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How To Prevent Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

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OIEGON sure tt.,. HIM .'"., OW. Coml. aad the U S. Cyan.. 1.4516),Nn Ketosis in Dairy Cows Prepared by D. E. ANDERSON and H. P. EWALT Extension Dairy Specialists, Oregon State University, Corvallis Ketosis, or acetonemia, might well be called a prob- lem of high production since prevention and control is more difficult with high milk production. Few animals are challenged to meet the metabolic demands that a high- producing dairy cow must adapt to during the early part of lactation. Common observations and experimental evidence show that cows may be in a negative balance for both protein and energy shortly after calving and for about the first 60 days of lactation. The following data on ketosis are taken from a summary of recent research published in the July 1968 issue of the Journal of Dairy Science. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is a metabolic disorder in which something goes wrong with the normal body processes and the cow becomes sick. There are no inflammatory organisms involved and the condition is not contagious. There seems to be a situation where the cow is temporarily pro- ducing more milk and thus requiring more feed nutrients than her feed intake provides. Nature may attempt to correct this situation by using body reserves of fat. When this occurs, some intermediary products of fat metabolism, called "ketone bodies," may build up in the system. These can be detected in the milk and urine and are indications of how serious the condition may be. Ketosis may even develop in average-producing animals when the energy needs exceed the energy intake. Ketosis usually occurs more often in winter feed- ing, and three weeks after calving seems to be a very critical period for high-producing cows. Symptoms The first symptom of ketosis is a loss of appetite first for grain a Continue reading >>

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Copyright © 2014 Fernando Vicente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (; ). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). 1. Introduction Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is a common metabolic disorder that can appear during the transition period, dry period, or calving, or in early lactation (Duffield et al. [1]), where the highest incidence of SCK occurs within the first 2 to 3 weeks of lactation [2]. The disorder is characterized by a high concentration Continue reading >>

Cut Down On Ketosis

Cut Down On Ketosis

Ketosis is one of the most common metabolic diseases on dairy farms. It occurs when cows have an abnormal response to negative energy balance. After calving, all cows experience some degree of negative energy balance, mobilize body fat for the additional energy needed for milk production and lose weight during the first several months of lactation. But, if cows mobilize excessive amounts of fat, the metabolic process of converting this fat to energy can result in an undesirable buildup of ketones in the bloodstream. Clinical signs Watch for the following clinical signs: decreased milk production, poor appetite, decreased rumen fill, dehydration, sunken eyes and constipation. In severe cases, known as nervous ketosis, cows will exhibit neurologic signs such as weakness, running into walls, or compulsive licking/chewing. Cow-side diagnostic tests If you suspect ketosis, you have several options to help confirm the diagnosis. 1. Urine test strips. Once the cow urinates, hold the ketone strip into the urine and watch for a color change (purple) which often occurs within seconds. The urine strips are the least costly test; however, they do miss some cows with ketosis (due to lower sensitivity). 2. Milk Ketone Test strips. The milk test strips measure the amount of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the milk which is the primary cow ketone. This test is more costly than the urine strip, but it is more sensitive than that test. Squirt milk into a clean container, dip in the strip for the manufacturer"s recommended amount of time, then compare the color change to the code on the bottle. 3. Precision Extra Blood BHBA meter. This is the most sensitive ketosis cow-side test. This meter is a human diabetic meter that measures ketones as well as glucose levels. Insert the strip into the Continue reading >>

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

Ketotic Cows: Treatment And Prognosis (proceedings)

12Next An absolute requirement for treating ketosis in cattle is to identify and treat the primary cause for the negative energy balance. Symptomatic treatment for ketosis without attacking the primary cause is doomed to failure. Propylene glycol is a routine treatment for ketosis. Only 2 oral formulations are approved for use in cattle as a treatment and the dose rate is 8 oz, q 12 h, for up to 10 days (2 other formulations labeled for use as preventive treatment). Research suggests that 296 ml once/day as on oral drench is just as effective as 887 ml once/day. Propylene glycol is absorbed from the rumen as propylene glycol, some propylene glycol is metabolized to propionate in the rumen, but most is absorbed intact and metabolized to glucose in liver. Propylene glycol increases serum [glucose], decreases serum β-OH butyrate & NEFA concentrations but only if a functional liver as propylene glycol must be metabolized. Propylene glycol is only beneficial if rumen motility to aid mixing and absorption. Glycerol (same dose rate as propylene glycol) and sodium propionate (uncertain dose rate) also reported to be of use but are both considered inferior to propylene glycol. Sodium propionate may have palatability problems. Calcium propionate has been examined, but the evidence is not convincing that it is superior to propylene glycol, even though it also has calcium. Not very soluble, and large volumes need to be administered. 500 ml of 50% Dextrose IV is also a routine treatment (one time administration of 250 g). Numerous approved products for treating ketosis in cattle. A cow uses 50-70 g glucose/hour for maintenance and 200 g glucose/hour high production, from a total blood glucose pool <40 g. Milk is 4.5% lactose, 50 kg of milk contains 2.25 kg lactose (glucose and gala Continue reading >>

An Attempt To Prevent Production Diseases In Dairy And Ad Hoc Treatment Cows By Intense Monitoring

An Attempt To Prevent Production Diseases In Dairy And Ad Hoc Treatment Cows By Intense Monitoring

A trial has been performed on 201 dairy cows from two Italian commercial herds in order to verify whether the mitigation of a recognized negative energy balance (NEB) by a therapeutic mean may influence the incidence of peri-partum diseases. All animals were tested for beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HOB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) three times a week from 2 weeks before the expected due time to 2 weeks after calving. Animals whose blood levels were above β-HOB>1.2 or NEFA>0.5 mmol/L were declared POSITIVE and then split in two groups. Group T animals (n=57) were treated with a glycogenic treatment (ENERGAN KETOSIS, Virbac). The treatment was repeated daily as long as biochemical values remained abnormal. Group C animals (n=48) served as untreated controls. Animals with values within the physiological range over the study period were said NEGATIVE (n=96). This study confirmed that animals presenting excessive β-HOB or NEFA concentrations show a higher risk to get sick during the study period (P<0.05), the major risk being clinical ketosis (P<0.01) and in a lesser extend retention of the placenta (P=0.09). The application of a glycogenic treatment did not show an impact on blood metabolite levels due to huge individual differences. However, application of the treatment for an average duration of 5 days tends to reduce the incidence of all the diseases related to a NEB. Moreover, untreated control animals were more likely to get dislocation of the abomasum (P<0.05) than NEGATIVE animals whereas treated animals were not. Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Dramatic increases in energy requirements during late gestation and early lactation, superimposed on an animal with a profound drop in dry matter intake just before calving, make the dairy cow highly susceptible to ketosis and hepatic lipidosis. During the last 3 to 4 weeks postpartum, a diet higher in energy and protein concentration than required by current National Research Council recommendations should be fed so that adequate nutrient intake occurs within the limits of the reduced dry matter intake. Attention should be given to the environment of the cow, especially during the last 3 weeks prepartum, to avoid environmental stressors as much as possible. Continue reading >>

Prevent Milk Fever, Ketosis In Cows

Prevent Milk Fever, Ketosis In Cows

NAIROBI: A significant number of farmers has incurred huge losses from treatments, loss of milk and even death of high yielding cows from milk fever and Ketosis. This has created fear of keeping high producing cows. This disease is our focus today: Milk Fever (Hypocalcaemia): Milk Fever (Hypocalcaemia) refers to life threateningly low levels of calcium in the cow’s blood. It can occur 24 hours before calving but mostly within 48 to 72 hours after calving, mostly in high yielding cows. Older cows are more susceptible because they produce more milk. This is because milk contains a lot of calcium (about 1.220 g per kg). If the cow produces 20 kg of milk in one day it will suddenly require to put about 24gm of calcium into all of this milk. If the calcium from the diet and that being mobilised from the bones is not enough for transfer to the milk this will result in a severe drop of calcium in the blood leading to hypocalcaemia. Milk fever is also associated with cows that are too fat at calving. Milk fever or low calcium in the blood (hypocalcaemia) manifests as tremors and unsteadiness. Eventually the cow sits down with a kink in the neck and is unable to rise. It will become constipated and die if not treated. You can avoid this easily by ensuring a low calcium diet of less than 15 gm per day for the last 10 days before calving when the cow is dry to stimulate the body system to mobilise calcium from the bone stores; this is to ensure that the cow will continue to mobilise the same when it starts producing large amounts of milk during the first few days after calving. After calving, the cow should receive enough calcium in the diet as recommended for the animal depending on its size and the amount it is producing. There is another mineral namely phosphorous associated Continue reading >>

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Years ago, I would lean over the feed bunk and smell the breath of a ketosis-suspect dairy cow. It convinced me that it had either bad breath or glue (acetone) breathing ketosis. Since then, I’ve come a long way. Dairy nutritionists like myself and dairy producers now have access to modern BHB (Beta-hydroxybutyrate) milk tests through regular Canwest DHI testing or from on-farm keto-testing kits. By detecting ketosis in problematic cows and implementing strong transition cow-feeding and management programs, we should be able to reduce early lactation ketosis, which is detrimental to long-term dairy cow health and performance. Don’t ignore it Ignoring a ketosis cow doesn’t solve the problem, either. Untreated clinical ketosis include a rapid drop in body condition, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, and yes, acetone-smelling breath. Most veterinarians will tell us that such clinical ketosis is relatively rare in dairy cows with the majority of ketosis symptoms in afflicted cows being hidden or subclinical in nature. Rather, these latter cows will suffer from a higher incidence of displaced abomasums, retained placentas, mastitis, or weaken immune system. Subclinical ketosis has also been linked to milk fever and reproductive problems. Cows with subclinical ketosis lose about 25 per cent of their potential milk production per lactation. Early lactation cows are the most vulnerable to either type of ketosis because, by nature, they cannot meet all their energy requirements of maintenance and high milk production from just their diet. Therefore they are drawn into a state of “negative energy balance” (NEB) for about five to six weeks after calving. Even well-transitioned cows experience a period of NEB, but they tend to have good post-partum dry matter i Continue reading >>

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows.

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows.

Abstract Dramatic increases in energy requirements during late gestation and early lactation, superimposed on an animal with a profound drop in DMI just before calving, make the dairy cow highly susceptible to the metabolic diseases ketosis and hepatic lipidosis. Increased serum concentrations of NEFA appear to be causally linked to these problems, and feeding strategies to reduce or avoid this dramatic increase are desirable for optimal health and performance. During the last 3 to 4 weeks prepartum, a diet higher in energy and protein concentration than current NRC recommendations should be fed so that adequate nutrient intake occurs within the limits of the reduced DMI. The additional energy should be provided by glucose precursors, such as starchy concentrates or propylene glycol, and not by lipid. Excessive energy and reduced fiber should be avoided both early in the dry period (more than 28 days prepartum) and immediately postpartum. Attention should be paid to the environment of the cow, especially during the last 3 weeks prepartum, to avoid environmental stressors as much as possible. Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

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