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How To Treat Ketoacidosis In Dogs At Home

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Update On Insulin Treatment For Dogs And Cats: Insulin Dosing Pens And More

Authors Thompson A, Lathan P, Fleeman L Accepted for publication 19 February 2015 Checked for plagiarism Yes Peer reviewer comments 3 1School of Veterinary Science, The University of Queensland, Gatton, QLD, Australia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 3Animal Diabetes Australia, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Abstract: Insulin therapy is still the primary therapy for all diabetic dogs and cats. Several insulin options are available for each species, including veterinary registered products and human insulin preparations. The insulin chosen depends on the individual patient's requirements. Intermediate-acting insulin is usually the first choice for dogs, and longer-acting insulin is the first choice for cats. Once the insulin type is chosen, the best method of insulin administration should be considered. Traditionally, insulin vials and syringes have been used, but insulin pen devices have recently entered the veterinary market. Pens have different handling requirements when compared with standard insulin vials including: storage out of the refrigerator for some insulin preparations once pen cartridges are in use; priming of the pen to ensure a full dose of insulin is administered; and holding the pen device in place for several seconds during the injection. Many different types of pen devices are available, with features such as half-unit dosing, large dials for visually impaired people, and memory that can display the last time and dose of insulin administered. Insulin pens come in both reusable and disposable options. Pens have several benefits over syringes, including improved dose accuracy, especially for low insulin doses. Keywords: diabetes, mellitus, canine, feline, NPH, glargine, porcine lente Introduction Insulin the Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic ketoacidosis in canine, every now and then shortened to DKA, is a dangerous clinical emergency that occurs when there isn’t sufficient insulin within the frame to keep an eye on ranges of blood sugar referred to as glucose. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus that calls for rapid clinical remedy sooner than it turns into deadly. When insulin ranges drop, the frame can’t use glucose correctly, so glucose builds up within the blood whilst the liver produces ketone our bodies to behave as an emergency gas supply. When ketone our bodies are damaged down, they purpose the frame’s pH stability to shift and turn into extra acidic. Dogs can’t deal with their fluid and electrolyte stability, which ends up in fatal signs. If your canine presentations indicators of diabetic ketoacidosis, particularly if they’ve been recognized with diabetes, it is vital that you just see an emergency veterinarian instantly for remedy. Here is what you will have to know in regards to the signs, reasons, and coverings for diabetic ketoacidosis in canine. Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs (Picture Credit: Getty Image) Sometimes canine that be afflicted by diabetic ketoacidosis best display gentle signs, however the majority of affected animals get very in poor health inside per week of the beginning of the sickness. The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis can resemble the caution indicators of a diabetic situation, which additionally calls for clinical consideration. The distinction is that diabetic ketoacidosis is the frame’s ultimate effort at survival sooner than succumbing to diabetes. Here are a number of signs of diabetic ketoacidosis in canine. Excessive thirst or urination Dehydration Sweet breath Sudden weight reduction Muscle loss Loss of urge for food Fatigue Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Dogs - Treatment And Prevention - Holistic Approach

Diabetes In Dogs - Treatment And Prevention - Holistic Approach

How a wholesome diet and veterinary care can work together to help diabetic dogs The purpose of this article is to help dogs who suffer from diabetes and discuss why diabetes in dogs can be prevented by using holistic healing methods. What is Diabetes? Diabetes falls into the category of hormonal diseases where the body, more precisely the pancreas, loses its ability to produce insulin, or there is an overproduction of the glucose releasing hormone - glucagon. Insulin Insulin is a hormone produced by the beta cells of the pancreas (also called Langerhans islets). Its primary function is to make carbohydrates (sugars) available to the cells as a source of energy. If the insulin level is insufficient, or if it is entirely absent, sugars accumulate in the bloodstream. However, the cells are starved of energy because they can’t utilize carbohydrates directly. I visualize insulin as a fuel tank release cap in a car. If the cap is not open, the car cannot be refueled and it will eventually stop. There can be plenty of gas at the pump, but if the tank is not open when you start pumping, it will spill around the car and cause pollution or even a fire. In the case of diabetes, the fire can be compared to a process called diabetic ketoacidosis, by which the sugar-starved cells give the body a signal to burn fat to supply energy. When fat starts burning fast, it creates ketones, toxic byproducts that can cause a state of severe intoxication that can be potentially life-threatening. Glucagon The more recent opinions suggest that diabetes is also caused by overproduction of the hormone Glucagon, which has the opposite function of insulin. It releases glucose into the bloodstream if the levels are low. Glucagon overproduction by the alpha cells of the pancreas can also lead to elev Continue reading >>

Use Of Intravenous Insulin Aspart For Treatment Of Naturally Occurring Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Use Of Intravenous Insulin Aspart For Treatment Of Naturally Occurring Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Objectives To characterize the utility and safety of IV insulin aspart in the treatment of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) in dogs and to determine the times to resolution of hyperglycemia, ketonemia, and acidemia in dogs treated with IV insulin aspart.DesignProspective noncontrolled single arm study of dogs with DKA between February 2010 and March 2011.SettingUniversity teaching hospital.AnimalsSix dogs with spontaneous DKA and blood glucose (BG) concentration >13.8 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), pH between 7.0 and 7.35, and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate >2.0 mmol/L were treated with an IV continuous rate infusion (CRI) of aspart insulin. The time to biochemical resolution of DKA was defined as the time interval from when the IV CRI of aspart insulin began until marked hyperglycemia (BG concentration >13.8 mmol/L [250 mg/dL]), acidemia (venous pH <7.35), and ketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration >2.0 mmol/L) resolved. Aspart insulin was administered as an IV CRI at an initial dose of 0.09 U/kg/h. The dose was adjusted according to a previously published protocol.Measurements and Main ResultsThe median time to biochemical resolution of DKA in dogs treated with insulin aspart was 28 hours (range, 20–116 h). Mean BG concentration decreased significantly from the time IV fluid resuscitation began (32.0 mmol/L [576 mg/dL]; range, 14.9–38.9 mmol/L [268–700 mg/dL]) until 6 hours later when IV aspart insulin CRI began (20.1 mmol/L [363 mg/dL]; range, 9.4–26.1 mmol/L [169–470 mg/dL], P = 0.03). No adverse effects were observed in association with IV insulin aspart administration. Median cost of hospitalization was US$3,477 (range, US$1,483–10,469). Median total units per kilogram of administered IV insulin aspart was 2.97 U/kg (range, 2.04–10.52 U/kg).Conclusions Intravenou Continue reading >>

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Managing Diabetes Complicated By Ketoacidosis

Go to site For Pet Owners Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that has to be aggressively treated. Diagnosis The diagnosis is based on the presence of ketonuria with signs of systemic illness. Management guidelines Goals of treatment include the correction of fluid deficits, acid-base balance and electrolyte balance, reduction of blood glucose and ketonuria, and beginning insulin therapy and treatment of concurrent diseases. Many protocols for treatment exist but rapid-acting insulin (regular) must be administered first, as decreases in the hyperglycemia must be achieved quickly. When blood sugar levels are lowered and maintained at 200−250 mg/dL for 4−10 hours, then Vetsulin® (porcine insulin zinc suspension) can be used. Evaluation of treatment When evaluating the regulation of insulin therapy, it is important to consider several areas including the evaluation of glycemia, urine monitoring, routine rechecks and glycated protein evaluations. Evaluation of the glycemia Creating a blood glucose curve is the most accurate way to evaluate glycemia in order to adjust the dose of Vetsulin. Indications for creating a blood glucose curve are: First, to establish insulin dose, dosing interval, and insulin type when beginning regulation. Second, to evaluate regulation especially if problems occur. Third, when rebound hyperglycemia (Somogyi effect) is suspected. Contraindications for creating a blood glucose curve are: Concurrent administration of drugs affecting glycemia. Presence of a known infection or disease. Stressed animal. The procedure is as follows: The most accurate way to assess response to management is by generating a blood glucose curve. Ideally, the first sample should be taken just prior to feeding Continue reading >>

Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Canine diabetic ketoacidosis, sometimes known as DKA, is a potentially fatal disease that most commonly occurs in dogs with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, although in rare cases it has been known to appear in nondiabetic dogs. This condition symptomatically resembles that of diabetes but usually goes unnoticed until a near-fatal situation is at hand. For this reason, it is important to understand the causes, symptoms and treatment options. How Canine Diabetic Ketoacidosis Develops Under normal conditions, the pancreas is responsible for producing insulin, which helps to regulate the level of glucose in the blood cells. When the pancreas is ineffectively able to create enough insulin, a dog becomes diabetic. By default, a dog's body will begin looking for alternative fuel sources, such as fat. The problem is that when too much fat is consumed by the body, the liver then begins to produce ketones. This excessive level of ketones causes the condition known as canine diabetic ketoacidosis. There are two scenarios in which this can occur: in dogs with poorly controlled diabetes and in dogs with undiagnosed diabetes. Recognizing the Symptoms Because of the potentially deadly side effects, it is crucially important that dog owners be aware of the symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis. One of the more common problems associated with this illness is the extreme similarity of the warning signs to a diabetic condition. While both conditions are harmful, canine diabetic ketoacidosis represents the last step taken by the body before it surrenders to the condition. The following are some of the recognizable symptoms of canine diabetic ketoacidosis: Drinking or urinating more than usual Sudden, excessive weight loss attributed to loss of appetite General fatigue Vomiting Sudden on Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs And Cats

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs And Cats

What is DKA in Dogs and Cats? Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that can occur in dogs and cats. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketonemia, +/- ketonuria, and metabolic acidosis. Ketone bodies are formed by lipolysis (breakdown) of fat and beta-oxidation when the metabolic demands of the cells are not met by the limited intracellular glucose concentrations. This provides alternative energy sources for cells, which are most important for the brain. The three ketones that are formed include beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are anions of moderately strong acids contributing most to the academia (low blood pH). Acetone is the ketone body that can be detected on breath. In a normal animal, glucose enters the cell (with help of insulin) – undergoes glycolysis to pyruvate within cytosol – pyruvate moves into mitochondria (energy generating organelle in the cell) to enter the TCA cycle and ATP is formed. ATP is the main energy source of the body. When glucose cannot enter the cell, free fatty acids are broken down (lipolysis) and move into the cell to undergo beta-oxidation (creation of pyruvate). The pyruvate then moves into the mitochondria to enter the TCA cycle (by conversion to Acetyl-CoA first). However, when the TCA cycle is overwhelmed, the Acetyl-CoA is used in ketogenesis to form ketone bodies. Summary Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs and Cats When there is no insulin the body cannot utilize glucose and there is no intracellular glucose. The body then uses ketone bodes as an alternate source. When there is decreased insulin and increased counterregulatory hormones fatty acids are converted to AcCoA and then ketones. In the non-diabetic Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs And Cats

Ketoacidosis is a complication of diabetes in pets, and is one of the most severe side effects that can accompany the condition. Finding your pet seriously ill and receiving a diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis can be a big shock to the pet owner, as most presentations of the condition occur in animals that were not actually known to be diabetic in the first place. This is of course extremely worrying for the pet owner, as they will have to face not only the very serious and possibly life-threatening immediate issue of diabetic ketoacidosis itself, but have to face the reality that assuming their pet survives, they will have to deal with the serious and potentially expensive diagnosis of diabetes as well. What is ketoacidosis? Ketoacidosis occurs when the animal’s metabolism is thrown severely out of whack, as part of the development of diabetes in the pet. Usually, an additional trigger such as an inflammation, infection or condition such as pancreatitis is also required to trigger ketoacidosis, as any of these things can interfere with the way that the body regulates and processes glucose. Ketoacidosis starves the body’s cells of glucose, despite the fact that sufficient glucose is present within the blood. The diabetic element of this is that sufficient natural insulin is not being made available to the body to allow the glucose in the blood to enter the cells, as glucose requires insulin in order to metabolise. The body responds to this issue by metabolising all of the fat stores and other sources of fuel available to it, breaking down the very structure of the body itself. This process causes the production of ketones, which the body then attempts to burn as fuel, which is not a normal healthy process. In turn, the burning of ketones by the body leads to a dang Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Dogs Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. The term “ketoacidosis,” meanwhile, refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies”. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. This condition typically affects older dogs as well as females. In addition, miniature poodles and dachshunds are predisposed to diabetes with ketoacidosis. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the dog's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azo Continue reading >>

Use Of Intravenous Insulin Aspart For Treatment Of Naturally Occurring Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs.

Use Of Intravenous Insulin Aspart For Treatment Of Naturally Occurring Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs.

Abstract OBJECTIVES: To characterize the utility and safety of IV insulin aspart in the treatment of diabetes ketoacidosis (DKA) in dogs and to determine the times to resolution of hyperglycemia, ketonemia, and acidemia in dogs treated with IV insulin aspart. DESIGN: Prospective noncontrolled single arm study of dogs with DKA between February 2010 and March 2011. SETTING: University teaching hospital. ANIMALS: Six dogs with spontaneous DKA and blood glucose (BG) concentration >13.8 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), pH between 7.0 and 7.35, and blood beta-hydroxybutyrate >2.0 mmol/L were treated with an IV continuous rate infusion (CRI) of aspart insulin. The time to biochemical resolution of DKA was defined as the time interval from when the IV CRI of aspart insulin began until marked hyperglycemia (BG concentration >13.8 mmol/L [250 mg/dL]), acidemia (venous pH <7.35), and ketonemia (beta-hydroxybutyrate concentration >2.0 mmol/L) resolved. Aspart insulin was administered as an IV CRI at an initial dose of 0.09 U/kg/h. The dose was adjusted according to a previously published protocol. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The median time to biochemical resolution of DKA in dogs treated with insulin aspart was 28 hours (range, 20-116 h). Mean BG concentration decreased significantly from the time IV fluid resuscitation began (32.0 mmol/L [576 mg/dL]; range, 14.9-38.9 mmol/L [268-700 mg/dL]) until 6 hours later when IV aspart insulin CRI began (20.1 mmol/L [363 mg/dL]; range, 9.4-26.1 mmol/L [169-470 mg/dL], P = 0.03). No adverse effects were observed in association with IV insulin aspart administration. Median cost of hospitalization was US$3,477 (range, US$1,483-10,469). Median total units per kilogram of administered IV insulin aspart was 2.97 U/kg (range, 2.04-10.52 U/kg). CONCLUSIONS: Continue reading >>

3 Things Your Vet Might Not Tell You About Treating Your Diabetic Dog

3 Things Your Vet Might Not Tell You About Treating Your Diabetic Dog

According to the American Veterinary Medical Association, diabetes affects approximately one in every 500 dogs. Chuck, my senior Pug mix, was diagnosed with the disease shortly after I adopted him. He was 10 years old and severely overweight when he came from the shelter. Although I did get his weight down by 25 percent thanks to a lot of walks, all that extra heft undoubtedly contributed to the onset of his disease. (Please don’t let your dogs get fat, it’s so dangerous to their health!) When your dog is diagnosed with diabetes, there is a ton of information to learn. Yet, there are quite a few things you may just take at face value without even thinking to question. Trust me, don’t do that. Always be inquisitive. Here is what I learned by managing Chuck’s diabetes. 1. There are different types of insulin When Chuck got his first insulin prescription, it was for Humulin N. I went to Costco and paid $130 for a bottle that would last a month. Over the next few days, I did some research and discovered Chuck could be moved to Novolin N (a different type of insulin). This is an equally expensive drug, but I finally found it for $24.88 at my local Walmart. Never underestimate the value of shopping around. Pharmacies frequently have contracts with certain drug companies that affect which drugs they sell and how much they cost. When your dog is diagnosed, invest the time into exploring your medication options. When asked, Chuck’s vet didn’t even know there were two insulins (she just jotted down the one she knew about), and it took some independent research on my part to determine Chuck could be safely moved from one to the other (not all animals can or should, so be careful and only do it with medical supervision). 2. You can do blood glucose curves at home When t Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs: Symptoms, Causes, & Treatments

Diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs, sometimes shortened to DKA, is a deadly medical emergency that happens when there is not enough insulin in the body to regulate levels of blood sugar known as glucose. It is a complication of diabetes mellitus that requires immediate medical treatment before it becomes fatal. When insulin levels drop, the body can’t use glucose properly, so glucose builds up in the blood while the liver produces ketone bodies to act as an emergency fuel source. When ketone bodies are broken down, they cause the body’s pH balance to shift and become more acidic. Dogs can’t maintain their fluid and electrolyte balance, which results in deadly symptoms. If your dog shows signs of diabetic ketoacidosis, especially if they have been diagnosed with diabetes, it is important that you see an emergency veterinarian right away for treatment. Here is what you should know about the symptoms, causes, and treatments for diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Symptoms Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs Sometimes dogs that suffer from diabetic ketoacidosis only show mild symptoms, but the majority of affected animals get very sick within a week of the start of the illness. The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis can resemble the warning signs of a diabetic condition, which also requires medical attention. The difference is that diabetic ketoacidosis is the body’s final effort at survival before succumbing to diabetes. Here are several symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs. Excessive thirst or urination Sweet breath Sudden weight loss Muscle loss Loss of appetite Fatigue Unhealthy, rough coat Rapid breathing Dandruff Weakness Vomiting Sudden impaired vision Causes Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs The main cause of diabetic ketoacidosis in dogs is ultimately insulin depende Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

Dog Diabetes: A Natural And Effective Alternative

Dog Diabetes: A Natural And Effective Alternative

56 Yet another human disease that also impacts dogs is diabetes. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin or an insufficient response to the hormone. In a dog’s typical digestive process, the system breaks food down into components like glucose. Those components are carried to cells by pancreas-secreted insulin. When a dog doesn’t produce enough insulin or is unable to use it properly, glucose has nowhere to go. This elevates blood sugar levels, resulting in hyperglycemia and a number of associated health complications. The good news is that canine diabetes is adaptable; many diabetic dogs lead hale and hearty lives. Types of Diabetes There are two types of diabetes: Type I and Type II. Type I diabetes refers to the lack of overall insulin production and is the most common form of the disease. This happens because the pancreas fails to secrete sufficient levels of the stuff. Dogs with Type I diabetes, as you may have guessed, need insulin. Type II diabetes is more common in our feline friends and is a lack of “normal” reaction to insulin the body is already producing. Symptoms of Diabetes There are a number of symptoms of diabetes in dogs. Remember, though, that diabetes is identified through blood tests, a full medical examination and a urinalysis. Do not diagnose your own dog. Among the symptoms of diabetes in dogs are: Disproportionate thirst or a surge in consumption of water Loss of weight Increased levels of urination Fatigue Vomiting Forming of cataracts or attendant vision difficulties Skin infections Sweet-smelling or “fruity” breath Sticky urine Causes and Considerations The exact cause of diabetes in dogs is unknown. There are a number of contributing factors, including obesity and genetics, that play a role in how and if the disease develop Continue reading >>

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

Preventing And Treating Canine Diabetes

The growing diabetes epidemic is not limited to people—diabetes mellitus is increasing among dogs as well. Researchers estimate that one in 200 dogs will develop the disease. Fortunately, treatment has made huge strides in recent years, and as a result, dogs with diabetes are living longer, healthier lives. The mechanism of diabetes is relatively simple to describe. Just as cars use gas for fuel, body cells run on a sugar called glucose. The body obtains glucose by breaking down carbohydrates in the diet. Cells then extract glucose from the blood with the help of insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas in specialized cells called beta cells. (The pancreas, an organ situated behind the stomach, produces several hormones.) In diabetes mellitus, cells don’t take in enough glucose, which then builds up in the blood. As a result, cells starve and organs bathed in sugary blood are damaged. Diabetes is not curable, but it is treatable; a dog with diabetes may live many happy years after diagnosis. Kinds of Diabetes Humans are subject to essentially three kinds of diabetes. By far the most common is Type 2, followed by Type 1 and gestational diabetes. Type 2 diabetes has typically been a disease of middle and old age (though it is being seen increasingly in young people), and has two causes: The beta cells don’t make enough insulin, or muscle cells resist insulin’s help and don’t take in enough glucose (or both). As a result, blood glucose levels climb. Type 1 diabetes usually occurs when the immune system attacks and destroys the beta cells, cutting off insulin production; the reason for this attack is thought to be a combination of genetic predisposition plus exposure to a trigger (research into possible triggers is ongoing). Glucose then stays in the blood and, aga Continue reading >>

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