Alcoholic ketoacidosis is a complication of alcohol use and starvation that causes excess acid in the bloodstream, resulting in vomiting and abdominal pain. People who go on a major alcohol binge often vomit repeatedly and stop eating. If the vomiting and starvation go on for a day or more, the liver's normal stores of sugar (glucose) decrease. The low glucose stores combined with lack of food intake cause low blood glucose levels. The low blood glucose levels decrease insulin secretion. Without insulin, most cells cannot get energy from the glucose that is in the blood. Cells still need energy to survive, so they switch to a back-up mechanism to obtain energy. Fat cells begin breaking down, producing compounds called ketones. Ketones provide some energy to cells but also make the blood too acidic (ketoacidosis). This ketoacidosis is similar to the ketoacidosis that occurs in diabetes except that, unlike in diabetic ketoacidosis, blood glucose levels are low. Symptoms Symptoms of alcoholic ketoacidosis include Breathing tends to become deep and rapid as the body attempts to correct the blood’s acidity. Similar symptoms in a person with alcoholism may result from acute pancreatitis, methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning, or diabetic ketoacidosis. The doctor must exclude these other causes before diagnosing alcoholic ketoacidosis. Continue reading >>
What Are The Treatments For Ketoacidosis In Dogs?
If your dog has diabetes mellitus, a common ailment in the canine realm, then diabetic ketoacidosis is a hazardous possibility. Ketoacidosis is a metabolic disorder that's related to extreme hyperglycemia. When diabetic dogs develop ketoacidosis, ketones, a type of acid, accumulate in their blood. Veterinary care is vital for dogs with this condition. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Background When insufficient amounts of insulin bring upon the liver's inordinate manufacturing of ketoacids, ketoacidosis arises. Numerous factors can cause diabetic ketoacidosis in canines. The primary cause of the condition is reliance on insulin, although ketoacidosis is also linked to things such as urinary tract infections and skin infections. Dogs frequently experience diabetic ketoacidosis when their diabetes mellitus hasn't yet been identified or managed. Key Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms If you notice any unusual symptoms in your diabetic pet, get him to the veterinarian for treatment immediately. Diabetic ketoacidosis is an urgent condition. Common symptoms of the ailment are throwing up, nausea, appetite loss, dandruff, fatigue, feebleness, dehydration, fast breathing, depression, decreased body temperature, frequent urination, inordinate thirst, weight loss and unusual-smelling breath: If your dog's breath has an odor that's reminiscent of nail polish remover, diabetic ketoacidosis could be the culprit. Since diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency in dogs, immediate care is of the essence, no matter the time of day or night. If you notice these symptoms in your pet overnight, take him to a 24-hour veterinary hospital. Female dogs are particularly susceptible to the condition, as are elderly dogs. Treatment Options Some dogs with diabetic ketoacidosis need hospitalization, others do Continue reading >>
Diabetes: Diabetic Ketoacidosis
www.CardioSmart.org When you have diabetes (especially type 1 diabetes), you are at risk for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). This is a dangerous illness that happens when the body does not have enough insulin to use sugar for fuel, and so it breaks down fat and muscle instead. This process breaks down fat into fatty acids, which are turned into another type of acid called ketones. The ketones build up in your blood and change the chemical balance in your body. If not treated, DKA can lead to a coma or even death. DKA can happen if you have little or no insulin in your body and your blood sugar level gets too high. This can happen when you do not take enough insulin or when you have an infection or other illness such as the flu. Being severely dehydrated can also cause it. DKA occurs mostly in people with type 1 diabetes. It occurs less often in people with type 2 diabetes. Symptoms of DKA Symptoms include: â€¢ You have flushed, hot, dry skin. â€¢ You have a strong, fruity breath odor. â€¢ You have loss of appetite, belly pain, and vomiting. â€¢ You feel restless. â€¢ You have rapid, deep breathing. â€¢ You feel confused. â€¢ You feel very sleepy, or you have trouble waking up. Young children may not care about doing their normal activities. How to prevent DKA You can help prevent DKA if you: â€¢ Take your insulin and other diabetes medicines on time and in the right dose. â€¢ Test your blood sugar before meals and at bedtime. Or test as often as your doctor tells you to. This is the best way to know when your blood sugar is high so you can treat it early.Watching for symptoms is not as good. You may not notice them until you have already started making ketones and your blood sugar is very high. â€¢ Teach others at work, home, or scho Continue reading >>
How To Spot And Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)
Even if you work hard at your diabetes management and use technology to help keep your numbers in range, you can still experience high blood glucose, which can escalate to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While DKA can be scary if left untreated, it is preventable if you know what to look for and what to do. Senior District Clinical Manager, Melinda Turenne, BSN, RN, CDE, has more than 15 years of diabetes clinical experience. Today she shares some valuable DKA risk factors and prevention tips. Living with diabetes involves a lot of duties. You are checking your blood glucose (BG), counting your carbohydrates, exercising, and keeping doctors’ appointments. I am sure you remember your doctor or diabetes educator telling you to check for ketones too, right? Checking my what? One more thing to add to my to-do list! Yes, and here is WHY. What are ketones? Ketones are acid molecules produced when we burn fat for energy or fuel. As fat is broken down, ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are toxic and can make you very sick. When combined with dehydration, it can lead to Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), a life threatening condition. Why would DKA happen? DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin present in the body. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, causing high BG levels. Since the body is unable to use glucose without insulin for energy, it breaks down fat instead. This can occur for several reasons: Infection, injury, or serious illness A lack of insulin in the body due to missed injections, spoiled insulin, poor absorption Severe dehydration Combination of these things What are the signs of DKA? High BG levels Ketones (in blood and urine) Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain (cramps) Confusion Tired, sluggish, or weak Flushed, Continue reading >>
Diabetes: What Is Ketoacidosis And How Can Be Avoided & Treated?
Good question! According to Wikipedia: Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially life-threatening complication in patients with diabetes mellitus. In order to define ketoacidosis a little better, let's go back to the source: diabetes. Someone who is diabetic is unable to produce insulin, a hormone necessary for the transfer of sugar from the bloodstream to the cells, which in turn produce energy. If this progression is disrupted, through lack of insulin for example, the body has to try to compensate by creating energy elsewhere. And so the body starts to burn fat and muscle to meet its energy needs. Unfortunately, this chemical reaction produces molecules known as ketone bodies. In small quantities, these are fine, and it is in fact normal to have traces of them in your blood (approximately 1mg/dl). However, if the quantity of ketones surpasses this threshold by too much, it starts to affect the pH of your blood (which becomes progressively more acidic). Even the slightest drop in pH can have dangerous effects: as the quantity of the ketones in your blood increases, and the blood pH diminishes, your kidneys start having problems. Eventually, if the ketoacidosis is left untreated, your kidneys can fail and you can die from dehydration, tachycardia and hypotension. A number of other symptoms can appear in extreme cases. Fortunately for us, the quantity of ketones has to be consequential, and it usually takes a while before individuals start manifesting symptoms. In my case, my diabetes went undiagnosed for a month and a half before it was discovered, and even then my ketone levels were relatively normal. If you're a diabetic, ketoacidosis can be easily avoided by controlling your blood sugar levels and maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Some doctors, preferring to stay on the Continue reading >>
Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an extreme medical emergency that requires immediate veterinary attention. The condition can result in an accumulation of fluid in the brain and lungs, renal failure or heart failure. Affected animals that are not treated are likely to die. With timely intervention and proper treatment, it is likely that an affected cat can recover with little to no side effects. Diabetes mellitus occurs when the pancreas fails to produce sufficient insulin, creating an inability to efficiently process the sugars, fats, and proteins needed for energy. The resulting build-up of sugar causes extreme thirst and frequent urination. Since sugar levels help to control appetite, affected animals may experience a spike in hunger and lose weight at the same time due to the inability to properly process nutrients. In extreme cases, diabetes may be accompanied by a condition known as ketoacidosis. This is a serious ailment that causes energy crisis and abnormal blood-acid levels in affected pets. Cats affected with diabetic ketoacidosis are likely to present with one or more of the following symptoms: Vomiting Weakness Lethargy Depression Excessive Thirst Refusal to drink water Refusal to eat Sudden weight loss Loss of muscle tone Increased urination Dehydration Rough coat Dandruff Rapid breathing Sweet-smelling breath Jaundice The exact cause of diabetes in cats is unknown, but it is often accompanied by obesity, chronic pancreatitis, hormonal disease, or the use of corticosteroids like Prednisone. Ketoacidosis, the buildup of ketone waste products in the blood that occurs when the body burns fat and protein for energy instead of using glucose, is caused by insulin-dependent diabetes. Diabetic ketoacidosis is commonly preceded by other conditions including: Stress Surgery Continue reading >>
What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>
Note: One Μg Is Equivalent To One Microgram
DIABETES Diabetes (diabetes mellitus) is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced. High blood sugar (hyperglycaemia) produces the classical symptoms of polyuria (frequent urination), polydipsia (increased thirst) and polyphagia (increased hunger). Some oral medications can cause hypoglycaemia (low blood sugars), which can be dangerous if severe. The following are the different types of diabetes: Type 1 diabetes: Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes. This results from the body's failure to produce insulin. Diabetes type 1 can develop at any time in life but generally appears in childhood and before the age of 40. Diabetes type 1 is caused by the immune system attacking and destroying the beta cells that create insulin which is the hormone required to keep blood sugar levels under control. The unique antibodies that people with diabetes type 1 make target five protein compounds in the body. Glutamate decarboxylase IA-2 Insulin Tetraspanin-7 Zinc transporter-8 Diabetes type 1 is impossible to treat naturally but scientists are hoping that by learning why the immune system develops the antibodies that attack these particular proteins, they may be able to find a way to stop it occurring. Pancreas transplants have been tried with limited success i Continue reading >>
How Do I Treat A Minor Tooth Cavity At Home?
Initial cavities , called incipient lesions, that have not progressed to the dentinal-enamel junction and remineralize and may never be a problem. Floss and brush with a fluoridated toothpaste and have regular dental checkups. I have watched theses types of lesions 10–20 years and the never needed treatment. If you change dentists, make sure you have the records transferred as well. I had a patient who had such a lesion. The new dentist filled the incipient lesion, nicked the tooth next to it and ended up having two filling that were not needed. Both were substandard and needed replacement. My philosophy was if it didn't penetrate the enamel, watch it. In six months, reexamine those areas and redetermine the needs of the patient. Every filling done is not just one expense, but will need to be over serval times in a lifetime. Continue reading >>
Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats
Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Cats The term “ketoacidosis” refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies.” Meanwhile, diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. Typically, the type of condition affects older cats; in addition, female cats are more prone diabetes with ketoacidosis than males. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the cat's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azotemia), low sodium levels Continue reading >>
How Can I Treat A Deep Cut At Home?
Direct pressure on the cut until it stops bleeding. You see, your did hit a vein (or artery if the blood is pulsating out)- you had to have done so in order to have that much blood exiting your body. Just because you can't see some little bit of tubing in the cut doesn't mean you didn't nick a small vein (or artery- if the blood is pulsating out). Some of these blood vessels are very slender, and, because of the blood streaming out of the cut, it's all red to you and you don't note the difference between skin, fat and muscle tissue. So, direct pressure on the wound until it stops bleeding. Then take a regular bandaide, fold it in half, and cut a small square out of each side of the pad so that when you unfold it, it looks like a a fat-legged capitol H. Now, carefully peel one side of the paper backing off the bandaide, and apply it to one side of the skin near the cut, then pull the bandaide all the way across the cut so the two edges are now approximated- pulled together- and fasten the other side of the bandaide down. This is called a "butterfly", and if you don't have steri-strips or sutures, it'll work in a pinch. It allows air to circulate which dries things up and allows fast healing while holding the wound closed to prevent more infection. How to Make a Butterfly Bandage Good luck. And be way more careful next time, understand? Clean the wound, apply pressure using a gauze pad until it stops bleeding, then bandage it tightly and keep the bandage on for a few days, only open it if blood is seen seeping out. If it doesn't stop, go to an ED ASAP, you will need stitches which you can't do yourself. As for people who cut themselves and then feel docs have treated them rudely afterward, although it shouldn't happen it still could be true, docs at an ED don't particular Continue reading >>
How Can I Become Fluent In English?
If you want to be able to hear and understand English that is spoken quickly and be able to respond quickly, then I would say the best way is to try the "Parrot and Overshadow Method." In this method, you orally repeat everything that you hear, trying to sound just like the original speaker. First, you parrot (repeat) them. Then, you overshadow (speak at the same time) them. This method only works if you actually speak OUT LOUD. Parroting is best used with authentic English material (materials created by actual native speakers) with an audio component and subtitles or a script included. Movies, TV shows, podcasts, news websites, etc. As long as it has audio and a subtitle/script (and it's not too long), you can use it. This is how it works: Choose your material. It shouldn't be too long (maximum of 500 words). Close your eyes and just listen to the audio, trying to understand as much as possible. Then, read the subtitles or script. Find words and phrases you don't know, look them up in a dictionary, and take note of them. Then, replay the audio, pausing the audio after each sentence. Repeat after the speaker (parroting). Repeat many times until you get good at this. Repeat the audio one last time, this time speaking at the same time as the speaker (overshadowing). This may be tough, so you can repeat this if you need to. Review the learned words one last time. The new words and phrases from today can be put into flashcards that you review regularly. You are done for the day. Want some resources for this method? Englishclass101.com uses this method. You could also use 5-10 minute YouTube videos that include subtitles. I hope this method works for you! Continue reading >>
Diabetic Ketoacidosis Treatment & Management
Approach Considerations Managing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in an intensive care unit during the first 24-48 hours always is advisable. When treating patients with DKA, the following points must be considered and closely monitored: It is essential to maintain extreme vigilance for any concomitant process, such as infection, cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, sepsis, or deep venous thrombosis. It is important to pay close attention to the correction of fluid and electrolyte loss during the first hour of treatment. This always should be followed by gradual correction of hyperglycemia and acidosis. Correction of fluid loss makes the clinical picture clearer and may be sufficient to correct acidosis. The presence of even mild signs of dehydration indicates that at least 3 L of fluid has already been lost. Patients usually are not discharged from the hospital unless they have been able to switch back to their daily insulin regimen without a recurrence of ketosis. When the condition is stable, pH exceeds 7.3, and bicarbonate is greater than 18 mEq/L, the patient is allowed to eat a meal preceded by a subcutaneous (SC) dose of regular insulin. Insulin infusion can be discontinued 30 minutes later. If the patient is still nauseated and cannot eat, dextrose infusion should be continued and regular or ultra–short-acting insulin should be administered SC every 4 hours, according to blood glucose level, while trying to maintain blood glucose values at 100-180 mg/dL. The 2011 JBDS guideline recommends the intravenous infusion of insulin at a weight-based fixed rate until ketosis has subsided. Should blood glucose fall below 14 mmol/L (250 mg/dL), 10% glucose should be added to allow for the continuation of fixed-rate insulin infusion. [19, 20] In established patient Continue reading >>
Risks Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis
People suffering from diabetes could develop diabetic ketoacidosis. This serious complication develops from extremely low level or absence of insulin in the body. Usually type 1 diabetes patients have the greatest risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. If left untreated this health disorder could lead to severe health problems and in the worst case, it can even cause death. Diabetic ketoacidosis causes Sugar is the primarily fuel source of your body. Insulin helps the body cells to absorb the sugar. If the insulin level is low, the cells and tissues of your body will not be able to absorb the sugar. To sustain the body functions, your body will now look for an alternate source of energy. Your body will now increase secretion of hormones that break down fat to release energy. In this process of increased fat metabolism, toxins, known as ketones, are produced in the body. Rise in these toxic acids cause severe damage to the organs of the body. If diabetics on insulin treatment miss their insulin medications, the insulin level will drop, triggering diabetic ketoacidosis. Due to an ailment if your body produces excess hormones, such as adrenaline, these hormones will inhibit the activity of insulin, leading to diabetic ketoacidosis. This health disorder could also develop from alcoholism and drug abuse. Stress, trauma, stroke, heart attack, high fever and surgery could increase the risk of developing diabetic ketoacidosis. People suffering from any form of diabetes – type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes or gestational diabetes could develop diabetic ketoacidosis any time. However, people with type 1 diabetes, who are below 19, have the greatest risk of developing this health problem. Diabetic ketoacidosis symptoms The symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis develop rapidly. You Continue reading >>
Diabetic (diabetes) Ketoacidosis Treatment And Home Remedies
One of the symptoms of diabetes is the so-called diabetic ketoacidosis or DKA. This condition occurs as a result of the body’s dehydration at the state of insulin deficiency. This is also connected with the rise in blood sugar levels and organic acids known as ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis normally happens to patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic ketoacidosis is common to younger age group than that of type 2 diabetes. This condition can happen to both men and women. However, diabetic ketoacidosis treatment is available whether through home treatment or clinic medication. Causes of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a diabetic patient becomes dehydrated. Events that trigger the attack of diabetic ketoacidosis include the following: Infection related to diarrhea, vomiting, and high fever Inadequate amount of insulin Newly diagnosed with diabetes Heart attack, stroke, trauma, stress, alcohol abuse, drug abuse Previous surgery Home Remedies and Treatment for Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis treatment guidelines can be conveniently done at home. Self-care is usually available along with frequent checkups with the doctor. However, self-care at home is oftentimes administered for the prevention of diabetic ketoacidosis in treating moderate to elevated blood sugar levels. If you are a patient with type 1 diabetes, it is important that you monitor your sugar levels in the blood as directed by your doctor. Regularly check on the levels of blood sugar if you feel ill, having an infection, or have had an illness or injury. Doing the self-care diabetic ketoacidosis treatment at home would mean having additional injections of insulin. This treatment should of course be coupled with arranging extra insulin regimen and frequent blood gluco Continue reading >>