the strips with the control solution provided. - Advise the child to keep a record of the SMBG that includes time, date, serum glucose level, insulin dose, food intake, and other events that may alter glucose metabolism, such as activity level or illness. Nursing Care VS, BG (other MEDs, diet, and/or activity), I&O, weight. ■ Skin integrity (close attention to feet and skin folds) ■ Visual or Sensory alterations (tingling, numbness)? ■ Infections -exercise patterns ◯ EXAM EYES, DENTAL, & health visits REGULARLY TIME meals (factoring activity, insulin onset & peak) 15 g of carbs= 1 carbohydrate exchange. ◯ Teach appropriate techniques for SMBG, including obtaining blood samples, recording and responding to results, and correctly handling supplies and equipment. ◯ As Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 11 mmol/L to 20 mmol/L, and 11 mmol/L to 14 mmol/L in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 20 mmol/L in adults and above 14 mmol/L in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Light-headedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odour. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your blood sugar levels continue to ri Continue reading >>

Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes In Infants

Signs And Symptoms Of Diabetes In Infants

Diabetes can affect individuals of any age, including infants and children. Knowing that your baby has diabetes can be really frightening. But by learning how to perform glucose testing and give insulin, you can help your child to grow up healthy. The first thing you need to do, though, is to keep your own stress level down. Your baby can sense if you feel anxious, so it is up to you to be as brave as your little one. Types Medical experts say that Type 1 diabetes is the form of the disease most often diagnosed in infants. More commonly known as juvenile onset diabetes, this autoimmune disorder prevents the body from producing enough insulin, a hormone needed so that cells can break down glucose for energy. Type 2, or non-insulin dependent diabetes, can also affect infants. Insulin resistance is the primary cause of Type 2 diabetes. As a result, both insulin and blood sugar levels in the body continue to rise. Certain medical conditions or genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome and Turner syndrome, can cause this type of diabetes as well. Symptoms The American Academy of Pediatrics tells parents to contact their child’s pediatrician immediately if she shows any of the following symptoms. Crankiness, sweating, trembling, paleness and bluish tinge to the lips or fingers are symptoms that an infant might be hypoglycemic. A glucose test should be performed, as treatment may be needed if the infant’s blood sugar is too low. A baby’s brain development requires a continuous supply of glucose. Therefore, parents must carefully manage their child’s diabetes. Likewise, when an infant’s glucose levels climb too high, hyperglycemia means that your infant may not be getting enough insulin in combination with how much you are feeding her. While infants often display no sy Continue reading >>

Hypos & Hypers

Hypos & Hypers

Hypoglycaemia The scariest thing for any parent of a small child who has type 1 is the constant fear of a hypoglycaemia, of ‘hypo’ – low blood glucose. Not everyone will have the same symptoms when they have a hypo; however, the symptoms usually follow the same pattern for each person. It is VERY important that friends and family of young children in particular know what the symptoms are for the person in question, especially as these symptoms may not be recognised by themselves, and that they know what to do in such circumstances. In recent weeks with Aliena (now aged 5), she has been experiencing extremely serious hypos which are affecting her in a completely different way to normal – before she would just say she was tired and hungry, but recently she has violent, almost feral behaviour…kicking and screaming, even biting, and is impossible to console often for up to 15 minutes, but when she does calm, and back to normal, she (thankfully) has no recollection of the fit. My nurses have assured me that hopefully this is connected to her having low bloods regularly for a long period of time, following a bout of sickness. I pray they are right as although Aliena may have no memory, the fits will scar me for life. It just highlight thought that every child is different and their symptoms will change as they grow. Hypoglycemia occurs when the levels of glucose present in the blood falls below a set point: Below 4 mmol/L Symptoms – from the body (attempting to raise the blood glucose level, by adrenaline for example): Irritability Hunger, feeling sick Trembling Anxiety Throbbing pulse in the chest or abdomen Numbness in the lips, fingers and tongue Looking pale Cold sweats Severe sweating and nightmares (if at nighttime) Symptoms – from the brain (resulting fro Continue reading >>

Hypoglycemia And Low Blood Sugar | Symptoms And Causes

Hypoglycemia And Low Blood Sugar | Symptoms And Causes

What are the symptoms of hypoglycemia? While each child may experience symptoms of hypoglycemia differently, the most common include: shakiness dizziness sweating hunger headache irritability pale skin color sudden moodiness or behavior changes, such as crying for no apparent reason clumsy or jerky movements difficulty paying attention or confusion What causes hypoglycemia? The vast majority of episodes of hypoglycemia in children and adolescents occur when a child with diabetes takes too much insulin, eats too little, or exercises strenuously or for a prolonged period of time. For young children who do not have diabetes, hypoglycemia may be caused by: Single episodes: Stomach flu, or another illness that may cause them to not eat enough fasting for a prolonged period of time prolonged strenuous exercise and lack of food Recurrent episodes: accelerated starvation, also known as “ketotic hypoglycemia,” a tendency for children without diabetes, or any other known cause of hypoglycemia, to experience repeated hypoglycemic episodes. medications your child may be taking a congenital (present at birth) error in metabolism or unusual disorder such as hypopituitarism or hyperinsulinism. Continue reading >>

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia (high Blood Sugar)

Hyperglycemia is a hallmark sign of diabetes (both type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes) and prediabetes. Other conditions that can cause hyperglycemia are pancreatitis, Cushing's syndrome, unusual hormone-secreting tumors, pancreatic cancer, certain medications, and severe illnesses. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are increased thirst and a frequent need to urinate. Severely elevated glucose levels can result in a medical emergency like diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) or hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic syndrome (HHNS, also referred to as hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state). Insulin is the treatment of choice for people with type 1 diabetes and for life-threatening increases in glucose levels. People with type 2 diabetes may be managed with a combination of different oral and injectable medications. Hyperglycemia due to medical conditions other than diabetes is generally treated by treating the underlying condition responsible for the elevated glucose. Blood Sugar Swings: Tips for Managing Diabetes & Glucose Levels A number of medical conditions can cause hyperglycemia, but the most common by far is diabetes mellitus. Diabetes affects over 8% of the total U.S. population. In diabetes, blood glucose levels rise either because there is an insufficient amount of insulin in the body or the body cannot use insulin well. Normally, the pancreas releases insulin after a meal so that the cells of the body can utilize glucose for fuel. This keeps blood glucose levels in the normal range. Type 1 diabetes is responsible for about 5% of all cases of diabetes and results from damage to the insulin-secreting cells of the pancreas. Type 2 diabetes is far more common and is related to the body's inability to effectively use insulin. In addition to type 1 and type 2, gestational diabe Continue reading >>

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Symptoms Of High Blood Sugar

Topic Overview High blood sugar (hyperglycemia) is most often seen in people who have diabetes that isn't well controlled. The symptoms of high blood sugar can be mild, moderate, or severe. Mild high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently higher than your target range (usually 200 milligrams per deciliter (mg/dL) to 350 mg/dL in adults and 200 mg/dL to 240 mg/dL in children), you may have mild symptoms of high blood sugar. You may urinate more than usual if you are drinking plenty of liquids. Some people who have diabetes may not notice any symptoms when their blood sugar level is in this range. The main symptoms of high blood sugar are: Increased thirst. Increased urination. Weight loss. Fatigue. Increased appetite. Young children are unable to recognize symptoms of high blood sugar. Parents need to do a home blood sugar test on their child whenever they suspect high blood sugar. If you don't drink enough liquids to replace the fluids lost from high blood sugar levels, you can become dehydrated. Young children can become dehydrated very quickly. Symptoms of dehydration include: A dry mouth and increased thirst. Warm, dry skin. Moderate to severe high blood sugar If your blood sugar levels are consistently high (usually above 350 mg/dL in adults and above 240 mg/dL in children), you may have moderate to severe symptoms of high blood sugar. These symptoms include: Blurred vision. Extreme thirst. Lightheadedness. Flushed, hot, dry skin. Restlessness, drowsiness, or difficulty waking up. If your body produces little or no insulin (people with type 1 diabetes and some people with type 2 diabetes), you also may have: Rapid, deep breathing. A fast heart rate and a weak pulse. A strong, fruity breath odor. Loss of appetite, belly pain, and/or vomiting. If your Continue reading >>

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Presentation

Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus Clinical Presentation

History The most easily recognized symptoms of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) are secondary to hyperglycemia, glycosuria, and DKA. Hyperglycemia Hyperglycemia alone may not cause obvious symptoms, although some children report general malaise, headache, and weakness. Children may also appear irritable and become ill-tempered. The main symptoms of hyperglycemia are secondary to osmotic diuresis and glycosuria. Glycosuria This condition leads to increased urinary frequency and volume (eg, polyuria), which is particularly troublesome at night (eg, nocturia) and often leads to enuresis in a previously continent child. These symptoms are easy to overlook in infants because of their naturally high fluid intake and diaper/napkin use. Polydipsia Increased thirst, which may be insatiable, is secondary to the osmotic diuresis causing dehydration. Weight loss Insulin deficiency leads to uninhibited gluconeogenesis, causing breakdown of protein and fat. Weight loss may be dramatic, although the child's appetite usually remains good. Failure to thrive and wasting may be the first symptoms noted in an infant or toddler and may precede frank hyperglycemia. Nonspecific malaise Although this condition may be present before symptoms of hyperglycemia or as a separate symptom of hyperglycemia, it is often only retrospectively recognized. Symptoms of ketoacidosis These symptoms include the following: Additional symptoms Hyperglycemia impairs immunity and renders a child more susceptible to recurrent infection, particularly of the urinary tract, skin, and respiratory tract. Candidiasis may develop, especially in the groin and in flexural areas. Continue reading >>

Sugar Levels Affects Behavior Of Children With Diabetes

Sugar Levels Affects Behavior Of Children With Diabetes

Behaviors such as aggression, delinquency, and hyperactivity In children with type 1 diabetes, are associated with high blood glucose (sugar) levels. Dr. Fergus J. Cameron stated that, "It has always been important to try and normalize blood glucose levels for long-term health and in addition to this it now appears that it is also important to normalize blood glucose levels to optimize behavior.” Cameron, of the Royal Children’s Hospital, Melbourne, Australia, and colleagues note in their paper that "parents of children with type 1 diabetes often report that they can detect elevations in their child’s blood glucose due to changes in outward behavioral patterns. These reports, however, are entirely anecdotal, and to date, there has been little direct inquiry in this phenomenon." The researchers therefore investigated this issue in a study of 42 children ages 5 to 10 years who had type 1 diabetes for more than 2 years. The average A1C at recruitment was 8.2 percent. A1C is a commonly used measure of blood sugar that reflects the average levels in the past 2 to 3 months; a normal level is less than 7.0. Forty children were receiving insulin in a twice-daily mixing regime and two were receiving insulin in a three to four injection regime. Each subject wore a continuous glucose monitor over a 72-hour period on two occasions 6 months apart. Parents completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children at both time points. The overall average blood glucose value was higher than normal, as was the average externalizing behavior score. The overall average percentage of time spent in the high glycemic ranges was 42.4 percent. A statistically significant association was observed between the average blood glucose and the average externalizing behavior score. "For every 5-perc Continue reading >>

The Infant And Toddler With Diabetes: Challenges Of Diagnosis And Management

The Infant And Toddler With Diabetes: Challenges Of Diagnosis And Management

Go to: Infants and toddlers comprise a small minority of individuals with type 1 diabetes. However, epidemiological data provide evidence of a trend towards diagnosis at a younger age. These very young children pose significant challenges to both the health care professionals involved in their care as well as to their families. At diagnosis, younger children often do not present with classical symptoms of diabetes. Unless health professionals remain alert to the possibility of diabetes being the underlying cause of a child’s illness, the diagnosis may be missed. Once the diabetes has been diagnosed, the major challenge is to set up a treatment regimen that is both reasonable and realistic; in the youngest children, the goal of very tight metabolic control may expose them to episodes of severe hypoglycemia which may lead to subtle cognitive impairments later in life. The therapeutic regimen must balance the naturally erratic eating and exercise patterns of very young children with the need to maintain adequate metabolic control. Setting a blood glucose target range of 6 to 12 mmol/L usually allows this to be accomplished. Diabetes during early childhood creates a psychosocial challenge to the families of these children. Successful management of infants and toddlers with diabetes depends on a well functioning and educated family, the availability of diabetes health care team experienced in the treatment of these youngsters, and the involvement of the extended family, child care personnel and others who play a role in their daily care. Keywords: Infants, Metabolic control, Toddlers, Type I diabetes Children under three to five years of age with type I diabetes comprise a small proportion of all those with this disorder: less than 1% of all children are diagnosed in the f Continue reading >>

Acute Emergencies Of Diabetes

Acute Emergencies Of Diabetes

Hypoglycemia: Low Blood Sugar (Insulin Reaction) Warning signs and symptoms of low blood sugar (insulin reaction) happen suddenly. Signs and symptoms can easily be mistaken for misbehavior. The child may not recognize symptoms developing. Severity of a low blood sugar reaction progresses from mild to severe. Severe reactions are preventable by early detection and treatment of low blood sugars. Be familiar with identification and treatment of low blood sugar to avert an emergency situation. Blood sugar can go to low if the child with diabetes has: taken too much insulin not eaten enough food had extra exercise without extra food Mild Hypoglycemia Signs and Symptoms Treatment Behavioral Signs: A wide variety of behaviors can occur. Behavior changes may include: acting quiet and withdrawn being stubborn or restless tantrums of sudden rage confusion inappropriate emotional responses (eg: laughter, crying) poor concentration or day dreaming Shakiness Sweatiness Headache Dizziness Pallor Increased Heart Rate NOTE: It may take the child several hours to recover following a low blood sugar episode. The student should not be expected to perform at optimal levels, but having diabetes should never be an excuse for poor overall school If you don't know what the blood sugar is, treat the symptoms. Never send a child who you suspect is having a low blood sugar to the nurse's office. Send another student to get help if you need it. Give the child some quick-acting sugar such as: 3 - 4 ounces of juice 6 - 8 ounces of REGULAR pop 2 - 4 glucose tablets 5 - 6 lifesavers 6 - 8 ounces Milk Check the blood sugar 20 -30 minutes after treatment. If the blood sugar result is less than 80, or if the child still has symptoms, repeat the quick sugar treatment and blood sugar testing cycle until th Continue reading >>

Signs & Symptoms

Signs & Symptoms

There are many signs and symptoms that can indicate diabetes. Signs and symptoms can include the following: Unusual thirst Frequent urination Weight change (gain or loss) Extreme fatigue or lack of energy Blurred vision Frequent or recurring infections Cuts and bruises that are slow to heal Tingling or numbness in the hands or feet Trouble getting or maintaining an erection If you have any of these symptoms, it is important to contact your health-care provider right away. Even if you don’t have symptoms, if you are 40 or older, you should still get checked. It is important to recognize, however, that many people who have type 2 diabetes may display no symptoms. We respond to more than 20,000 requests per year by phone, email, and online chat. We are here to help give you the information and support you need so don't hesitate to contact us today. Contact Us Symptoms of diabetes in children Diabetes affects children of all ages. Most children who develop diabetes do not have a family history of diabetes. Symptoms of diabetes in your child could include: Drinking and going to the bathroom more frequently than usual Starting to wet the bed again Lack of energy If you think your child might have diabetes, see a doctor today. Diagnosis of diabetes Speak with your doctor and ask him or her to test you for diabetes using one of the following tests. The amount of glucose (sugar) in your blood is measured in mmol/L. Fasting blood glucose You must not eat or drink anything except water for at least eight hours before this test. A test result of 7.0 mmol/L or greater indicates diabetes. Random blood glucose This test may be done at any time, regardless of when you last ate. A test result of 11.0 mmol/L or greater, plus symptoms of diabetes, indicates diabetes. A1C This test may b Continue reading >>

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