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How To Treat Ketoacidosis In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

The Signs, Diagnosis & Types Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats

There are certain signs or symptoms which are commonly seen in cats with diabetes mellitus. Unfortunately, these signs also occur in other diseases and conditions. Therefore, laboratory tests are necessary to diagnose diabetes mellitus in cats. The following article includes a discussion of how this diagnosis is made and the types of diabetes found in cats. What are the signs of diabetes mellitus in cats and why do they occur? Depending on how severely insulin production is impaired, there may be few signs of disease, or the signs may be severe. Dogs with diabetes often develop cataracts; cats do not. The most common signs of diabetes are: Increased thirst (polydipsia) and urination (polyuria) Change in appetite Weight loss Change in gait (walking) Decreased activity, weakness, depression Vomiting Increased Thirst and Urination: Because the glucose cannot enter the cells, the glucose levels in the blood become abnormally high (hyperglycemia). The glucose is filtered out by the kidneys and is found in the urine (glucosuria). When it is filtered out, it carries water with it. The animal, then, is losing more water through the urine than normal and has to make up for it by drinking more. Inappropriate Elimination: The increased urination may result in the cat not always urinating in the litter box. This inappropriate urination may be one of the first signs of diabetes in cats. In addition, cats with diabetes can often develop urinary tract infections, which may also result in inappropriate elimination. Change in Appetite: Some diabetic cats eat less, because frankly, they do not feel well. Other cats may have voracious appetites and eat a lot (polyphagia) because their hypothalamus keeps telling them they are hungry. Weight Loss: Because the cat cannot use the calories he Continue reading >>

When And How To Check For Them

When And How To Check For Them

Information provided about specific medical procedures or conditions is for educational purposes to allow for educated, on-going discussion with your vet and is not intended to replace veterinary advice. Diabetic Cat Care Ketones Many of us have heard of ketogenic diets; used often by bodybuilders, or to help with weight loss. The science is that by keeping the body in a ketone producing state, fat stores will be used by the body, weight will drop off much more quickly. That may be fine for humans, but producing ketones is the last state we want our diabetic cats to be in. Ketones occur when the body cannot access blood glucose for energy. Left untreated, ketones build up in the system and can lead to a life threatening situation called Diabetic Ketoacidosis, also known as DKA. While development of ketones is not an "immediate emergency", the progression of excessive ketones which develop into diabetic ketoacidosis IS a very real emergency situation requiring immediate veterinary care and very aggressive treatment. Catching ketones at low levels, before they get out of control, and then taking immediate and appropriate action can save your cat’s life. Ketones are a direct result of hyperglycemia (high BG). Ketones can develop because of not enough insulin, illness, infection, and/or anorexia. In humans, ketones can be produced when the body burns too much fat storage for energy. While practicing TR it is very rare for a cat to produce ketones once the BG is well regulated. That said, at the start of TR, right after diagnosis, if your cat is sick, or when making an insulin switch, its strongly recommended as a precaution to test for ketones if your cat is over renal threshold (225/12.5) for longer than a day. For those cats prone to quick ketone production, checking fo Continue reading >>

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

2010 Aaha Diabetes Management Guidelines For Dogs And Cats

Renee Rucinsky, DVM, ABVP (Feline) (Chair) | Audrey Cook, BVM&:S, MRCVS, Diplomate ACVIM-SAIM, Diplomate ECVIM-CA | Steve Haley, DVM | Richard Nelson, DVM, Diplomate ACVIM | Debra L. Zoran, DVM, PhD, Diplomate ACVIM | Melanie Poundstone, DVM, ABVP - Download PDF - Introduction Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a treatable condition that requires a committed effort by veterinarian and client. This document provides current recommendations for the treatment of diabetes in dogs and cats. Treatment of DM is a combination of art and science, due in part to the many factors that affect the diabetic state and the animal's response. Each animal needs individualized, frequent reassessment, and treatment may be modified based on response. In both dogs and cats, DM is caused by loss or dysfunction of pancreatic beta cells. In the dog, beta cell loss tends to be rapid and progressive, and it is usually due to immune-mediated destruction, vacuolar degeneration, or pancreatitis.1 Intact females may be transiently diabetic due to the insulin-resistant effects of the diestrus phase. In the cat, loss or dysfunction of beta cells is the result of insulin resistance, islet amyloidosis, or chronic lymphoplasmacytic pancreatitis.2 Risk factors for both dogs and cats include insulin resistance caused by obesity, other diseases (e.g., acromegaly in cats, hyperadrenocorticism in dogs), or medications (e.g., steroids, progestins). Genetics is a suspected risk factor, and certain breeds of dogs (Australian terriers, beagles, Samoyeds, keeshonden3) and cats (Burmese4) are more susceptible. Regardless of the underlying etiology, diabetic dogs and cats are hyperglycemic and glycosuric, which leads to the classic clinical signs of polyuria, polydipsia (PU/PD), polyphagia, and weight loss. Increased fat mobi Continue reading >>

How To Treat Cat Diabetes At Home With These Top 5 Holistic Options.

How To Treat Cat Diabetes At Home With These Top 5 Holistic Options.

Cat diabetes is increasingly being diagnosed, and currently it affects more than 1 in 400 cats. Diabetes is very treatable, and does not need to shorten your cat’s life span. This article will go over the signs of diabetes in cats, along with the various suspected causes. I will review the most common solutions, focusing on the lesser know natural solutions that you can use to treat your cat for diabetes at home. Most pet owner’s first suspect that their cat has diabetes as their cat is drinking and urinating much more than normal. This may be accompanied by increased appetite, but also weight loss. Occasional there is noticeable leg weakness, or dropping down on the rear legs. Some people notice a sweet smell to the breath. If not noticed early, your cat may become very ill with a condition called Ketoacidosis. This requires immediate veterinary treatment. Diabetes is a result of the pancreas not producing enough insulin to allow the body to utilize blood glucose (sugar). This results in high blood sugar levels causing increased drinking and urination. Some cats are genetically at risk of developing diabetes. Cats that are obese typically are on a high carbohydrate dry cat food, are at higher risk. If you suspect your pet is diabetic, have this confirmed by your veterinarian. Most cats begin with insulin, but with some diet alterations may come off insulin therapy. Ask your veterinarian about Glargine (brand name Lantus) Insulin – it is longer acting and better at regulating difficult to better at regulating difficult to regulate diabetic cats. The insulin injections can be given at home, and at the same time each day. Your veterinarian will show you how to give injections – they are not painful and usually not even noticed. The proper type of insulin, dose, an Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is an emergency. DKA develops due to: Long standing undiagnosed diabetes mellitus Insufficient insulin dose in treated diabetics Reduced insulin action - caused by obesity , concurrent illness or drugs. This is the cause of more than two-thirds of cases of DKA. What causes DKA? Due to a lack of insulin , glucose cannot be used by the body cells as an energy source. Instead fat is broken down to provide energy. When fat is used as an energy source, acids known as ketones are produced. Ketones circulating in the blood cause signs of DKA - anorexia, nausea and lethargy. Diagnosis The diagnosis of DKA is based on detecting ketones in the urine and sometimes in the blood along with signs of illness. See Urine Monitoring for more information. Treatment DKA is an emergency and treatment must be started as soon as possible. Your veterinary surgeon will administer intravenous fluids and insulin and correct any underlying disorders to stabilise your cat. Once your cat is stabilised it will be started on long term insulin therapy again. Continue reading >>

Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

Feline Chronic Kidney Disease

ON THIS PAGE: Risk Factors Home > Related Diseases > Diabetes It is not uncommon for a CKD cat to also have or develop diabetes. The dietary needs of a diabetic cat may seem incompatible with the needs of a CKD cat but the diabetes must take precedence. What is Diabetes Mellitus? Insulin is a hormone which enables the body to process food and to produce energy from it. Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which: not enough insulin is produced by the pancreas; or the cat’s body cells do not properly process insulin which the pancreas has produced. As a result, the cat develops high blood sugar levels (hyperglycaemia), which eventually lead to high sugar levels in the urine (glucosuria). Diabetes may present as: uncomplicated; or diabetes with ketoacidosis (DKA) Cats with the former may only have mild symptoms, at least in the early stages, but cats with ketoacidosis are usually very ill, and may die if not treated promptly. There is another, much rarer form of diabetes called diabetes insipidus which is beyond the scope of this website. Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine has a good general overview of diabetes in cats. Feline diabetes mellitus: from diagnosis to therapy (2009) is a helpful article by Dr DL Zoran. Feline Diabetes provides detailed answers to frequently asked questions. Risk Factors Increasing age is a factor (as it is for CKD cats). Steroid-induced diabetes in cats (2013) Peterson ME Veterinary Endocrinology says "The average age at diagnosis for feline diabetes is 10 years, with a peak incidence between 9 and 13 years." Obesity in cats, as in humans, is a strong predisposing factor for diabetes. For some reason, male cats and neutered cats are more at risk of diabetes. Burmese cats in the UK and Australasia (but not the USA) appear to be mo Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis

Ketoacidosis

Ketones in the urine, as detected by urine testing stix or a blood ketone testing meter[1], may indicate the beginning of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a dangerous and often quickly fatal condition caused by low insulin levels combined with certain other systemic stresses. DKA can be fixed if caught quickly. Diabetics of all species therefore need to be checked for ketones with urine testing stix, available at any pharmacy, whenever insulin level may be too low, and any of the following signs or triggers are present: Ketone Monitoring Needed: Little or no insulin in last 12 hours High blood sugar over 16 mmol/L or 300 mg/dL (though with low insulin, lower as well...) Dehydration (skin doesn't jump back after pulling a bit gums are tacky or dry)[2] Not eating for over 12 hours due to Inappetance or Fasting Vomiting Lethargy Infection or illness High stress levels Breath smells like acetone (nail-polish remover) or fruit. Note that the triggers and signs are somewhat interchangeable because ketoacidosis is, once begun, a set of vicious circles which will make itself worse. So dehydration, hyperglycemia, fasting, and presence of ketones are not only signs, they're also sometimes triggers. In a diabetic, any urinary ketones above trace, or any increase in urinary ketone level, or trace urinary ketones plus some of the symptoms above, are cause to call an emergency vet immediately, at any hour of the day. Possible False Urine Ketone Test Results Drugs and Supplements Valproic Acid (brand names) Depakene, Depakote, Divalproex Sodium[3] Positive. Common use: Treatment of epilepsy. Cefixime/Suprax[4] Positive with nitroprusside-based urine testing. Common use: Antibiotic. Levadopa Metabolites[5] Positive with high concentrations[6]. Tricyclic Ring Compounds[7][8] Positive. Commo Continue reading >>

Diabetes In Cats

Diabetes In Cats

This article is about diabetes mellitus in cats. For other uses, see Diabetes (disambiguation). Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in cats, whereby either insufficient insulin response or insulin resistance lead to persistently high blood glucose concentrations. Diabetes could affect up to 1 in 230 cats,[1] and may be becoming increasingly common. Diabetes mellitus is less common in cats than in dogs. 80-95% of diabetic cats experience something similar to type-2 diabetes, but are generally severely insulin-dependent by the time symptoms are diagnosed. The condition is treatable, and treated properly, the cat can experience a normal life expectancy. In type-2 cats, prompt effective treatment may lead to diabetic remission, in which the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death. Symptoms[edit] Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks or months, and it may escape notice for even longer.[citation needed] The first outward symptoms are a sudden weight loss (or occasionally gain), accompanied by excessive drinking and urination; for example, cats can appear to develop an obsession with water and lurk around faucets or water bowls. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous (up to three-times normal) or absent. These symptoms arise from the body being unable to use glucose as an energy source. A fasting glucose blood test will normally be suggestive of diabetes at this point. The same home blood test monitors used in humans are used on cats, usually by obtaining blood from the ear edges or paw pads. As the disease progresses, ketone bodies will be present in the urine, which can be detected with the same urine stri Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Fall 2008 Ketoacidosis is a metabolic imbalance that is most commonly seen as a sequel to unmanaged or poorly regulated diabetes mellitus. It is caused by the breakdown of fat and protein in a compensatory effort for the need of more metabolic energy. The excessive breakdown of these stored reserves creates a toxic by-product in the form of ketones. As ketones build up in the blood stream, pH and electrolyte imbalances proceed. This condition is a potentially life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical attention. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease in geriatric felines. It is caused by a dysfunction in the beta cells of the exocrine pancreas resulting in an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Insulin has been called the cells' gatekeeper. It attaches to the surface of cells and permits glucose, the cells' primary energy source, to enter from the blood. A lack of insulin results in a build up of glucose in the blood, physiologically causing a state of cellular starvation. In response to this condition the body begins to increase the mobilization of protein and fat storage. Fatty acids are released from adipose tissue, which are then oxidized by the liver. Normally, these fatty acids are formed into triglycerides. However, without insulin, these fatty acids are converted into ketone bodies, which cannot be utilized by the body. Together with the increased production and decreased utilization an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies develop. These fixed acids are buffered by bicarbonate; however, the excessive amounts overwhelm and deplete the bicarbonate leading to an increase in arterial hydrogen ion concentration and a decrease in serum bicarbonate. This increase in hydrogen ions lowers the body's pH, leading to a metabolic ac Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Cats

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Cats

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), the most severe form of Diabetes Mellitus, results in severe changes in blood chemicals including imbalances in small, simple chemicals known as electrolytes. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic condition in which a deficiency of the hormone insulin impairs the body’s ability to metabolize sugar. It is one of the most common endocrine (hormonal) diseases of cats. For more information on the basics of diabetes, go to Diabetes mellitus in cats DKA is a life-threatening condition caused by diabetes mellitus resulting from insulin deficiency that leads to excess production of ketoacids by the liver. Subsequent changes in the blood result that includes metabolic acidosis, electrolyte abnormalities producing severe signs of systemic illness. DKA condition can occur in pets with new diabetes or in current diabetics that decompensate. Secondary diseases and/or infections can cause diabetics to decompensate and develop DKA. What to Watch For Signs associated with DKA depend on the individual cat and the length of time they have been ill. Signs may consist of the classic signs of diabetes including: Increased thirst Increased frequency of urination Weight loss despite a good appetite Sudden blindness Additional signs of DKA include: Lethargy Vomiting Weakness Dehydration Some pets will have a strong smell of acetone from their breath Diagnosis of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Cats Veterinary care should include diagnostic tests to determine level of blood sugar, the presence of ketones, and electrolyte concentrations to help guide subsequent treatment recommendations. Some of these tests include: Complete medical history and thorough physical examination. Serum biochemical profile to determine the blood glucose concentration Continue reading >>

Remission Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Remission Of Diabetes Mellitus In Cats With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract Background: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) has long been considered a key clinical feature of type-1 diabetes mellitus (DM) in humans although. An increasing number of cases of ketoacidosis have been reported in people with type-2 DM. Hypothesis/Objectives: Cats initially diagnosed with DKA can achieve remission from diabetes. Cats with DKA and diabetic remission are more likely to have been administered glucocorticoids before diagnosis. Animals: Twelve cats with DKA and 7 cats with uncomplicated DM. Methods: Retrospective case review. Medical records of cats presenting with DKA or DM were evaluated. Diabetic remission was defined as being clinically unremarkable for at least 1 month after insulin withdrawal. The cats were assigned to 1 of 3 groups: (1) cats with DKA and diabetic remission; (2) cats with DKA without diabetic remission; and (3) cats with DM and diabetic remission. Results: Seven cats with DKA had remission from diabetes. These cats had significantly higher concentrations of leukocytes and segmented neutrophils, and significantly lower concentrations of eosinophils in blood and had pancreatic disease more often than did cats with uncomplicated DM and diabetic remission. With regard to pretreatment, 3/7 cats in group 1, 1/5 cats in group 2, and 1/7 cats in group 3 had been treated with glucocorticoids. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Remission of DM in cats presenting with DKA is possible. Cats with DKA and remission have more components of a stress leucogram, pancreatic disease, and seemed to be treated more often with glucocorticoids than cats with uncomplicated DM and diabetic remission. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the most frequently encountered endocrine disorders in cats. The current classification scheme adapted from human medicine d Continue reading >>

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis In Cats – Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Ketoacidosis in cats at a glance Ketoacidosis is a serious complication of diabetes in which ketones and blood sugar levels build up in the body due to insufficient levels of insulin which is required to move glucose into the cells for energy. As a result, the body uses fat as an alternate energy source which produces ketones causing the blood to become too acidic. Common causes include uncontrolled diabetes, missed or insufficient insulin, surgery, infection, stress and obesity. Symptoms of ketoacidosis include increased urination and thirst, dehydration, nausea, diarrhea, confusion, rapid breathing which may later change to laboured breathing. What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening complication of diabetes characterised by metabolic acidosis (increased acids in the blood), hyperglycemia (high blood glucose) and ketonuria (ketones in the urine). It is caused by a lack of or insufficient amounts of insulin which is required to move glucose from the bloodstream and into the cells to be used for energy. When this occurs, the body begins to search for alternate sources of energy and begins to break down fat. When fat is broken down (metabolised) into fatty acids, waste products known as ketones (acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetone) are released from the liver and accumulate in the bloodstream (known as ketonemia). This causes the blood to become too acidic (metabolic acidosis). As well as metabolic acidosis, ketones also cause central nervous depression.The body will try to get rid of the ketones by excreting them out of the body via the urine, increased urine output leads to dehydration, making the problem worse. Meanwhile, the unused glucose remains in the bloodstream, resulting in hyperglycemia (high blood sugar).Insulin Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Cat: Recognition And Essential Treatment

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In The Cat: Recognition And Essential Treatment

Review Article Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a not uncommon emergency in both newly diagnosed and poorly regulated diabetic cats. When there is a heightened metabolic rate and energy requirement due to concurrent illness, an increase in the release of glucose counter-regulatory hormones causes insulin receptor resistance, lipolysis, free fatty acid release and ketogenesis. This necessitates not only treatment to eliminate the ketosis and control blood glucose, but also investigation of concurrent illnesses. Continue reading >>

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs And Cats

Diagnosis And Treatment Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka) In Dogs And Cats

What is DKA in Dogs and Cats? Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious and life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus that can occur in dogs and cats. DKA is characterized by hyperglycemia, ketonemia, +/- ketonuria, and metabolic acidosis. Ketone bodies are formed by lipolysis (breakdown) of fat and beta-oxidation when the metabolic demands of the cells are not met by the limited intracellular glucose concentrations. This provides alternative energy sources for cells, which are most important for the brain. The three ketones that are formed include beta-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone. Beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) and acetoacetate are anions of moderately strong acids contributing most to the academia (low blood pH). Acetone is the ketone body that can be detected on breath. In a normal animal, glucose enters the cell (with help of insulin) – undergoes glycolysis to pyruvate within cytosol – pyruvate moves into mitochondria (energy generating organelle in the cell) to enter the TCA cycle and ATP is formed. ATP is the main energy source of the body. When glucose cannot enter the cell, free fatty acids are broken down (lipolysis) and move into the cell to undergo beta-oxidation (creation of pyruvate). The pyruvate then moves into the mitochondria to enter the TCA cycle (by conversion to Acetyl-CoA first). However, when the TCA cycle is overwhelmed, the Acetyl-CoA is used in ketogenesis to form ketone bodies. Summary Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) in Dogs and Cats When there is no insulin the body cannot utilize glucose and there is no intracellular glucose. The body then uses ketone bodes as an alternate source. When there is decreased insulin and increased counterregulatory hormones fatty acids are converted to AcCoA and then ketones. In the non-diabetic Continue reading >>

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Understanding And Treating Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious metabolic disorder that can occur in animals with diabetes mellitus (DM).1,2 Veterinary technicians play an integral role in managing and treating patients with this life-threatening condition. In addition to recognizing the clinical signs of this disorder and evaluating the patient's response to therapy, technicians should understand how this disorder occurs. DM is caused by a relative or absolute lack of insulin production by the pancreatic b-cells or by inactivity or loss of insulin receptors, which are usually found on membranes of skeletal muscle, fat, and liver cells.1,3 In dogs and cats, DM is classified as either insulin-dependent (the body is unable to produce sufficient insulin) or non-insulin-dependent (the body produces insulin, but the tissues in the body are resistant to the insulin).4 Most dogs and cats that develop DKA have an insulin deficiency. Insulin has many functions, including the enhancement of glucose uptake by the cells for energy.1 Without insulin, the cells cannot access glucose, thereby causing them to undergo starvation.2 The unused glucose remains in the circulation, resulting in hyperglycemia. To provide cells with an alternative energy source, the body breaks down adipocytes, releasing free fatty acids (FFAs) into the bloodstream. The liver subsequently converts FFAs to triglycerides and ketone bodies. These ketone bodies (i.e., acetone, acetoacetic acid, b-hydroxybutyric acid) can be used as energy by the tissues when there is a lack of glucose or nutritional intake.1,2 The breakdown of fat, combined with the body's inability to use glucose, causes many pets with diabetes to present with weight loss, despite having a ravenous appetite. If diabetes is undiagnosed or uncontrolled, a series of metab Continue reading >>

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