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Hydrogen Ions Dka

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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a state of insulin deficiency, characterised by rapid onset, extreme metabolic acidosis, a generally intact sensorium, and only mild hyperglycaemia. DKA comes up frequently in the CICM SAQs, but usually as an ABG interpretation exercise. This chapter focuses on the medical side of DKA, including its causes, manifestations, complications, and management strategies. Questions which have required such thinking have included the following: Question 1 from the second paper of 2016 (differences between HONK and DKA) Question 17 from the first paper of 2014 (differences between HONK and DKA) Question 2 from the second paper of 2009 (general approach to management) Question 15 from the second paper of 2000 (whether or not saline is appropriate) Definition of diabetic ketoacidosis How does one discriminate between DKA and HONK even when in about 30% of instances the two disorders coexist? Arbitrary definitions exist, proposed by the American Diabetes Association. In summary: DKA presents with acidosis as the major feature HONK presents with hyperglycaemia as the major feature Discriminating Between HONK and DKA Domain Features suggestive of DKA Features suggestive o Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. melendfi

    How critical is to reach KETOSIS for fat loss?

    I previously asked this question on the wrong forum.
    Is it imperative to reach a state of Ketosis? Or can you still use fat as fuel without Ketosis? I ask because I have reduced my % of body fat but my Ketostix dont show any indication of reaching a state of Ketosis.
    Thanks!

  2. Woodyy

    I honestly don't think it's imperative whatsoever, I've only been on keto for a week and a bit and I've encountered none of the supposed keto "side-effects"..
    I'm not even sure why I'm not in ketosis, my diet literally consists of: chicken, cabbage, cheddar cheese, tuna, egg, bacon and whey protein isolate.
    But yeah, as long as the results keep coming I couldn't care less whether I was in ketosis or not.

  3. Grifts

    Its the caloric deficit that burns fat. Its not imperative at all to reach ketosis.
    However, if you are following the diet, I don't see any reason why you wouldn't reach ketosis. Even if it's undetectable on ketostix, you might still be in ketosis.

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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetes mellitus is the name given to a group of conditions whose common hallmark is a raised blood glucose concentration (hyperglycemia) due to an absolute or relative deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. In the UK there are 1.4 million registered diabetic patients, approximately 3 % of the population. In addition, an estimated 1 million remain undiagnosed. It is a growing health problem: In 1998, the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted a doubling of the worldwide prevalence of diabetes from 150 million to 300 million by 2025. For a very tiny minority, diabetes is a secondary feature of primary endocrine disease such as acromegaly (growth hormone excess) or Cushing’s syndrome (excess corticosteroid), and for these patients successful treatment of the primary disease cures diabetes. Most diabetic patients, however, are classified as suffering either type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes Type 1 diabetes, which accounts for around 15 % of the total diabetic population, is an autoimmune disease of the pancreas in which the insulin-producing β-cells of the pancreas are selectively destroyed, resulting in an absolute insulin deficiency. The condition arises in ge Continue reading >>

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  1. Robert10

    Ketones and Fat Burning

    This is a question that his been puzzling me for some time!
    Glucose is the body's main energy source. But when the body can't use glucose for energy, it uses fat instead. When fats are broken down for energy, chemicals called ketones appear in the blood and urine. This can occur when not enough food has been eaten to provide glucose for energy, or it can occur in diabetes, when the body can't use glucose normally. Ketones can easily be tested using OTC Ketostix.
    When there's no insulin to help it transport out of the blood and into the cells, the body has an "energy crisis" and starts to break down body fat into ketones as an alternative fuel source. This is called ketosis.
    As we burn body fat for energy we typically lose weight. That’s a fundamental of the low carb diet. But what happens when we reach a plateau? Carbs are still limited and body fat is still used for energy. So why aren’t we losing weight? Several of us have experienced this much like myself but I don’t understand why we experience this stall in weight loss. Any thoughts?
    Bob

  2. furball64801

    Well Bob thats the $64,000 question and I think the experts dont know. If they knew why people stopped they would have a winner. Many times changing just a few things will help the body from that stall point. A different food or a different exercise program might trip that switch again. I think this is what disapoints many people, they lose and then there stuck and cant lose more. People then say what the heck why try and it is a bad situation

  3. jwags

    I think we have all hit the plateau's of weight loss. The way I understand it is that your body adjusts to a certain way of eating and your metabolism may compensate by slowing down acutually to stop you from starving. This is why it is important not to cut calories too much to prevent this from happening. Many of us have found when you hit that plateau you have to change things up in your diet and exercise routine. I find that using different machines or increasing incline on treadmill, helps me build new muscle memory which helps weight loss. If you are lifting weights, this is why you have to increase weights after a certain amount of time. The fitter you are the harder you need to work. When I first started exercising I could get away with 3 workouts a week to lose weight now I have to put in close to 2 hours a day to keep weight loss going. I am at my goal weight so I haven't lost anything in a few weeks. Even though I need to lose a few more inches on my waist, I doubt I will lose anymore.

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How to use the Autoject 2 for your diabetic dog.

Difficult Diabetic Ketoacidotics - Bsava2012 - Vin

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe form of complicated diabetes mellitus (DM) which requires emergency care. Ketones are synthesised from fatty acids as a substitute form of energy, because glucose has not effectively entered into the cells. Excess ketoacids result in acidosis and severe electrolyte abnormalities, which can be life threatening. The median age of dogs with DKA is 8 years (range, 8 months to 16 years). Specific breed or sex has not been shown to increase the risk of DKA in dogs. Concurrent disease increases the risk of DKA, as does the state of newly diagnosed, yet untreated, DM. Clinical Signs and Physical Examination Findings Clinical signs and physical examination findings may be attributed to chronic untreated diabetes mellitus, presence of concurrent disease and the acute onset of DKA. The most common clinical signs of dogs with DKA are polyuria and polydipsia, lethargy, inappetence or anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. Common abnormalities noted on physical examination of dogs with DKA are subjectively overweight or underweight body condition, dehydration, cranial organomega Continue reading >>

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  1. ketones

    What are ketones? I was diagnosed with GD but wasn't really told what they were. I called my dr now waiting to here back. My sugar levels are normal, I'mSo stressing. My ketone levels in my urine were very high.

  2. Mamamons

    Ketones are released when your body burns fat. So ketones in your urine when pregnant may signal you need to eat more/change your diet

  3. j

    Ketones appear in your urine, when your body begins burning stored fat b/c there are not carbohydrates to use for energy. Good for dieting, bad during pregnancy. I have GD and have to test every morning for ketones. My dietitian made me increase my carb intake to get rid of ketones. Unfortunately, the added carbs made my sugar levels too high. Hence, my GD could not be controlled by diet alone

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    School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a severe form of complicated diabetes mellitus (DM) which requires emergency care. Ketones are synthesised from fatty acids as a substitute form of energy, because glucose has not effectively entered into the cells. Excess ketoacids result in acidosis and severe electrolyte abnormalities, which can be life threatening. The median age o ...

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