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How To Treat Ketoacidosis In Dogs At Home

Diabetes In Dogs (diabetes Mellitus)

Diabetes In Dogs (diabetes Mellitus)

Diabetes in dogs is a common disorder and is similar to juvenile diabetes in people in which the pancreas cannot produce sufficient amount of insulin. This page looks at the symptoms, health risks, and treatment of this disease. It also discusses how to use some natural remedies such as herbs and supplements to help dogs with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes) is a common autoimmune disorder in both cats and dogs. Pets that are obese, as well as neutered male cats and unspayed female dogs are more prone to the disease. Most dogs that have diabetes are between 7 to 9 years old, although it can occur to very young dogs as well. Sugar diabetes is divided into Type I and Type II. Type I diabetes (similar to juvenile diabetes in people) occurs when the body attacks the pancreatic cells that make insulin. When your dog's body does not have enough insulin, the body is unable to properly utilize or store blood sugar, resulting in increased sugar levels. The excessive sugar spills over into the urine and is removed from the body. As a result, the body tissues do not have enough blood sugar to sustain a consistent energy level. This is the most common form of diabetes in dogs and is frequently referred to as insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM). In type II diabetes mellitus, insulin is still produced, but it is either not adequately produced, or the cells are not as sensitive to it as they should be. If the cells are not sensitive enough, then even though insulin is present, glucose cannot enter the cells. Type II diabetes is associated with obesity, and in many cases can be cured with weight loss and exercise. This form is uncommon in dogs and is frequently referred to as non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM). If left untreated, diabetes in dogs will lead to kidney failu Continue reading >>

Sugar High: Petplan Pet Insurance On Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pets

Sugar High: Petplan Pet Insurance On Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Pets

We’ve discussed diabetes before--it’s a condition in cats and dogs caused by either a relative or absolute lack of insulin, which leads to high blood sugar. Blood sugar that is too high for too long results in a serious condition called diabetic ketoacidosis. We see diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA, for short) in patients who are being under treated for diabetes and in patients whose diabetes was previously undiagnosed. These patients often come into the office on an emergency basis because of severe illness--they are vomiting, lethargic, dehydrated, and sometimes semi-comatose. High levels of glucose (or sugar) are found in both the blood and the urine due to insufficient insulin, and ketones are also present in the urine. In addition to high blood sugar levels, an insulin deficiency also affects the metabolism of fat, resulting in an increase in free fatty acids. These are converted to ketones. When insulin is low, ketones cannot be adequately utilized, so they build up in the body, causing ketosis. Ketosis causes acidosis (or acidifying of the blood), vomiting, dehydration, and sometimes neurological problems. In short, they make your diabetic pet feel pretty terrible. Not all animals with DKA show physical signs of illness. If ketones are present in your diabetic pet’s urine, then she also has ketoacidosis, even if she doesn’t appear to be sick. Non-sick ketoacidotic animals need to have their insulin doses re-evaluated to make sure the diabetes is adequately controlled. DKA can be life threatening, so treatment requires hospitalization. Fluid therapy is an important part of treatment to correct dehydration and addresses electrolyte imbalances. Short-acting insulin is administered frequently to decrease blood sugar levels quickly. Once blood glucose levels are Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Go to site For Pet Owners Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that has to be aggressively treated. Diagnosis The diagnosis is based on the presence of ketonuria with signs of systemic illness. Management guidelines Goals of treatment include the correction of fluid deficits, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance, reduction of blood glucose and ketonuria, and beginning insulin therapy and treatment of concurrent diseases. Many protocols for treatment exist but rapid-acting insulin (regular) must be administered first, as decreases in the hyperglycemia must be achieved quickly. When blood sugar levels are lowered and maintained at 200−250 mg/dL for 4−10 hours, then Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) can be used. Evaluation of treatment When evaluating the regulation of insulin therapy, it is important to consider several areas including the evaluation of glycemia, urine monitoring, routine rechecks and glycated protein evaluations. Evaluation of the glycemia Creating a blood glucose curve is the most accurate way to evaluate glycemia in order to adjust the dose of Vetsulin. Indications for creating a blood glucose curve are: First, to establish insulin dose, dosing interval, and insulin type when beginning regulation. Second, to evaluate regulation especially if problems occur. Third, when rebound hyperglycemia (Somogyi effect) is suspected. Contraindications for creating a blood glucose curve are: Concurrent administration of drugs affecting glycemia. Presence of a known infection or disease. Stressed animal. The procedure is as follows: The most accurate way to assess response to management is by generating a blood glucose curve. Ideally, the first sample should be taken just prior to feeding Continue reading >>

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

The growing diabetes epidemic is not limited to people—diabetes mellitus is increasing among dogs as well. Researchers estimate that one in 200 dogs will develop the disease. Fortunately, treatment has made huge strides in recent years, and as a result, dogs with diabetes are living longer, healthier lives. The mechanism of diabetes is relatively simple to describe. Just as cars use gas for fuel, body cells run on a sugar called glucose. The body obtains glucose by breaking down carbohydrates in the diet. Cells then extract glucose from the blood with the help of insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas in specialized cells called beta cells. (The pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach, produces several hormones.) In diabetes mellitus, cells don’t take in enough glucose, which then builds up in the blood. As a result, cells starve and organs bathed in sugary blood are damaged. Diabetes is not curable, but it is treatable; a dog with diabetes may live many happy years after diagnosis. Kinds of Diabetes Humans are subject to essentially three kinds of diabetes. By far the most common is Type 2, followed by Type 1 and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has typically been a disease of middle and old age (though it is being seen increasingly in young people), and has two causes: The beta cells don’t make enough insulin, or muscle cells resist insulin’s help and don’t take in enough glucose (or both). As a result, blood glucose levels climb. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells, cutting off insulin production; the reason for this attack is thought to be a combination of genetic predisposition plus exposure to a trigger (research into possible triggers is ongoing). Glucose then stays in the blood and, aga Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs

Overview Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most severe form of Diabetes Mellitus in dogs, results in severe changes in blood chemicals including imbalances in small, simple chemicals known as electrolytes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition in which a deficiency of the hormone insulin impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar. It is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) diseases of dogs. For more information on the basics of diabetes, go to Diabetes mellitus in dogs DKA is a life-threatening condition caused by diabetes mellitus resulting from insulin deficiency that leads to excess production of ketoacids by the liver. Subsequent changes in the blood result that includes metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities producing severe signs of systemic illness. DKA condition can occur in pets with new diabetes or in current diabetics that decompensate. Secondary diseases and/or infections can cause diabetics to decompensate and develop DKA. What to Watch For with Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Signs associated with DKA depend on the individual pet and the length of time they have been ill. Signs may consist of the classic signs of diabetes including: Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Weight loss despite a good appetite Sudden blindness Additional signs of DKA include: Lethargy Vomiting Weakness Dehydration Some pets will have a strong smell of acetone from their breath Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs Diagnostic tests for DKA in dogs may include: Complete medical history and thorough physical examination. Serum biochemical profile to determine the blood glucose concentration and to exclude other potential causes of the same symptoms such as pancreatitis. Elevated blood glucose is the Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs - Treatment And Prevention - Holistic Approach

Diabetes In Dogs - Treatment And Prevention - Holistic Approach

How a wholesome diet and veterinary care can work together to help diabetic dogs The purpose of this article is to help dogs who suffer from diabetes and discuss why diabetes in dogs can be prevented by using holistic healing methods. What is Diabetes? Diabetes falls into the category of hormonal diseases where the body, more precisely the pancreas, loses its ability to produce insulin, or there is an overproduction of the glucose releasing hormone - glucagon. Insulin Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas (also called Langerhans islets). Its primary function is to make carbohydrates (sugars) available to the cells as a source of energy. If the insulin level is insufficient, or if it is entirely absent, sugars accumulate in the bloodstream. However, the cells are starved of energy because they can’t utilize carbohydrates directly. I visualize insulin as a fuel tank release cap in a car. If the cap is not open, the car cannot be refueled and it will eventually stop. There can be plenty of gas at the pump, but if the tank is not open when you start pumping, it will spill around the car and cause pollution or even a fire. In the case of diabetes, the fire can be compared to a process called diabetic ketoacidosis, by which the sugar-starved cells give the body a signal to burn fat to supply energy. When fat starts burning fast, it creates ketones, toxic byproducts that can cause a state of severe intoxication that can be potentially life-threatening. Glucagon The more recent opinions suggest that diabetes is also caused by overproduction of the hormone Glucagon, which has the opposite function of insulin. It releases glucose into the bloodstream if the levels are low. Glucagon overproduction by the alpha cells of the pancreas can also lead to elev Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs, sometimes shortened to DKA, is a deadly medical emergency that happens when there is not enough insulin in the body to regulate levels of blood sugar known as glucose. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus that requires immediate medical treatment before it becomes fatal. When insulin levels drop, the body can’t use glucose properly, so glucose builds up in the blood while the liver produces ketone bodies to act as an emergency fuel source. When ketone bodies are broken down, they cause the body’s pH balance to shift and become more acidic. Dogs can’t maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance, which results in deadly symptoms. If your dog shows signs of diabetic ketoacidosis, especially if they have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is important that you see an emergency veterinarian right away for treatment. Here is what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs Sometimes dogs that suffer from diabetic ketoacidosis only show mild symptoms, but the majority of affected animals get very sick within a week of the start of the illness. The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can resemble the warning signs of a diabetic condition, which also requires medical attention. The difference is that diabetic ketoacidosis is the body’s final effort at survival before succumbing to diabetes. Here are several symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Excessive thirst or urination Sweet breath Sudden weight loss Muscle loss Loss of appetite Fatigue Unhealthy, rough coat Rapid breathing Dandruff Weakness Vomiting Sudden impaired vision Causes Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs The main cause of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs is ultimately insulin depende Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

3 Things Your Vet Might Not Tell You About Treating Your Diabetic Dog

3 Things Your Vet Might Not Tell You About Treating Your Diabetic Dog

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, diabetes affects approximately one in every 500 dogs. Chuck, my senior Pug mix, was diagnosed with the disease shortly after I adopted him. He was 10 years old and severely overweight when he came from the shelter. Although I did get his weight down by 25 percent thanks to a lot of walks, all that extra heft undoubtedly contributed to the onset of his disease. (Please don’t let your dogs get fat, it’s so dangerous to their health!) When your dog is diagnosed with diabetes, there is a ton of information to learn. Yet, there are quite a few things you may just take at face value without even thinking to question. Trust me, don’t do that. Always be inquisitive. Here is what I learned by managing Chuck’s diabetes. 1. There are different types of insulin When Chuck got his first insulin prescription, it was for Humulin N. I went to Costco and paid $130 for a bottle that would last a month. Over the next few days, I did some research and discovered Chuck could be moved to Novolin N (a different type of insulin). This is an equally expensive drug, but I finally found it for $24.88 at my local Walmart. Never underestimate the value of shopping around. Pharmacies frequently have contracts with certain drug companies that affect which drugs they sell and how much they cost. When your dog is diagnosed, invest the time into exploring your medication options. When asked, Chuck’s vet didn’t even know there were two insulins (she just jotted down the one she knew about), and it took some independent research on my part to determine Chuck could be safely moved from one to the other (not all animals can or should, so be careful and only do it with medical supervision). 2. You can do blood glucose curves at home When t Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Studies show that female dogs (particularly non-spayed) are more prone to DKA, as are older canines. Diabetic ketoacidosis is best classified through the presence of ketones that exist in the liver, which are directly correlated to the lack of insulin being produced in the body. This is a very serious complication, requiring immediate veterinary intervention. Although a number of dogs can be affected mildly, the majority are very ill. Some dogs will not recover despite treatment, and concurrent disease has been documented in 70% of canines diagnosed with DKA. Diabetes with ketone bodies is also described in veterinary terms as diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. It is a severe complication of diabetes mellitus. Excess ketone bodies result in acidosis and electrolyte abnormalities, which can lead to a crisis situation for your dog. If left in an untreated state, this condition can and will be fatal. Some dogs who are suffering from diabetic ketoacidosis may present as systemically well. Others will show severe illness. Symptoms may be seen as listed below: Change in appetite (either increase or decrease) Increased thirst Frequent urination Vomiting Abdominal pain Mental dullness Coughing Fatigue or weakness Weight loss Sometimes sweet smelling breath is evident Slow, deep respiration. There may also be other symptoms present that accompany diseases that can trigger DKA, such as hypothyroidism or Cushing’s disease. While some dogs may live fairly normal lives with this condition before it is diagnosed, most canines who become sick will do so within a week of the start of the illness. There are four influences that can bring on DKA: Fasting Insulin deficiency as a result of unknown and untreated diabetes, or insulin deficiency due to an underlying disease that in turn exacerba Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs And Cats

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs And Cats

What is DKA in Dogs and Cats? Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that can occur in dogs and cats. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketonemia, +/- ketonuria, and metabolic acidosis. Ketone bodies are formed by lipolysis (breakdown) of fat and beta-oxidation when the metabolic demands of the cells are not met by the limited intracellular glucose concentrations. This provides alternative energy sources for cells, which are most important for the brain. The three ketones that are formed include beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are anions of moderately strong acids contributing most to the academia (low blood pH). Acetone is the ketone body that can be detected on breath. In a normal animal, glucose enters the cell (with help of insulin) – undergoes glycolysis to pyruvate within cytosol – pyruvate moves into mitochondria (energy generating organelle in the cell) to enter the TCA cycle and ATP is formed. ATP is the main energy source of the body. When glucose cannot enter the cell, free fatty acids are broken down (lipolysis) and move into the cell to undergo beta-oxidation (creation of pyruvate). The pyruvate then moves into the mitochondria to enter the TCA cycle (by conversion to Acetyl-CoA first). However, when the TCA cycle is overwhelmed, the Acetyl-CoA is used in ketogenesis to form ketone bodies. Summary Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs and Cats When there is no insulin the body cannot utilize glucose and there is no intracellular glucose. The body then uses ketone bodes as an alternate source. When there is decreased insulin and increased counterregulatory hormones fatty acids are converted to AcCoA and then ketones. In the non-diabetic Continue reading >>

New Insights Into The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

New Insights Into The Management Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in the ill-appearing diabetic dog is usually straightforward. Dogs with DKA usually present with dramatic clinical manifestations, such as anorexia, vomiting, and lethargy. Within such a setting, detection of ketonuria can rapidly confirm the suspicion of DKA, but it has few implications in the subsequent approach. One can estimate ketonemia by applying a drop of serum or plasma on the appropriate reagent of the urine test strip, but this test only detects acetoacetate and is a semiquantitative test. The measurement of plasma beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) on admission can provide additional information. Based on a previous study, dogs with plasma β-OHB >2.0 mmol/L should receive ambulatory monitoring and treatment, until the results of additional tests. If plasma β-OHB is >3.8 mmol/L the diagnosis of DKA is confirmed and intensive care is warranted.1 Coincidentally, a recent study in human beings with DKA, suggested that the same cutoff value of plasma β-OHB should be used for the diagnosis of DKA, using a portable meter (MediSense Optium, Abbott Laboratories).2 This device has been validated for the use in dogs.3 Evaluation of blood gases and pH is still needed. In a study of our group (unpublished data), mixed acid-base disorders were common, chiefly high anion gap acidosis and concurrent respiratory alkalosis, and hyperchloremic acidosis with moderated to marked increases in serum B-OHB. The implications of these findings are unknown, but in human patients with DKA, both conditions can possibly slower the recovery from metabolic acidosis. Because respiratory alkalosis is the expected physiologic response to metabolic acidosis, this mixed acid-base disorder may be difficult to recognize clinically, and the diagnosis can Continue reading >>

What Causes High Ketones In A Canine?

What Causes High Ketones In A Canine?

A dog with a high level of ketones in his urine suffers from a condition known as ketonuria, usually resulting from a buildup of these substances in the dog's blood. A ketone is a type of acid, which, if allowed to accumulate in the blood, can lead to ketoacidosis, a potentially fatal condition. The main health conditions that can cause high ketone levels in a canine are starvation and diabetes. A dog's body breaks down the food that he eats into sugars, also called glucose, that the cells of the body use for energy. The dog's pancreas then produces the hormone insulin to regulate the amount of glucose that the body will absorb. If the insulin to regulate the glucose is insufficient, typically due to chronic diabetes mellitus, the body breaks down alternate sources of fuel for its cells; a dog's body that is starved of nutrition will do the same. One of these sources is the fat stored in the dog's body. When the body breaks down this fat, it produces as a by-product toxic acids known as a ketones. These ketones then build up in the dog's blood and also his urine, leading to ketoacidosis. Always consult an experienced veterinarian regarding the health and treatment of your pet. A dog suffering from high ketone levels in his blood and urine exhibits symptoms of weight loss, vomiting, increased thirst, decreased appetite, increased urination, lethargy, low body temperature and yellowing of the skin and gums, according to PetMD. The dog's breath may also have a sweet, fruity smell due to the presence of acetone caused by ketoacidosis, says VetInfo. To properly diagnose high ketone levels and ketoacidosis in your dog, a veterinarian will take blood tests and a urinalysis, which will also check your dog's blood glucose levels. Depending on the dog's physical condition, hospit Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic ketoacidosis in canine, every now and then shortened to DKA, is a dangerous clinical emergency that occurs when there isn’t sufficient insulin within the frame to keep an eye on ranges of blood sugar referred to as glucose. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus that calls for rapid clinical remedy sooner than it turns into deadly. When insulin ranges drop, the frame can’t use glucose correctly, so glucose builds up within the blood whilst the liver produces ketone our bodies to behave as an emergency gas supply. When ketone our bodies are damaged down, they purpose the frame’s pH stability to shift and turn into extra acidic. Dogs can’t deal with their fluid and electrolyte stability, which ends up in fatal signs. If your canine presentations indicators of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly if they’ve been recognized with diabetes, it is vital that you just see an emergency veterinarian instantly for remedy. Here is what you will have to know in regards to the signs, reasons, and coverings for diabetic ketoacidosis in canine. Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs (Picture Credit: Getty Image) Sometimes canine that be afflicted by diabetic ketoacidosis best display gentle signs, however the majority of affected animals get very in poor health inside per week of the beginning of the sickness. The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis can resemble the caution indicators of a diabetic situation, which additionally calls for clinical consideration. The distinction is that diabetic ketoacidosis is the frame’s ultimate effort at survival sooner than succumbing to diabetes. Here are a number of signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in canine. Excessive thirst or urination Dehydration Sweet breath Sudden weight reduction Muscle loss Loss of urge for food Fatigue Continue reading >>

How To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

How To Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetes is a very common medical condition that arises in human beings. Pets, including dogs and cats are also as susceptible to this disease as humans. When diabetes in dogs is left unidentified or is inappropriately treated, it leads to a much serious condition known as "Diabetic Ketoacidosis" (DKA). It is a life-threatening condition and can prove fatal if left untreated. It is characterized by raised blood glucose level, presence of ketones in urine, and reduced levels of bicarbonate in the blood. Dogs suffering from this medical condition are seriously ill and develop other complications as well. Associated Symptoms Diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs produces the following symptoms - Weight loss Vomiting Depression Abdominal pain Lethargy and fatigue Loss of appetite Sudden loss of vision Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Treatment Provided If condition of the dog is relatively stable, veterinarians administer short-acting, crystalline insulin injections at regular intervals to bring back blood glucose to normal level. Regular administration of insulin gradually controls serum glucose level and level of ketones in the dog's urine. Crystalline insulin is administered intravenously or intramuscularly on an hourly basis till the glucose level in the body is reduced to normal. Dextrose is also administered along with other fluids to prevent glucose levels from falling down far below the normal levels, after the dog is subjected to a dose of insulin. Severely ill dogs are treated in a different way as compared to relatively stable dogs. Treatment includes replacement of fluid deficit in the dog's body and maintenance of body fluid balance. Bicarbonate is administered to maintain the acid-base balance in the body. Many dogs recover fairly after being treated Continue reading >>

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