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How To Prevent Ketosis In Dairy Cows

Not In Animal Health Industry

Not In Animal Health Industry

The NADIS data show that the number of cases of acetonaemia (or ketosis) increase significantly during the winter, and the number of cases continue to increase until turnout. So it is particularly important to look out for acetonaemia until at least a month after turn-out. Like most metabolic diseases it is important to remember that for every cow that shows clinical signs, there will be several more which are affected sub-clinically. What is acetonaemia? Acetonaemia occurs when the cow's energy intake does not match its requirement and the cow is unable to compensate and mobilises its body reserves too quickly. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Clinical Signs 1) Reduced milk yield: Initially a moderate decline, eventually a sudden drop 2) Body condition and weight loss 3) Reduction in appetite (initially non-forage feeds) 4) Dull, stary coat 5) Firm, 'waxy' dung 6) Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath or milk - not always detectable 7) Temperature, pulse rate and respiratory rate usually normal 8) A few develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, incoordination, aggression Acetonaemia is more common in the dairy cow, probably because the energy difference of the lactating cow is more difficult to overcome than that of the pregnant cow, which means that most dairy cows in the UK are in negative energy balance during the first few weeks of lactation. Acetonaemia occurs when the cow is not able to cope with this energy deficit, either because Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic disease that occurs when the cow is in severe state of negative energy balance. In this state, the cow mobilises large quantities of body fat but cannot convert this to energy through the usual pathways. Instead, ketone bodies are produced which in small amounts can be used by the cow for energy. However, when ketone production is high, the cow cannot use all the ketone bodies for energy and ketone levels increase in the blood. When this occurs the cow may suffer from ketosis. Types of Ketosis Type 1 ketosis is a result of a sudden drop in energy intake. This can be due to underfeeding or adverse weather events (e.g. snow storms) that prevent the cows from eating sufficient amounts of dry matter. Type 2 ketosis generally occurs post-calving, when the cow is mobilising excess body fat to meet the demands of milk production. Cows that are too fat at calving (BCS > 5) or cows that have been overfed pre-calving are particularly at risk. Silage ketosis is due to cows ingesting poor quality silage. The silage undergoes a secondary fermentation and when ingested will increase the risk of ketosis. Symptoms Ketosis can be displayed in two ways: Wasting form Lethargy (head down, lack of energy) Decreased dry matter intake Decreased milk production Often a sweet smell on the breath (acetone) Nervous form Excitable, uncoordinated and can become aggressive Strange behaviour such as eating soil, licking fence posts and gates, walking in circles, or standing with heads raised up and pushed into a corner etc. If a cow shows signs of ketosis seek advice from your veterinarian Prevention It is important to prevent ketosis from occurring, rather than treating cases as they appear. Prevention depends on adequate feeding and management of body condition score (BCS). E Continue reading >>

Happy Cows ~ Quality Milk ~ Healthy People

Happy Cows ~ Quality Milk ~ Healthy People

Ketosis is an elevated level of ketones in the blood associated with a negative energy balance that occurs in most cows during the early stages of their lactation (2-6 weeks into lactation, most cows get ketosis around week 3 after freshening) and occasionally mid-late lactation cows. What to look for with ketosis: Signs of ketosis include a decreased intake of dry matter, loss of body condition, decreased milk production, the cow acting nervous, and breath that smells sickly sweet like acetone. Why is ketosis bad? Ketosis can kill a cow by essentially poisoning her body if not treated. Less dramatic problems include long-term decreased production, unhealthy quality of milk, inability to maintain and store vital nutrients to her body for long term health, and can cause reproductive issues. Ketosis can create fatty liver syndrome which causes a number of problems such as decreased fertility, decreased liver function, and sometimes death. Testing for ketosis: To know if your cow has ketosis, you can buy Ketostix strips. Collect a small sample of urine into a sterile cup and dip a strip into the urine. Read package directions to determine if your cow tests positive for ketosis. A blood test can also be done and is more accurate, but the strips provide a quick easy test. If a cow tests positive, ask your vet about getting a milk test done, as a positive test in the milk would indicate enough problem to warrant treatment. An elevated temperature would indicate another problem, as ketosis alone should not change body temperature. What causes ketosis? Consumption of silage that contains butyric acid can cross the rumen wall to the liver. Production of ketones in the liver. Milk production requires a large amount of glucose. By the second day after calving, a cow’s requiremen Continue reading >>

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

Ketosis (acetonaemia)

General information Ketosis in cattle is associated with an inadequate supply of the nutrients necessary for the normal carbohydrate and fat metabolism that is seen mainly in times of high milk production in early lactation. The excessive ketone bodies in the bloodstream come from the breakdown of fat when the animal is forced to draw on its bodily reserves for energy. Although the metabolism of body fat provides energy for cows, the nervous system is dependent on glucose, and the ketones produced as a result of excessive fat metabolism can have toxic effects. The excess ketone bodies are eliminated in the urine, milk and breath of the animal. Overview Cause Ketosis may develop from poor diet or periods of stress such as cold, wet weather. It may also affect apparently well-fed cows producing very large volumes of milk. In pasture-fed cows the condition is usually seen when the grass is drying off and green feed is scarce. The disease is relatively common in lactating cows in Australia but often goes unnoticed in its mild forms. The mortality rate in affected cattle is low and spontaneous recoveries occur in many cases. The disease is usually seen in early lactation (within the first 2 months after calving) and may cause significant production losses. Five types of the disease are recognised: Primary underfeeding or starvation ketosis - feed quality inadequate. Secondary underfeeding ketosis - inadequate feed intake due to another disease or condition. Ketogenic or alimentary ketosis - from feeds high in ketogenic material. Ketosis due to a specific nutritional deficiency - cobalt and possibly phosphorus deficiency have been suspected as causes. Spontaneous ketosis - where causes are not able to be established. Predisposing factors Age - cows of any age may be affected Continue reading >>

An Attempt To Prevent Production Diseases In Dairy And Ad Hoc Treatment Cows By Intense Monitoring

An Attempt To Prevent Production Diseases In Dairy And Ad Hoc Treatment Cows By Intense Monitoring

A trial has been performed on 201 dairy cows from two Italian commercial herds in order to verify whether the mitigation of a recognized negative energy balance (NEB) by a therapeutic mean may influence the incidence of peri-partum diseases. All animals were tested for beta-hydroxybutyrate (β-HOB) and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) three times a week from 2 weeks before the expected due time to 2 weeks after calving. Animals whose blood levels were above β-HOB>1.2 or NEFA>0.5 mmol/L were declared POSITIVE and then split in two groups. Group T animals (n=57) were treated with a glycogenic treatment (ENERGAN KETOSIS, Virbac). The treatment was repeated daily as long as biochemical values remained abnormal. Group C animals (n=48) served as untreated controls. Animals with values within the physiological range over the study period were said NEGATIVE (n=96). This study confirmed that animals presenting excessive β-HOB or NEFA concentrations show a higher risk to get sick during the study period (P<0.05), the major risk being clinical ketosis (P<0.01) and in a lesser extend retention of the placenta (P=0.09). The application of a glycogenic treatment did not show an impact on blood metabolite levels due to huge individual differences. However, application of the treatment for an average duration of 5 days tends to reduce the incidence of all the diseases related to a NEB. Moreover, untreated control animals were more likely to get dislocation of the abomasum (P<0.05) than NEGATIVE animals whereas treated animals were not. Continue reading >>

Cut Down On Ketosis

Cut Down On Ketosis

Ketosis is one of the most common metabolic diseases on dairy farms. It occurs when cows have an abnormal response to negative energy balance. After calving, all cows experience some degree of negative energy balance, mobilize body fat for the additional energy needed for milk production and lose weight during the first several months of lactation. But, if cows mobilize excessive amounts of fat, the metabolic process of converting this fat to energy can result in an undesirable buildup of ketones in the bloodstream. Clinical signs Watch for the following clinical signs: decreased milk production, poor appetite, decreased rumen fill, dehydration, sunken eyes and constipation. In severe cases, known as nervous ketosis, cows will exhibit neurologic signs such as weakness, running into walls, or compulsive licking/chewing. Cow-side diagnostic tests If you suspect ketosis, you have several options to help confirm the diagnosis. 1. Urine test strips. Once the cow urinates, hold the ketone strip into the urine and watch for a color change (purple) which often occurs within seconds. The urine strips are the least costly test; however, they do miss some cows with ketosis (due to lower sensitivity). 2. Milk Ketone Test strips. The milk test strips measure the amount of beta hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) in the milk which is the primary cow ketone. This test is more costly than the urine strip, but it is more sensitive than that test. Squirt milk into a clean container, dip in the strip for the manufacturer"s recommended amount of time, then compare the color change to the code on the bottle. 3. Precision Extra Blood BHBA meter. This is the most sensitive ketosis cow-side test. This meter is a human diabetic meter that measures ketones as well as glucose levels. Insert the strip into the Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows

Dramatic increases in energy requirements during late gestation and early lactation, superimposed on an animal with a profound drop in dry matter intake just before calving, make the dairy cow highly susceptible to ketosis and hepatic lipidosis. During the last 3 to 4 weeks postpartum, a diet higher in energy and protein concentration than required by current National Research Council recommendations should be fed so that adequate nutrient intake occurs within the limits of the reduced dry matter intake. Attention should be given to the environment of the cow, especially during the last 3 weeks prepartum, to avoid environmental stressors as much as possible. Continue reading >>

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Test For, Treat Ketosis Early In Dairy Cattle

Years ago, I would lean over the feed bunk and smell the breath of a ketosis-suspect dairy cow. It convinced me that it had either bad breath or glue (acetone) breathing ketosis. Since then, I’ve come a long way. Dairy nutritionists like myself and dairy producers now have access to modern BHB (Beta-hydroxybutyrate) milk tests through regular Canwest DHI testing or from on-farm keto-testing kits. By detecting ketosis in problematic cows and implementing strong transition cow-feeding and management programs, we should be able to reduce early lactation ketosis, which is detrimental to long-term dairy cow health and performance. Don’t ignore it Ignoring a ketosis cow doesn’t solve the problem, either. Untreated clinical ketosis include a rapid drop in body condition, loss of appetite, decreased milk production, and yes, acetone-smelling breath. Most veterinarians will tell us that such clinical ketosis is relatively rare in dairy cows with the majority of ketosis symptoms in afflicted cows being hidden or subclinical in nature. Rather, these latter cows will suffer from a higher incidence of displaced abomasums, retained placentas, mastitis, or weaken immune system. Subclinical ketosis has also been linked to milk fever and reproductive problems. Cows with subclinical ketosis lose about 25 per cent of their potential milk production per lactation. Early lactation cows are the most vulnerable to either type of ketosis because, by nature, they cannot meet all their energy requirements of maintenance and high milk production from just their diet. Therefore they are drawn into a state of “negative energy balance” (NEB) for about five to six weeks after calving. Even well-transitioned cows experience a period of NEB, but they tend to have good post-partum dry matter i Continue reading >>

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Preventive Strategies For Ketosis

Parturition and the onset of lactation challenges calcium and energy homeostasis in dairy cows predisposing them to periparturient disorders that affect health, production and reproductive performance says Carlos Risco, DVM, Dipl. ACT, University of Florida. Dairy cattle experience a negative carbohydrate balance, from -3 weeks and + 3 weeks from calving and are at risk to develop ketosis, Risco explained at the 2010 Western Veterinary Conference. Milk production, in particular, drives the high requirements for glucose because other fuels cannot substitute for lactose in milk. To counteract this, the cow mobilizes body fat and protein stores in the form of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and amino acids. This promotes gluconeogenesis and occurs under the influence of low serum concentrations of insulin. Volatile fatty acids (acetate, propionate, butyrate [BHBA]) produced in the rumen are also presented to the liver as fuels. Acetate and butyrate are ketogenic, and propionate is glycogenic. The key to prevention of ketosis is to maximize dry matter intake before and after calving to prevent excessive NEFA mobilization. Preventing ketosis in the first place is key to avoid some post-partum issues. Risco outlined some preventive strategies: The transition ration. To prevent ketosis the transition ration should maximize DMI, provide adequate energy density, and minimize ketogenic precursors. Silage with a high butyric acid content should not be fed. Introduce ration changes gradually. Manage transition cows to maximize DMI, e.g., provide adequate bunk space. Avoid over-conditioning of cows in late lactation and the early dry period. Niacin (nicotinic acid) fed in transition rations at 6–12 g /d may help reduce blood ketone levels. Propylene glycol may be administered pr Continue reading >>

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

Minimizing The Risk For Ketosis In Dairy Herds

En Español: Minimizando el Riesgo de Cetosis en el Ganado Lechero This article is part of our series of original articles on emerging featured topics. Please check here to see other articles in this series. Introduction Although most cases of ketosis occur in fresh dairy cows, feeding practices and cow health prepartum can predispose cows to experiencing ketosis after calving. Most cases of primary ketosis occur within the first 2 weeks of calving, and even most secondary ketosis (occurring after the onset of another disease) occurs within the first 30 to 60 days in milk. In general, less than 5% of the cows in a herd should experience clinical ketosis. However, some reports have indicated that the incidence of subclinical ketosis may affect 40% of cows, with the incidence rate varying widely among farms, and may be as high as 80% on individual farms. The major focus prepartum to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving is maintaining feed intake in late gestation and avoiding overconditioning cows during late lactation and the dry period. Cows should dry off and freshen at a body condition score (BCS) of 3.5. Cows with a BCS equal to or greater than 4.0 will likely have lower intake prepartum and be at higher risk for fatty liver and ketosis at and after calving. Recent work at the University of Minnesota indicates that cows with a BCS greater than 3.5 and producing over 16 lb of colostrum are at a higher risk for ketosis. Feeding programs for far-off and close-up cows should be designed to maintain intake during late gestation, i.e., minimizing the drop in intake during the last week of gestation, to reduce the risk for ketosis after calving. These prepartum diets should contain high-fiber forages and provide adequate but not excessive amounts of energy. A 20% or gr Continue reading >>

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Subclinical Ketosis On Dairy Cows In Transition Period In Farms With Contrasting Butyric Acid Contents In Silages

Copyright © 2014 Fernando Vicente et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Abstract This study examines the relationship between subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows and the butyric acid content of the silage used in their feeding. Twenty commercial farms were monitored over a period of 12 months. The feed at each farm and the silages used in its ration were sampled monthly for proximal analysis and for volatile fatty acid analysis. A total of 2857 urine samples were taken from 1112 cows to examine the ketonuria from about 30 days prepartum to 100 postpartum. Wide variation was recorded in the quality of silages used in the preparation of diets. Approximately 80% of the urine samples analyzed had no detectable ketone bodies, 16% returned values indicative of slight SCK, and the remainder, 4%, showed symptoms of ketosis. Most of the cases of hyperkenuria were associated with the butyric acid content of the silage used (; ). As the metabolizable energy content of the feed was similar, no relationship was observed between the proportion of cows with SCK and the energy content of the feed. In our study, the probability of dairy cows suffering SCK is higher when they are eating feed made from silage with a high butyric acid content (35.2 g/kg DM intake). 1. Introduction Subclinical ketosis (SCK) in dairy cows is a common metabolic disorder that can appear during the transition period, dry period, or calving, or in early lactation (Duffield et al. [1]), where the highest incidence of SCK occurs within the first 2 to 3 weeks of lactation [2]. The disorder is characterized by a high concentration Continue reading >>

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

New Tools Help Us Spot Ketotic Cows

The author is a dairy practitioner and owner/partner in Countryside Veterinary Clinic, Lowville, N.Y. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs for maintenance and milk production, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. One common form of ketosis (Type I) occurs when a cow is in negative energy balance. She is not consuming enough energy to meet her metabolic needs. This generally occurs in early lactation when the cow's feed intake is unable to keep up with climbing milk production. When a cow's intake of energy does not meet her energy needs, she begins to burn fat as an energy source. The liver is the necessary organ to convert fat into usable energy (sugar). Think of the liver as a factory with an output limit. It can only convert so much fat into sugar. Once this pathway is overwhelmed, the liver produces ketones. Ketones can be used as an energy source, but they are much less efficient, and they cause the cow to feel sick. This becomes a downward spiral . . . the cow does not feel well, eats less, burns more fat, and makes more ketones. She now has clinical ketosis. Two other forms of ketosis can occur as a result of either "fat cow syndrome" or the consumption of forages high in butyric acid. "Fat cow" (or Type II) ketosis occurs when dry matter intake declines before freshening. This most commonly occurs in overconditioned cows but can also occur when dry matter intake is restricted to cows prior to freshening. This often is the result of overcrowding or improperly balanced prefresh rations. Cows with Type II ketosis are very difficult to manage and don't respond well to treatment. Butyric acid-induced ketosis is caused by the direct consumption of ketones in the diet. This causes poor dry matter intake and the obvious downward spiral as Continue reading >>

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows.

Dry Cow Management For The Prevention Of Ketosis And Fatty Liver In Dairy Cows.

Abstract Dramatic increases in energy requirements during late gestation and early lactation, superimposed on an animal with a profound drop in DMI just before calving, make the dairy cow highly susceptible to the metabolic diseases ketosis and hepatic lipidosis. Increased serum concentrations of NEFA appear to be causally linked to these problems, and feeding strategies to reduce or avoid this dramatic increase are desirable for optimal health and performance. During the last 3 to 4 weeks prepartum, a diet higher in energy and protein concentration than current NRC recommendations should be fed so that adequate nutrient intake occurs within the limits of the reduced DMI. The additional energy should be provided by glucose precursors, such as starchy concentrates or propylene glycol, and not by lipid. Excessive energy and reduced fiber should be avoided both early in the dry period (more than 28 days prepartum) and immediately postpartum. Attention should be paid to the environment of the cow, especially during the last 3 weeks prepartum, to avoid environmental stressors as much as possible. Continue reading >>

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Acetonaemia (ketosis)

Managing disease can be a frustrating proposition. This Guide can help you identify which disease is damaging your cattle. Cause Ketosis is a metabolic disorder that occurs in cattle when energy demands (e.g. high milk production) exceed energy intake and result in a negative energy balance. Ketotic cows often have low blood glucose (blood sugar) concentrations. When large amounts of body fat are utilised as an energy source to support production, fat is sometimes mobilised faster than the liver can properly metabolise it. If this situation occurs, ketone production exceeds ketone utilisation by the cow, and ketosis results. In the beef cow, this is most likely to occur in late pregnancy when the cow's appetite is at its lowest and the energy requirement of the growing calf near its peak. In the dairy cow, the mismatch between input and output usually occurs in the first few weeks of lactation, because the cow is not able to eat enough to match the energy lost in the milk. Symptoms Reduced milk yield Weight loss Reduced appetite Dull coat Acetone (pear drop) smell of breath/ or milk Fever Some develop nervous signs including excess salivation, licking, agression etc. For every cow with clinical signs there are probably a number of others with sub-clinical signs. Treatment The initial aim of treatment is to restore the lack of glucose in the body. A quick-acting glucose supplement is required immediately. Follow-up treatment is aimed at providing a long term supply of glucose. Glucose replacement Intravenous administration of a dextrose solution by a veterinarian is effective in the short term, but follow-up treatment is essential if relapses are to be avoided. Drenching with propylene glycol or glycerine has longer term effects. It also has the benefit of ease of admini Continue reading >>

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