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How To Determine Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms

What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis, also referred to as simply ketoacidosis or DKA, is a serious and even life-threatening complication of type 1 diabetes. DKA is rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA is caused when insulin levels are low and not enough glucose can get into the body's cells. Without glucose for energy, the body starts to burn fat for energy. Ketones are products that are created when the body burns fat. The buildup of ketones causes the blood to become more acidic. The high levels of blood glucose in DKA cause the kidneys to excrete glucose and water, leading to dehydration and imbalances in body electrolyte levels. Diabetic ketoacidosis most commonly develops either due to an interruption in insulin treatment or a severe illness, including the flu. What are the symptoms and signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The development of DKA is usually a slow process. However, if vomiting develops, the symptoms can progress more rapidly due to the more rapid loss of body fluid. Excessive urination, which occurs because the kidneys try to rid the body of excess glucose, and water is excreted along with the glucose High blood glucose (sugar) levels The presence of ketones in the urine Other signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis occur as the condition progresses: These include: Fatigue, which can be severe Flushing of the skin Fruity odor to the breath, caused by ketones Difficulty breathing Type 2 Diabetes Diagnosis, Treatment, Medication What should I do if I think I may have, or someone I know may diabetic ketoacidosis? You should test your urine for ketones if you suspect you have early symptoms or warning signs of ketoacidosis. Call your health-care professional if your urine shows high levels of ketones. High levels of ketones and high blood sug Continue reading >>

How Do You Determine When Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis Serious Enough To Seek Professional Medical Assistance?

How Do You Determine When Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis Serious Enough To Seek Professional Medical Assistance?

If you have DKA, you should seek medical assistance. There is no “safe level.” It is potentially dangerous, and even if you don’t have any immediate perception of damage, over time the acidity of the acidosis can, over time, do a lot of damage to your body. How do you know if you have it? If you have high blood sugar readings and ketones are present in your urine, you should see a doctor as soon as possible. If the amount of ketones is “large”, it is a medical emergency, regardless of how you feel or what other symptoms you have. You test for ketones by using Ketostix. Dip the tip in fresh urine caught for the purpose, The tip will turn colors, indicating the presence of urine. The color will indicate the amount of ketones, with the most intense colors meaning the highest levels. Check the expiration date on the Ketostix. If you do not test for ketones frequently, they may expire before they are used up and you should not rely on them. They may be better than nothing if that is all you have. As a diabetic or the caregiver of a diabetic, you should have Ketostix on hand. The doctor can tell you at what blood sugar reading you should check for ketones. It might be something like above 300, which means that whenever you get a reading of 300 or above, you should check for ketones. Ketones cause the urine to have an identifiable smell often described as fruity or acetone-like. If you can smell that, your level of ketones is high enough that you should see a doctor, regardless of whether you have any Ketostix. Wikipedia has an article about diabetic ketoacidosis. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition that results from when the body is deprived of the ability to use glucose as an energy source. Usually this is due to a lack of insulin. Insulin is used to uptake glucose into the cells to be used for energy. If there is no insulin or the cells are resistant to insulin, the blood sugar levels increase to dangerous levels for the patient. It seems counter intuitive that the patient wouldn't have energy with such high levels of glucose, but this glucose is essentially unusable without insulin. Because your body needs energy to survive, it starts turning to alternative fuel sources (fat). Fat cells start breaking down and, as a result, release ketones (which are acidic) into the bloodstream. Hence the name: diabetic ketoacidosis. “High levels of ketones can poison the body. When levels get too high, you can develop DKA. DKA may happen to anyone with diabetes, though it is rare in people with type 2. Treatment for DKA usually takes place in the hospital. But you can help prevent it by learning the warning signs and checking your urine and blood regularly.” Causes The most common causes of DKA are not getting enough insulin, having a severe infection, becoming dehydrated, or a combination of these issues. It seems like it occurs mainly in patients with type one diabetes. Symptoms Some of the symptoms that people experience with DKA include the following: Excessive thirst and urination (more water is pulled into the urine as a result of high ketone loss in the urine) Lethargy Breathing very quickly (patients have a very high level of acids in their bloodstream and they try to "blow" off carbon dioxide by breathing quickly) A fruity odor on their breath (ketones have a fruity smell) Nausea and vomiting (the body tries to get rid of acid Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Diabetic Ketoacidosis Workup

Approach Considerations Diabetic ketoacidosis is typically characterized by hyperglycemia over 250 mg/dL, a bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq/L, and a pH less than 7.30, with ketonemia and ketonuria. While definitions vary, mild DKA can be categorized by a pH level of 7.25-7.3 and a serum bicarbonate level between 15-18 mEq/L; moderate DKA can be categorized by a pH between 7.0-7.24 and a serum bicarbonate level of 10 to less than 15 mEq/L; and severe DKA has a pH less than 7.0 and bicarbonate less than 10 mEq/L. [17] In mild DKA, anion gap is greater than 10 and in moderate or severe DKA the anion gap is greater than 12. These figures differentiate DKA from HHS where blood glucose is greater than 600 mg/dL but pH is greater than 7.3 and serum bicarbonate greater than 15 mEq/L. Laboratory studies for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) should be scheduled as follows: Repeat laboratory tests are critical, including potassium, glucose, electrolytes, and, if necessary, phosphorus. Initial workup should include aggressive volume, glucose, and electrolyte management. It is important to be aware that high serum glucose levels may lead to dilutional hyponatremia; high triglyceride levels may lead to factitious low glucose levels; and high levels of ketone bodies may lead to factitious elevation of creatinine levels. Continue reading >>

Postmortem Diagnosis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting As The

Postmortem Diagnosis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis Presenting As The "dead-in-bed Syndrome".

Abstract OBJECTIVE: To report a case of a young male with type 1 diabetes mellitus found dead in his bed, initially assumed to have died from hypoglycemia (i.e., the "dead in bed" syndrome). However, his autopsy findings revealed that diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) was the cause of death. METHODS: We present the laboratory and autopsy findings of the patient, highlighting the importance of laboratory analyses of the vitreous humor and microscopy of kidney tissue when investigating the cause of sudden death in patients with type 1 diabetes. RESULTS: A 25-year-old healthy male with type 1 diabetes on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion therapy was found dead in his undisturbed bed. An autopsy included vitreous humor analyses. His results were as follows: glucose of 755 mg/dL (reference range 70-105 mg/dL), anion gap >36 mEq (reference range 4-12 mEq/L), elevated acetone at 66 mg/dL (reference range negative), which were consistent with DKA. Renal microscopy demonstrated subnuclear vacuoles in the proximal tubules, 1 of 2 lesions were described as an Armanni-Ebstein lesion, which is a postmortem finding in patients who die from diabetic coma. CONCLUSION: The most likely cause of death at home in young patients with type 1 diabetes is severe hypoglycemia. However, an autopsy of the present case confirmed DKA based on vitreous humor biochemistry and microscopic examination of the kidneys, which demonstrated the Armanni-Ebstein phenomenon. Analysis of the vitreous fluid and microscopic examination of the kidneys for the presence of Armanni-Ebstein lesion can be used to help determine the cause of death in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Continue reading >>

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Feline Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Fall 2008 Ketoacidosis is a metabolic imbalance that is most commonly seen as a sequel to unmanaged or poorly regulated diabetes mellitus. It is caused by the breakdown of fat and protein in a compensatory effort for the need of more metabolic energy. The excessive breakdown of these stored reserves creates a toxic by-product in the form of ketones. As ketones build up in the blood stream, pH and electrolyte imbalances proceed. This condition is a potentially life-threatening emergency that requires immediate medical attention. Diabetes mellitus is a common endocrine disease in geriatric felines. It is caused by a dysfunction in the beta cells of the exocrine pancreas resulting in an absolute or relative deficiency of insulin. Insulin has been called the cells' gatekeeper. It attaches to the surface of cells and permits glucose, the cells' primary energy source, to enter from the blood. A lack of insulin results in a build up of glucose in the blood, physiologically causing a state of cellular starvation. In response to this condition the body begins to increase the mobilization of protein and fat storage. Fatty acids are released from adipose tissue, which are then oxidized by the liver. Normally, these fatty acids are formed into triglycerides. However, without insulin, these fatty acids are converted into ketone bodies, which cannot be utilized by the body. Together with the increased production and decreased utilization an abnormally high concentration of ketone bodies develop. These fixed acids are buffered by bicarbonate; however, the excessive amounts overwhelm and deplete the bicarbonate leading to an increase in arterial hydrogen ion concentration and a decrease in serum bicarbonate. This increase in hydrogen ions lowers the body's pH, leading to a metabolic ac Continue reading >>

Urine Ketone Dip Test As A Screen For Ketonemia In Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Ketosis In The Emergency Department☆☆☆★★★

Urine Ketone Dip Test As A Screen For Ketonemia In Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Ketosis In The Emergency Department☆☆☆★★★

Abstract Study objective: To determine the sensitivity of the urine ketone dip test (UKDT) for the detection of ketonemia in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and diabetic ketosis (DK) in the ED. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review in the ED of an urban, university- affiliated county teaching hospital. The study population comprised patients seen in the ED during 1994 and 1995 with a discharge diagnosis of DKA or DK and underwent urinalysis within 4 hours of the initial serum electrolyte and ketone determinations. We calculated test sensitivity, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: One hundred forty-eight patients with 223 occurrences diagnosed as DKA or DK were seen in the ED during the study period. One hundred fourteen patients with 146 occurrences of DKA or DK met all inclusion criteria; these patients made up the study group. There were 99 cases of DKA and 47 cases of DK. The sensitivity of the UKDT for the detection of ketonemia in all patients with DKA or DK was 97% (95% CI, 94% to 99%) . In the subgroup of patients with DKA, the sensitivity of the UK was 97% (95% CI, 92% to 99%). For patients with DK, the sensitivity of the UK was 98% (95% CI, 89% to 99%). Conclusion: The UKDT is highly sensitive for the presence of serum ketones in patients with DKA and DK. Prospective study is suggested to determine the specificity of the UKDT in this application and to validate its use as a screening tool for the detection of ketonemia in DKA and DK. [Hendey GW, Schwab T, Soliz T: Urine ketone dip test as a screen for ketonemia in diabetic ketoacidosis and ketosis in the emergency department. Ann Emerg Med June 1997; 29:735-738.] Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus.[1] Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness.[1] A person's breath may develop a specific smell.[1] Onset of symptoms is usually rapid.[1] In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes.[1] DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances.[1] Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids.[1] DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies.[3] DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine.[1] The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin.[1] Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin.[3] Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium.[1] Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked.[1] Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection.[6] In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended.[1][6] Rates of DKA vary around the world.[5] In the United Kingdom, about 4% of people with type 1 diabetes develop DKA each year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year.[1][5] DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost univ Continue reading >>

Measure Electrolyte And Ketone Levels And Determine Anion Gap In Patients With Diabetes And Normal Sugar Levels

Measure Electrolyte And Ketone Levels And Determine Anion Gap In Patients With Diabetes And Normal Sugar Levels

DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS DX: Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) when the blood glucose is >=250 mg/dL, arterial pH <=7.30, serum bicarbonate <=15 mEq/L, and positive serum ketones. (Hyperglycemia, ketonemia, ketonuria, metabolic acidosis) Screening for Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Consider DKA if hyperglycemia, acidosis, or ketonemia are present. Screen all patients with moderate to severely elevated blood sugars (glucose >350 mg/dL). Measure electrolytes, glucose, ketones, and blood gases to determine whether anion gap metabolic acidosis is present in patients with positive ketones, constitutional symptoms, or suspicion of DKA. in patients with an anion gap metabolic acidosis. Measure serum glucose in patients with metabolic acidosis. in diabetes patients with infection, CVA, MI, or other illness. Measure serum glucose and if glucose >250 mg/dL, check the patient's electrolyte and ketone levels and anion gap. in diabetic patients with symptoms of nausea and vomiting (with polyuria, polydipsia), even if blood glucose is <250 mg/dL. if symptoms suggest DKA despite normal blood sugar levels. in patients on atypical antipsychotics who present with hyperglycemia. Measure anion gap and ketones in patients on atypical antipsychotics who present with moderate to severe hyperglycemia. SX: Dehydration with hypotension, hyperventilation with fruity "acetone" odor, polyphagia, polydipsia, polyuria, altered mental status, N&V. History and Physical Examination Elements for Diabetic Ketoacidosis History Type 1 diabetes - DKA is a frequent complication of type 1 diabetes Constitutional symptoms - DKA may show vague symptoms of lethargy, diminished appetite, and headache Polyuria, polydipsia - May precede the development of DKA by 1 or 2 days, especially if intercurrent illness (infection) is present Continue reading >>

Lab Values And Dka

Lab Values And Dka

Changes in laboratory values often give us clues to what is happening with our patients. I came across the following resource this morning and thought it was worth sharing. Here’s a handy table to help you identify diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The following equation can be used to calculate an anion gap: Anion gap = Na+(mEq/L) – [Cl-(mEq/L) + HCO3-(mEq/L)] You have an important role when caring for a patient with DKA. Thorough physical assessments, careful monitoring of laboratory values, and critical thinking are essential to avoid complications of this complex disorder. Have you cared for a patient with DKA? What are the common presenting signs and symptoms? Reference Donahey, E., Folse, S., Weant, K. (2012). Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 34(3). Continue reading >>

How To Spot And Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

How To Spot And Treat Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Even if you work hard at your diabetes management and use technology to help keep your numbers in range, you can still experience high blood glucose, which can escalate to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). While DKA can be scary if left untreated, it is preventable if you know what to look for and what to do. Senior District Clinical Manager, Melinda Turenne, BSN, RN, CDE, has more than 15 years of diabetes clinical experience. Today she shares some valuable DKA risk factors and prevention tips. Living with diabetes involves a lot of duties. You are checking your blood glucose (BG), counting your carbohydrates, exercising, and keeping doctors’ appointments. I am sure you remember your doctor or diabetes educator telling you to check for ketones too, right? Checking my what? One more thing to add to my to-do list! Yes, and here is WHY. What are ketones? Ketones are acid molecules produced when we burn fat for energy or fuel. As fat is broken down, ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are toxic and can make you very sick. When combined with dehydration, it can lead to Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA), a life threatening condition. Why would DKA happen? DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin present in the body. Without enough insulin, glucose builds up in the blood, causing high BG levels. Since the body is unable to use glucose without insulin for energy, it breaks down fat instead. This can occur for several reasons: Infection, injury, or serious illness A lack of insulin in the body due to missed injections, spoiled insulin, poor absorption Severe dehydration Combination of these things What are the signs of DKA? High BG levels Ketones (in blood and urine) Nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain (cramps) Confusion Tired, sluggish, or weak Flushed, Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Cats

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Cats The term “ketoacidosis” refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies.” Meanwhile, diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. Typically, the type of condition affects older cats; in addition, female cats are more prone diabetes with ketoacidosis than males. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the cat's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your cat’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azotemia), low sodium levels Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Clinical Features, Evaluation, And Diagnosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State In Adults: Clinical Features, Evaluation, And Diagnosis

INTRODUCTION Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS, also known as hyperosmotic hyperglycemic nonketotic state [HHNK]) are two of the most serious acute complications of diabetes. DKA is characterized by ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia, while HHS usually has more severe hyperglycemia but no ketoacidosis (table 1). Each represents an extreme in the spectrum of hyperglycemia. The precipitating factors, clinical features, evaluation, and diagnosis of DKA and HHS in adults will be reviewed here. The epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of these disorders are discussed separately. DKA in children is also reviewed separately. (See "Diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state in adults: Epidemiology and pathogenesis".) Continue reading >>

Original Article The Value Of Venous Blood Gas Analysis In The Diagnosis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Original Article The Value Of Venous Blood Gas Analysis In The Diagnosis Of Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract Newer blood gas analyzers have the ability to report electrolyte values and glucose in addition to pH, so this diagnostic process could be condensed in diagnosing diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). We aimed to assess the accuracy of the venous blood gas (VBG) analysis with electrolytes for diagnosing DKA. This study prospectively identified a convenience sample of (60 patients) presented with DKA and tested their VBG and serum electrolytes. The diagnosis of DKA was made according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Serum chemistry electrolyte values were considered to be the criterion standard. Sensitivity and specificity of VBG electrolytes results were compared against this standard. In addition, correlation coefficients for individual electrolytes between VBG electrolytes and laboratory chemistry electrolytes were calculated. Paired VBG and serum chemistry panels were available for 60 patients, only 49 patients were included, In this study; 20% of cases were newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus. The total number of diabetic ketoacidosis was 14 patients (28.5%). The sensitivity and specificity of the VBG and electrolytes for diagnosing DKA was 92.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 89% to 99%) and 97.1% (95% CI = 92% to 100%), respectively. Correlation coefficients between VBG and serum chemistry were 0.91, 0.47, 0.61, 0.65, and 0.58 for blood sugar, sodium, potassium, chloride, and creatinine respectively. Findings of this study offer preliminary support for the possibility of using VBG sample rather than VBG sample and serum chemistry electrolytes together to rule out diabetic ketoacidosis. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Tweet Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a dangerous complication faced by people with diabetes which happens when the body starts running out of insulin. DKA is most commonly associated with type 1 diabetes, however, people with type 2 diabetes that produce very little of their own insulin may also be affected. Ketoacidosis is a serious short term complication which can result in coma or even death if it is not treated quickly. Read about Diabetes and Ketones What is diabetic ketoacidosis? DKA occurs when the body has insufficient insulin to allow enough glucose to enter cells, and so the body switches to burning fatty acids and producing acidic ketone bodies. A high level of ketone bodies in the blood can cause particularly severe illness. Symptoms of DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis may itself be the symptom of undiagnosed type 1 diabetes. Typical symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Vomiting Dehydration An unusual smell on the breath –sometimes compared to the smell of pear drops Deep laboured breathing (called kussmaul breathing) or hyperventilation Rapid heartbeat Confusion and disorientation Symptoms of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a 24 hour period if blood glucose levels become and remain too high (hyperglycemia). Causes and risk factors for diabetic ketoacidosis As noted above, DKA is caused by the body having too little insulin to allow cells to take in glucose for energy. This may happen for a number of reasons including: Having blood glucose levels consistently over 15 mmol/l Missing insulin injections If a fault has developed in your insulin pen or insulin pump As a result of illness or infections High or prolonged levels of stress Excessive alcohol consumption DKA may also occur prior to a diagnosis of type 1 diabetes. Ketoacidosis can occasional Continue reading >>

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