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How To Detect Ketoacidosis

Screening For Ketonemia In Patients With Diabetes.

Screening For Ketonemia In Patients With Diabetes.

Abstract STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of the urine ketone dip test as a screening test for ketonemia in hyperglycemic patients and to compare the performance of the urine ketone dip test with the anion gap and serum bicarbonate level. METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted in an urban, university-affiliated public hospital emergency department. Inclusion criteria consisted of (1) patients with known diabetes and hyperglycemia (glucose level>200 mg/dL) and any complaint of illness, or (2) patients with hyperglycemia and symptoms of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. Urine ketone dip test, serum ketone, and electrolyte levels were determined on all subjects. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: The study group comprised 697 patients, including 98 patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and 88 with diabetic ketosis (DK). The sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the urine ketone dip test for the detection of DKA were 99% (95% CI 97% to 100%), 69% (95% CI 66% to 73%), 35% (95% CI 29% to 41%), and 100% (95% CI 99% to 100%), respectively. For DKA and DK, the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values of the urine ketone dip test were 95% (95% CI 90% to 97%), 80% (95% CI 76% to 83%), 63% (95% CI 57% to 69%) and 98% (95% CI 96% to 99%). The anion gap and serum bicarbonate level were less sensitive but more specific than the urine ketone dip test for the detection of DKA and DK. CONCLUSION: The urine ketone dip test has high sensitivity for detecting DKA and a high negative predictive value for excluding DKA in hyperglycemic patients with diabetes with any symptoms of illness. The urine ketone dip test is Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (dka)

Short-term high blood sugars are rarely lethal. However, for people with type 1 diabetes and some with type 2 who are not producing enough insulin, periods of high blood sugars can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis. The absence of insulin allows your blood to slowly become acidic. The body’s cells cannot survive under acidic conditions so the liver will try to help the cells that are starved for glucose and secrete glucose. When combined with dehydration, this process accelerates into a poisonous cocktail that undermines the heart, impairs the brain, and can lead to death in days. Prolonged high blood sugars can be caused by missing insulin doses, problems with an insulin pump, being sick with the flu or other illness, or eating more carbohydrates than your body has insulin to process. Who Can Develop Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)? People with type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes can develop DKA. Most at risk however, are people with type 1 diabetes because they don’t make any insulin of their own and most people with type 2 diabetes do usually make some of their own insulin. Oftentimes DKA develops in people who have not yet been diagnosed with diabetes. Once diagnosed, people with diabetes can avoid DKA if they learn to recognize the beginning symptoms. How Do I Know If I Have Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)? DKA can develop slowly or quickly. At first, it mimics the symptoms of high blood sugar: thirstiness dry mouth frequent urination You will likely have high blood sugars and ketones in your urine (more on this below). If your body still doesn’t get the insulin it needs, your blood becomes more acidic. you will likely feel tired your body might start to feel very achy like when you have a high fever. When any of the following symptoms occur, your condition has likely pr Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious condition that can occur in diabetes. DKA happens when acidic substances, called ketones, build up in your body. Ketones are formed when your body burns fat for fuel instead of sugar, or glucose. That can happen if you don’t have enough insulin in your body to help you process sugars. Learn more: Ketosis vs. ketoacidosis: What you should know » Left untreated, ketones can build up to dangerous levels. DKA can occur in people who have type 1 or type 2 diabetes, but it’s rare in people with type 2 diabetes. DKA can also develop if you are at risk for diabetes, but have not received a formal diagnosis. It can be the first sign of type 1 diabetes. DKA is a medical emergency. Call your local emergency services immediately if you think you are experiencing DKA. Symptoms of DKA can appear quickly and may include: frequent urination extreme thirst high blood sugar levels high levels of ketones in the urine nausea or vomiting abdominal pain confusion fruity-smelling breath a flushed face fatigue rapid breathing dry mouth and skin It is important to make sure you consult with your doctor if you experience any of these symptoms. If left untreated, DKA can lead to a coma or death. All people who use insulin should discuss the risk of DKA with their healthcare team, to make sure a plan is in place. If you think you are experiencing DKA, seek immediate medical help. Learn more: Blood glucose management: Checking for ketones » If you have type 1 diabetes, you should maintain a supply of home urine ketone tests. You can use these to test your ketone levels. A high ketone test result is a symptom of DKA. If you have type 1 diabetes and have a glucometer reading of over 250 milligrams per deciliter twice, you should test your urine for keton Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

Diabetic Ketoacidosis In Dogs

My dog is diabetic. He has been doing pretty well overall, but recently he became really ill. He stopped eating well, started drinking lots of water, and got really weak. His veterinarian said that he had a condition called “ketoacidosis,” and he had to spend several days in the hospital. I’m not sure I understand this disorder. Diabetic ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body to control blood sugar (glucose) levels. The body can’t use glucose properly without insulin, so blood glucose levels get very high, and the body creates ketone bodies as an emergency fuel source. When these are broken down, it creates byproducts that cause the body’s acid/base balance to shift, and the body becomes more acidic (acidosis), and it can’t maintain appropriate fluid balance. The electrolyte (mineral) balance becomes disrupted which can lead to abnormal heart rhythms and abnormal muscle function. If left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis is fatal. How could this disorder have happened? If a diabetic dog undergoes a stress event of some kind, the body secretes stress hormones that interfere with appropriate insulin activity. Examples of stress events that can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis include infection, inflammation, and heart disease. What are the signs of diabetic ketoacidosis? The signs of diabetic ketoacidosis include: Excessive thirst/drinking Increased urination Lethargy Weakness Vomiting Increased respiratory rate Decreased appetite Weight loss (unplanned) with muscle wasting Dehydration Unkempt haircoat These same clinical signs can occur with other medical conditions, so it is important for your veterinarian to perform appropriate diagnostic tests to determine if diabetic ketoacidosis in truly the issue at hand Continue reading >>

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

What Is Diabetic Ketoacidosis?

Diabetic ketoacidosis is a serious condition characterized by high blood sugar (hyperglycemia), low insulin, and the presence of moderate to large amounts of ketones in the blood. It's a medical emergency that requires treatment in a hospital. If not treated in a timely fashion, ketoacidosis can lead to coma and death. While diabetic ketoacidosis (or DKA) is much more common among people with type 1 diabetes, it can also occur in people with type 2 diabetes, so ketone monitoring is something everyone with diabetes should understand. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Symptoms Signs and symptoms of ketoacidosis include: Thirst or a very dry mouth Frequent urination Fatigue and weakness Nausea Vomiting Dry or flushed skin Abdominal pain Deep breathing A fruity breath odor What Are Ketones? Ketones, or ketone bodies, are acidic byproducts of fat metabolism. It's normal for everyone to have a small amount of ketones in the bloodstream, and after a fast of 12 to16 hours, there may be detectable amounts in the urine. As is the case with glucose, if blood levels of ketones get too high, they spill over into the urine. An elevated level of ketones in the blood is known as ketosis. People who follow low-carbohydrate diets often speak of ketosis as a desirable state — it's evidence that their bodies are burning fat, not carbohydrate. But the level of ketosis that results from low carbohydrate consumption isn't harmful and is much lower than the level seen in diabetic ketoacidosis. When Should Ketones Be Monitored? Ketone monitoring is less of a concern for people with type 2 diabetes than for those with type 1 diabetes. This is because most people with type 2 diabetes still make some of their own insulin, making diabetic ketoacidosis less likely to develop. Nonetheless, people with type 2 d Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Initial Evaluation Initial evaluation of patients with DKA includes diagnosis and treatment of precipitating factors (Table 14–18). The most common precipitating factor is infection, followed by noncompliance with insulin therapy.3 While insulin pump therapy has been implicated as a risk factor for DKA in the past, most recent studies show that with proper education and practice using the pump, the frequency of DKA is the same for patients on pump and injection therapy.19 Common causes by frequency Other causes Selected drugs that may contribute to diabetic ketoacidosis Infection, particularly pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and sepsis4 Inadequate insulin treatment or noncompliance4 New-onset diabetes4 Cardiovascular disease, particularly myocardial infarction5 Acanthosis nigricans6 Acromegaly7 Arterial thrombosis, including mesenteric and iliac5 Cerebrovascular accident5 Hemochromatosis8 Hyperthyroidism9 Pancreatitis10 Pregnancy11 Atypical antipsychotic agents12 Corticosteroids13 FK50614 Glucagon15 Interferon16 Sympathomimetic agents including albuterol (Ventolin), dopamine (Intropin), dobutamine (Dobutrex), terbutaline (Bricanyl),17 and ritodrine (Yutopar)18 DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS Three key features of diabetic acidosis are hyperglycemia, ketosis, and acidosis. The conditions that cause these metabolic abnormalities overlap. The primary differential diagnosis for hyperglycemia is hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (Table 23,20), which is discussed in the Stoner article21 on page 1723 of this issue. Common problems that produce ketosis include alcoholism and starvation. Metabolic states in which acidosis is predominant include lactic acidosis and ingestion of drugs such as salicylates and methanol. Abdominal pain may be a symptom of ketoacidosis or part of the inci Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a serious complication of diabetes that occurs when your body produces high levels of acids called ketones in the blood. Diabetic ketoacidosis can be life threatening. This situation can happen very quickly. If you have diabetes, learn the warning signs of diabetic ketoacidosis and know when to seek emergency care (below). Contact your doctor or diabetes nurse without delay if: your urine or blood ketone levels are high your ketone levels are not coming down once you have started treating yourself you are feeling very unwell (drowsy, rapid breathing, pain in your abdomen or nausea and vomiting) you are unable to look after yourself you don't know how much extra insulin to take you are unable to drink fluids you have a temperature or an obvious sickness that is not improving What is diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a condition which can affect people with diabetes, usually type 1 diabetes. It happens when your body does not have enough insulin to help it use sugar for energy. Instead, your body starts burning fat for energy, which releases ketones. A build-up of ketones in your body causes it to become acidic. This is why it is called 'ketoacidosis'. Because diabetic ketoacidosis upsets the chemical balance in the body, and can quickly make you sick, it requires immediate medical attention. Left untreated, diabetic ketoacidosis can be fatal. If picked up early, it can be treated with extra insulin, glucose and fluid. What causes diabetic ketoacidosis? Diabetic ketoacidosis is triggered by low insulin levels. This is most commonly caused by: Missed doses of insulin Insulin therapy not being given correctly which may be because of problems with your insulin pen, insulin cartridge or insulin pump An illness or hormonal change Continue reading >>

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes With Ketone Bodies In Dogs

Diabetes Mellitus with Ketoacidosis in Dogs Diabetes is a medical condition in which the body cannot absorb sufficient glucose, thus causing a rise the blood sugar levels. The term “ketoacidosis,” meanwhile, refers to a condition in which levels of acid abnormally increased in the blood due to presence of “ketone bodies”. In diabetes with ketoacidosis, ketoacidosis immediately follows diabetes. It should be considered a dire emergency, one in which immediate treatment is required to save the life of the animal. This condition typically affects older dogs as well as females. In addition, miniature poodles and dachshunds are predisposed to diabetes with ketoacidosis. Symptoms and Types Weakness Lethargy Depression Lack of appetite (anorexia) Muscle wasting Rough hair coat Dehydration Dandruff Sweet breath odor Causes Although the ketoacidosis is ultimately brought on by the dog's insulin dependency due to diabetes mellitus, underlying factors include stress, surgery, and infections of the skin, respiratory, and urinary tract systems. Concurrent diseases such as heart failure, kidney failure, asthma, cancer may also lead to this type of condition. Diagnosis You will need to give a thorough history of your dog’s health, including the onset and nature of the symptoms, to your veterinarian. He or she will then perform a complete physical examination, as well as a biochemistry profile and complete blood count (CBC). The most consistent finding in patients with diabetes is higher than normal levels of glucose in the blood. If infection is present, white blood cell count will also high. Other findings may include: high liver enzymes, high blood cholesterol levels, accumulation in the blood of nitrogenous waste products (urea) that are usually excreted in the urine (azo Continue reading >>

What Can You Do That Nobody Else Can Do? How Is Your Ability Unique?

What Can You Do That Nobody Else Can Do? How Is Your Ability Unique?

Simple, Take a Notebook and Write down from Age 5 to the Age now , what were the things that you did that made you extremely happy ( only happiness ) in each page for each age and the level of happiness that it gave. Example: ( The below is to give an idea. Please go in details filling each page) Age 5: Playing with cars and toys , watching tom and jerry Age 6: Playing with cars and toys, watching popeye , Playing with water Age 7: Playing cricket, watching cartoons, Doing Maths Age 8: Studying Maths, Travelling, Listening to fantasy stories from daddy, Age 9: Playing football, Travelling, watching Captain Planet Age 10: Roller skating , Doing Abacus , watching Swat cats Age 11: Dancing, Roller skating and Sketching cartoons Age 12: Dancing and Playing shuttle badminton, Reading Books Age 13: harry Potter Books , Playing video games in computer , Portrait paintings Age 14: Winning competitions in Roller skating and Playing Video Games (Fantasy) Age 15: Playing football with friends in the evening , Watching WWE, Sketching Age 16: Watching WWE, Seeing Disney Animation Movies ( Finding Nemo, I luvd it) Age 17: Hanging out with friends, Crush and Listening to Music Age 18: Reading History books and Techie Stuffs , Watching Pokemon and Anime Age 19: Learning android programming , and design softwares like Photoshop Age 20: Watching Dragon ball Z and Anime, Design softwares and Games Age 21: Playing Games , Programming and Designing, Playing Pokemon Go From the above you can easily find out the major chunk that has come along your life in keeping you happy to extremes. Passion is not about a job or a designations. Passion is the field/thing that has always kept you happy and is gonna keep you happy no matter whatever struggles will come in the way. All these years it was som Continue reading >>

What Does A Diabetic Person Smell Like?

What Does A Diabetic Person Smell Like?

Acetone breath is one of the classic symptoms of untreated diabetes. A diabetic lacking insulin will release fats into the bloodstream which are partially converted to ketones (acetoacetate and hydroxybutyrate). These substances, in turn, may be converted into acetone which may then appear in the breath or urine. Ketones are an important source of energy for the brain when carbohydrates are not available. Acetone breath may appear in people eating a very low carbohydrate diet or have not eaten for more than 2–3 days. In modern times, no diabetic person should have acetone in their breath unless they neglect to take enough insulin. If you smell it in a diabetic person arrange for proper treatment right away. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

A Preventable Crisis People who have had diabetic ketoacidosis, or DKA, will tell you it’s worse than any flu they’ve ever had, describing an overwhelming feeling of lethargy, unquenchable thirst, and unrelenting vomiting. “It’s sort of like having molasses for blood,” says George. “Everything moves so slow, the mouth can feel so dry, and there is a cloud over your head. Just before diagnosis, when I was in high school, I would get out of a class and go to the bathroom to pee for about 10–12 minutes. Then I would head to the water fountain and begin drinking water for minutes at a time, usually until well after the next class had begun.” George, generally an upbeat person, said that while he has experienced varying degrees of DKA in his 40 years or so of having diabetes, “…at its worst, there is one reprieve from its ill feeling: Unfortunately, that is a coma.” But DKA can be more than a feeling of extreme discomfort, and it can result in more than a coma. “It has the potential to kill,” says Richard Hellman, MD, past president of the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists. “DKA is a medical emergency. It’s the biggest medical emergency related to diabetes. It’s also the most likely time for a child with diabetes to die.” DKA occurs when there is not enough insulin in the body, resulting in high blood glucose; the person is dehydrated; and too many ketones are present in the bloodstream, making it acidic. The initial insulin deficit is most often caused by the onset of diabetes, by an illness or infection, or by not taking insulin when it is needed. Ketones are your brain’s “second-best fuel,” Hellman says, with glucose being number one. If you don’t have enough glucose in your cells to supply energy to your brain, yo Continue reading >>

What Are The Illnesses That Can Be Reliably Detected By Odor?

What Are The Illnesses That Can Be Reliably Detected By Odor?

Just analyze someone's breath, mucus, saliva, sweat or urine and diagnose whether they have diabetes, cancer, COPD, IBD, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), Tuberculosis (TB), or any other disease for that matter. Now that would be a seismic revolution in medicine. For one, fully non-invasive in complete contrast to the present-day staples, needles and blood draws, and the pain and fear they entail. Could also be done as often as possible, even when asleep or anesthetized during surgery, even in real-time, as point-of-care, i.e., truly portable and thus truly mobile. Underlying idea is the body's physiological emanations reliably communicate unique signatures of underlying diseases in the form of singular mixes of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), i.e., the human 'volatilome'. The reality, OTOH, is a sharp, painful thud since the ground reality is one where most of these possibilities remain not even remotely feasible in the near future. Volatilome historians point to the French chemist, Antoine Lavoisier, as the modern inspiration for diagnosis using exhaled breath (1). He showed the body produces and exhales carbon dioxide. In turn this became the basis for Capnography, monitoring the concentration pressure or partial pressure of carbon dioxide in respiratory gases, the most common breath test. Antiquated roots notwithstanding, using unique signatures from breath and other emanations for disease diagnosis still remains deep in research mode and far from much practical utility. A 2014 review lists a total of only 7 US FDA-approved breath-related tests (see below from 2). Obstacles To Widespread Non-invasive Sampling of Body Emanations For Disease Diagnosis I. Unlike Animal Olfaction, Human Technology's Remained Too Constrained In Choice Of What To Analyze Default, Continue reading >>

Do You Believe That Pets Can Find Cancer And Other Diseases By Smell?

Do You Believe That Pets Can Find Cancer And Other Diseases By Smell?

No belief, but have been proven to do so, see these scientific publications. From dogs sniffing out explosives, drugs, even peanuts to prevent an allergic child to ingest hidden peanuts in the food, it's not so a big step to sniffing out cancers from people's breath, urine and stool samples: Page on googlegroups.com "Diagnostic Accuracy of Canine Scent Detection in Early- and Late-Stage Lung and Breast Cancers" by Michael McCulloch et al found that Among lung cancer patients and controls, overall sensitivity of canine scent detection compared to biopsy-confirmed conventional diagnosis was 0.99 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.99, 1.00) and overall specificity 0.99 (95% CI, 0.96, 1.00). Among breast cancer patients and controls, sensitivity was 0.88 (95% CI, 0.75, 1.00) and specificity 0.98 (95% CI, 0.90, 0.99). Sensitivity and specificity were remarkably similar across all 4 stages of both diseases. Conclusion: Training was efficient and cancer identification was accurate; in a matter of weeks, ordinary household dogs with only basic behavioral “puppy training” were trained to accurately distinguish breath samples of lung and breast cancer patients from those of controls. For canine lung cancer detection by sniffing exhaled breaths also see Canine scent detection in the diagnosis of lung cancer: revisiting a puzzling phenomenon For canine bladder cancer detection by sniffing urine please see: Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study For canine prostate cancer detection by sniffing urine please see: Trained dogs can sniff out prostate cancer - Harvard Prostate Knowledge referring to Olfactory System of Highly Trained Dogs Detects Prostate Cancer in Urine Samples. looking at the urine samples of 362 prostate cancer patients and 540 Continue reading >>

Lab Values And Dka

Lab Values And Dka

Changes in laboratory values often give us clues to what is happening with our patients. I came across the following resource this morning and thought it was worth sharing. Here’s a handy table to help you identify diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). The following equation can be used to calculate an anion gap: Anion gap = Na+(mEq/L) – [Cl-(mEq/L) + HCO3-(mEq/L)] You have an important role when caring for a patient with DKA. Thorough physical assessments, careful monitoring of laboratory values, and critical thinking are essential to avoid complications of this complex disorder. Have you cared for a patient with DKA? What are the common presenting signs and symptoms? Reference Donahey, E., Folse, S., Weant, K. (2012). Management of Diabetic Ketoacidosis. Advanced Emergency Nursing Journal, 34(3). Continue reading >>

Selected Topics: Toxicology Detection Of Isopropyl Alcohol In A Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Selected Topics: Toxicology Detection Of Isopropyl Alcohol In A Patient With Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Abstract A 29-year-old man presented to the Emergency Department with acute mental status changes. He was unable to give a history. He was found to be in diabetic ketoacidosis, although his family reported no prior history of diabetes. A toxic exposure work-up revealed the presence of isopropyl alcohol in the patient’s blood. His condition improved with treatment of the ketoacidosis, and he subsequently denied any exposure to isopropyl alcohol prior to presentation to the hospital. This case provides further support to a growing body of evidence that the detection of isopropyl alcohol may not represent an acute ingestion but, rather, a byproduct of acetone metabolism in certain disease states. Continue reading >>

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