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How Ketosis Occurs

Ketosis

Ketosis

Tweet Ketosis is a state the body may find itself in either as a result of raised blood glucose levels or as a part of low carb dieting. Low levels of ketosis is perfectly normal. However, high levels of ketosis in the short term can be serious and the long term effects of regular moderate ketosis are only partially known at the moment. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a state the body goes into if it needs to break down body fat for energy. The state is marked by raised levels of ketones in the blood which can be used by the body as fuel. Ketones which are not used for fuel are excreted out of the body via the kidneys and the urine. Is ketosis the same as ketoacidosis? There is often confusion as to the difference between ketosis and ketoacidosis. Ketosis is the state whereby the body is producing ketones. In ketosis, the level of ketones in the blood can be anything between normal to very high. Diabetic ketoacidosis, also known as DKA, only describes the state in which the level of ketones is either high or very high. In ketoacidosis, the amount of ketones in the blood is sufficient to turn the blood acidic, which is a dangerous medical state. When does ketosis occur? Ketosis will take place when the body needs energy and there is not sufficient glucose available for the body. This can typically happen when the body is lacking insulin and blood glucose levels become high. Other causes can be the result of being on a low carb diet. A low level of carbohydrate will lead to low levels of insulin, and therefore the body will produce ketones which do not rely on insulin to get into and fuel the body’s cells. A further cause of ketosis, less relevant to people with diabetes, is a result of excessive alcohol consumption. Is ketosis dangerous? The NHS describes ketosis as a pote Continue reading >>

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis: What Is Ketosis?

Ketosis is a normal metabolic process. When the body does not have enough glucose for energy, it burns stored fats instead; this results in a build-up of acids called ketones within the body. Some people encourage ketosis by following a diet called the ketogenic or low-carb diet. The aim of the diet is to try and burn unwanted fat by forcing the body to rely on fat for energy, rather than carbohydrates. Ketosis is also commonly observed in patients with diabetes, as the process can occur if the body does not have enough insulin or is not using insulin correctly. Problems associated with extreme levels of ketosis are more likely to develop in patients with type 1 diabetes compared with type 2 diabetes patients. Ketosis occurs when the body does not have sufficient access to its primary fuel source, glucose. Ketosis describes a condition where fat stores are broken down to produce energy, which also produces ketones, a type of acid. As ketone levels rise, the acidity of the blood also increases, leading to ketoacidosis, a serious condition that can prove fatal. People with type 1 diabetes are more likely to develop ketoacidosis, for which emergency medical treatment is required to avoid or treat diabetic coma. Some people follow a ketogenic (low-carb) diet to try to lose weight by forcing the body to burn fat stores. What is ketosis? In normal circumstances, the body's cells use glucose as their primary form of energy. Glucose is typically derived from dietary carbohydrates, including: sugar - such as fruits and milk or yogurt starchy foods - such as bread and pasta The body breaks these down into simple sugars. Glucose can either be used to fuel the body or be stored in the liver and muscles as glycogen. If there is not enough glucose available to meet energy demands, th Continue reading >>

Is The Keto Diet Effective?

Is The Keto Diet Effective?

Turns out Keto/ketosis can be very effective in a variety of applications. There is pretty awesome keto research happening right now, too. Seizures: Several thousand years ago, doctors weren't sure why fasting was such an effective treatment for children with seizures. Turns out, restricting carbohydrates and surviving on ketones is something the brain really likes. Obviously, fasting isn't an effective long-term solution, but nutritional ketosis (restricting net carbs to 20g-40g per day) is a great alternative, can be maintained indefinitely, and has helped children (and adults) control their seizures in cases where medicine couldn't. (90% achieved better management of their seizures, and about half of those were able to eliminate seizures entirely). Oxygen Toxicity: I was listening to a Tim Ferriss podcast with Dom D'Agostino (Dom D’Agostino on Fasting, Ketosis, and the End of Cancer ) and D'Agostino mentioned an experiment he conducted to test the limits of a body in ketosis when exposed to oxygen toxicity. Essentially, imagine a Navy SEAL team that has to remain underwater in a pond to evade detection. Their scuba gear cannot release bubbles, so they use a "rebreather" to recirculate the exhaled gas, but one of the risks in that situation is oxygen toxicity (see: Rebreather diving). The experiment involved inducing ketosis in rats, placed them in a pressurized environment to simulate the pressure of being underwater, and exposed them to 100% oxygen. Normally the rats would experience seizures after 15 minutes, however the keto-adapted rats were seizure-free for more than an hour! I suspect the mechanism that creates seizures in this situation is different from the mechanism that creates seizures in children, however the "treatment" of ketosis is identical and pret Continue reading >>

What Would The Effect Of A 30-day Water Fast Be? My Friend Wants To Do A 30-day Water Fast To Detox, But I Am Kind Of Concerned About It. She Has Never Done A Water Fast Before, So 30 Days Seems A Bit Overkill.

What Would The Effect Of A 30-day Water Fast Be? My Friend Wants To Do A 30-day Water Fast To Detox, But I Am Kind Of Concerned About It. She Has Never Done A Water Fast Before, So 30 Days Seems A Bit Overkill.

First off, Don’t worry too much that your friend will actually make it 30 days. If she has never fasted before, it is extremely unlikely she makes it that long. I have been fasting pretty hardcore on and off for 5 years and my personal best is 13 days. Here’s a video of my early days if you think I’m full of BS. That being said, here is what happens in the body when you fast. The body burns any food that was eaten recently, turning it into an easily burned form of energy called glycogen. Next, the body turns to stored glycogen stored in the liver. Most people seem to have 2–3 days worth of “easy-access” glycogen in the blood stream and liver. Over the first, give or take, 3 days of the fast you deplete the glycogen stores and then your body turns to an alternate source: fat stores. This is an alternate metabolic pathway that all humans (if not hindered in some rare genetically related manner) have the capability of. Often referred to as “being in ketosis” your body produces chemicals that break down fat to ketone bodies (often just called ketones). The body is also able to produce a small amount of glycogen, through a process called gluconeogenesis. When you combine the ketones and the tiny amount of glucose created from your fat stores, you body runs incredibly efficiently for a very long time. The amount of time is directly tied to how much fat your body has stored. So, that is what is happening in the body. But what will your friend experience: Massive weight loss. Let me reiterate, you are burning only your fat stores for energy, so that beer belly is going away. Loss of water weight. A lot of water is stored in fat. When this breaks down it is easy to get dehydrated. Tell your friend to drink water like it is her day job. If she is going 30 days (ag Continue reading >>

When My Boyfriend Drinks Alcohol He Smells Like Oranges. Is There A Reason For This?

When My Boyfriend Drinks Alcohol He Smells Like Oranges. Is There A Reason For This?

Thanks for the A2A. He may be experiencing ketosis. Ketosis occurs when your body does not have sufficient glucose to use as fuel, and starts to use alternatives such as proteins and fats instead. It's not necessarily harmful (low carb diets will induce ketosis) but it can be associated with conditions such as diabetes and over-active thyroid. He should discuss this with a doctor. More What Is Ketosis? Ketosis Continue reading >>

What Are The Dangers Of The Ketosis Diet?

What Are The Dangers Of The Ketosis Diet?

In the late 1990s and early 2000s, when the "Atkins" and low carb dieting thing was just coming on in a big way, there was a terrific number of idiotic claims made about the dangers of it -- many of them confusing (as the questioner points out) diabetic ketoacidosis, a serious condition, with voluntary nutritional ketosis, even though there is no relation whatever. But, leaving all that aside, some caution is in order. The diet seems to stress the adrenals. This has been noted anecdotally by many people who've followed the diet. It was also noted by Dr Wolfgang Lutz, one of the early pioneers of the diet, who personally practiced the diet for 40-odd years, as well as advocated the diet to thousands of his patients. He noted in his book on the subject ("Life Without Bread" was the title, though it was published later I believe under a different title) that some patients would suffer mild autoimmune reactions that required small doses of corticosteroids to control. This sounds like what would happen if the adrenals are failing to produce a normal amount of steroids. You can find a lot more of a mostly-anecdotal nature by searching for "ketogenic jaminet". Paul Jaminet is a popular health blogger who has written about what he perceives to be problems with the ketogenic diet, including the possibility of deficiency of mucus and other key glycoproteins. He has some scientific backing for what he is saying, but it is far from air-tight. Read and judge for yourself. You can also learn a lot from the comments below his posts. Jaminet and others have also written about the risk of kidney stones on the ketogenic diet, and this is a serious concern, albeit a rare occurence. As far as the kidney stress goes: this would I believe be easy to avert simply by taking some alkali during Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis? Hint: It Can Help You Burn Fat & Suppress Your Appetite

What Is Ketosis? Hint: It Can Help You Burn Fat & Suppress Your Appetite

We’ve longed been told that calorie restriction, increasing exercise and reducing dietary fat intake are the keys to weight loss. But, if you’ve ever attempted to control your weight by subsisting on fewer calories — especially from mostly bland “diet foods”— you’re already probably aware that this typically produces minimal results and is extremely hard to stick with long-term or consistently. Considering the high rates of obesity now facing most developed nations — along with an increased risk for health conditions like diabetes or heart problems as a result — researchers have been anxiously working on how to suppress appetite and achieve weight loss in a healthy, sustainable manner. The keto diet has emerged over the past several decades as one potential answer to this large-scale weight loss problem. (1) While there are some differences in opinion, depending on who you ask, regarding the best approach to very low-carb dieting, studies consistently show that the ketogenic diet (also called the keto diet) produces not only substantial weight loss for a high percentage of people who adhere to it, but also other important health benefits such as reductions in seizures, markers of diabetes and more. The keto diet revolves around eating foods that are high in natural fats, consuming only moderate protein and severely restricting the number of carbs eaten each day. Even if you don’t have much weight to lose, entering into a state of ketosis can be helpful for other reasons — such as for improved energy levels, mental capabilities and mood stabilization. What Is Ketosis? Ketosis is the result of following the ketogenic diet, which is why it’s also sometimes called “the ketosis diet.” Ketosis takes place when glucose from carbohydrate foods (like Continue reading >>

The Ugly Truth About Ketogenic Diets

The Ugly Truth About Ketogenic Diets

Here's what you need to know... Ketosis occurs when carbs are in such low quantities that your body relies almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism. Ketogenic diets have about 70-75% of your daily caloric intake coming from fat and about 5% from carbohydrates. Ingesting protein above approximately .8 grams per pound is enough to kick you out of ketosis. Ketogenic diets improve body comp, but so does any diet that reduces calories from any source. There is no literature to support that a ketogenic diet is beneficial for promoting increases in muscle mass. Ketogenic diets affect performance negatively. Questions About Ketosis While the ketogenic diet has been used widely and rather effectively in some cases, there's still a lot of confusion about it. What exactly is a ketogenic diet? How does it differ from low carb dieting? Most importantly, at least for the T Nation demographic, is the question of whether ketogenic diets allow you to put on, or at least keep, muscle. Ketosis: What is it? Ketosis is a metabolic state that occurs when dietary carbohydrates are in such low quantities that your body must rely almost exclusively on fatty acid oxidation and ketone metabolism. That sounds simple on the surface, but let's unpack that explanation a bit. To function, your body requires a substantial amount of energy in the form of ATP. So, let's just assume that the average person uses about 1,800 calories per day to create enough ATP to keep him alive (not including any physical activity). Now this is where it gets interesting. You have this thing in your skull called a brain. It uses about 400 or so calories per day and runs almost exclusively on glucose. (There's some evidence it can use small amounts of fat and lactate, but in the big picture it's not Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Diagnosis Ketosis is diagnosed by clinical signs; sodium nitroprusside tablets or ketosis dipsticks may be used to identify ketones in the urine or plasma. In dairy cattle, blood glucose is typically less than 40 mg/dl, total blood ketones >30 mg/dl, and milk ketones >10 mg/dl. In small ruminants, blood glucose levels found to be below 25 mg/dl and ketonuria are good diagnostic indicators. Often ketones can be smelled in the cow’s breath and milk. In prepartum cattle and in lactating cows, blood levels of NEFA greater than 1000 uEq/l and 325–400 uEq/l are abnormal (Gerloff and Herdt, 2009). Triglyceride analysis of liver biopsy specimens is useful. 1 Bovine Ketosis Bovine ketosis is actually at least three different syndromes that occur in cows during lactation (Kronfeld, 1980; Kronfeld et al., 1983). The syndromes are characterized by anorexia, depression (usually), ketonemia, ketolactia, keton-uria, hypoglycemia, and decreased milk production. The three syndromes are underfeeding ketosis, alimentary ketosis, and spontaneous ketosis. Underfeeding ketosis occurs when a dairy cow receives insufficient calories to meet lactational demands plus body maintenance. This version of ketosis can be conveniently divided into nutritional underfeeding ketosis and secondary (or complicated) ketosis. The former occurs when the cow has a normal appetite but is given an insufficient quantity of feed or a diet with low metabolic energy density. The latter occurs when a cow has some other disease, such as hypocalcemia, mastitis, and metritis, which suppresses appetite and causes the cow to consume insufficient nutrients. In most respects, underfeeding ketosis resembles starvation ketosis explained earlier, except that there is the additional caloric and glycemic burden of milk produc Continue reading >>

How Ketosis Diet Works

How Ketosis Diet Works

When it comes to weight loss, it’s not the amount of calories you consume that’s most important, but how your body uses them. Over the long run, this difference in what your body “decides” to do with the calories you eat makes all the difference. What is ketosis? Ketosis is a metabolic process that happens when the body does not have enough glucose for energy. How ketosis occurs Your body enters a state called “ketosis” when you eat a low- or no-carb diet. Because your body doesn’t have carbs to burn for energy, you burn fat instead. Molecules called ketones then build up in your bloodstream. This is a good thing. Difference between ketosis and diabetic ketoacidosis It shouldn’t be confused with diabetic ketoacidosis, a dangerous condition that affects people with type 1 diabetes. In order to reach a state of ketoacidosis, insulin levels must be so low that the regulation of blood sugar and fatty acid flow is impaired. Take a look at this chart: Body Condition Quantity of Ketones Being Produced After a meal 0.1 mmol/L Overnight fast 0.3 mmol/L Ketogenic diet 1-8 mmol/L >20 days fasting 10 mmol/L Ketoacidosis >20 mmol/L As you can see, the amount of ketones you produce when you’re in a state of ketosis is much lower than what’s produced when someone is in a state of ketoacidosis. The latter is uncontrolled diabetes. Ketosis to lose weight In fact, ketosis has proven to be safe and effective in numerous studies. In one, participants lost an average of 22 pounds after 2.5 cycles of a ketogenic diet. Also, most kept the weight off after a year.1 What is the ketogenic diet? The keto diet is a low-carb, high-fat diet that causes weight loss and provides health benefits. Effects of ketogenic diet Another study focused on the long-term effects of a ketogenic Continue reading >>

Ketosis And The Keto Diet - How It Works

Ketosis And The Keto Diet - How It Works

You’ve probably heard about the popular Keto diet. It’s been a popular one among celebrities, so it’s received a lot of attention. Many people who try the diet do lose a lot of weight, so you may be eager to give this diet a try. However, before you get started with this diet, it’s a good idea to learn more about ketosis, how the keto diet works, and what it takes to successfully lose weight with the keto diet. What is Ketosis? Ketosis is one of the body’s processes that is done each day, and it works to adapt to what’s put in it, turning various nutrients into fuels used by the body. Your body can process carbs, fats, and proteins for use. When you eat a very low carb diet, this process is ramped up, resulting in a chemical reaction that’s both safe and normal. If you eat excess protein or carbohydrate based foods, the body breaks them down into glucose. It does this so it can create ATP, a type of energy molecule that fuels the body for daily maintenance and activities. The body uses up quite a few calories each day to support normal processes, so many of the nutrients you take in are used just to maintain your body each day. If you’re eating more than the body needs, then there may be extra glucose that’s not needed by the body. Two things can happen to extra glucose: Glycogenesis – Extra glucose can be turned into glycogen and stored in the muscles and liver. Lipogenesis – If the liver and muscles already have enough glycogen, then glucose is turned into fat and then store. When the body doesn’t have any more glycogen or glucose, ketosis occurs. When there’s no more glycogen or glucose to use for energy, your body has to burn fat and creates a type of molecule known as ketones. The body breaks down fats, which creates glycerol and fatty aci Continue reading >>

Ask Allison: What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

Ask Allison: What Is A Ketogenic Diet?

Q: What is a Ketogenic/Keto diet? A: A ketogenic (keto) diet is a very high fat, low carb, and moderate protein diet. It has many medical benefits for children with epilepsy, and some people follow a keto diet for its potential weight loss benefits. A keto diet results in ketosis—a state in which ketones, formed from fatty acids, are burned as the main energy source by the body and brain rather than glucose (glucose, or blood sugar, is the broken down, usable from of carbohydrates). Q: What is ketosis? A: Ketosis is the result of a ketogenic diet in which the body produces ketones for fuel instead of using glucose. While in ketosis the body switches to fat for almost all energy needs. Q: What are ketones? A: Ketones are an alternative fuel to blood sugar (glucose) for the body. There are three different ketones (or “ketone bodies”) used by the body for fuel (acetone, acetoacetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate). Ketones are produced in the liver from fat as a byproduct formed during the conversion of fatty acids to fuel. Q: What do you eat on a ketogenic diet? A: Someone following a ketogenic diet will consume moderate amounts of protein, high amounts of fat, and very low amounts carbohydrates (less than 50g/day); a rough macronutrient ratio would be 15-25% protein, 70%+ fat, and 10% carbs. This usually includes natural fats (butter, olive oil), meat, seafood, eggs, cheese, and primarily green vegetables. People on a keto diet will avoid sweet, sugary, and starchy foods such as potatoes, pasta, rice, and bread. Q: What’s the difference between keto and low carb? A: They are very similar; in most low carb diets, however protein is not restricted whereas for a keto diet protein is restricted to moderate amounts. Additionally, many low carb diets don’t require the majorit Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Not to be confused with Ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state in which some of the body's energy supply comes from ketone bodies in the blood, in contrast to a state of glycolysis in which blood glucose provides energy. Ketosis is a result of metabolizing fat to provide energy. Ketosis is a nutritional process characterised by serum concentrations of ketone bodies over 0.5 mM, with low and stable levels of insulin and blood glucose.[1][2] It is almost always generalized with hyperketonemia, that is, an elevated level of ketone bodies in the blood throughout the body. Ketone bodies are formed by ketogenesis when liver glycogen stores are depleted (or from metabolising medium-chain triglycerides[3]). The main ketone bodies used for energy are acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate,[4] and the levels of ketone bodies are regulated mainly by insulin and glucagon.[5] Most cells in the body can use both glucose and ketone bodies for fuel, and during ketosis, free fatty acids and glucose synthesis (gluconeogenesis) fuel the remainder. Longer-term ketosis may result from fasting or staying on a low-carbohydrate diet (ketogenic diet), and deliberately induced ketosis serves as a medical intervention for various conditions, such as intractable epilepsy, and the various types of diabetes.[6] In glycolysis, higher levels of insulin promote storage of body fat and block release of fat from adipose tissues, while in ketosis, fat reserves are readily released and consumed.[5][7] For this reason, ketosis is sometimes referred to as the body's "fat burning" mode.[8] Ketosis and ketoacidosis are similar, but ketoacidosis is an acute life-threatening state requiring prompt medical intervention while ketosis can be physiological. However, there are situations (such as treatment-resistant Continue reading >>

When Does Ketosis Occur?

When Does Ketosis Occur?

Ketosis is marked by the presence of ketones in your blood. Ketones are produced as part of your body's natural metabolic processes, but high levels of ketones may be a sign of malnutrition or low insulin levels. On the other hand, some diets aim to cause ketosis to help with weight loss or to control epilepsy. Video of the Day Ketones are produced by your body when you break down fats to use as energy. Fats are typically your body's "backup" energy source, because carbohydrates can be burned for energy more quickly. However, when you do not have enough carbohydrates to supply all of your body's energy needs, your body will turn to other sources of energy, such as your fats. Your fats are broken down into ketones, which can then be used as a source of energy for your cells. One thing that can cause ketosis is diabetic ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs as a result of type I diabetes, which causes your pancreas to produce little or no insulin. Diabetic ketoacidosis is caused by extremely low insulin levels, which prevents your cells from effectively using the glucose in your blood. As a result, your cells will break down fats for energy, resulting in ketosis. Ketosis can also occur due to a diet that is very low in carbohydrates. Extreme carbohydrate reduction also forces the metabolism of fats for energy. This is the basis behind many of the "low-carb" diets such as the Atkins diet. A specialized diet that is designed to induce ketone production can also be used to treat some cases of epilepsy. One of the side effects of ketone production is acidosis. When ketones are produced, the body also produces extra levels of acidic substances. This can lower the pH of your blood, which is a measurement of the balance of acids and bases. The balance of acids and bases in Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis

What Is Ketosis

Ketosis is a metabolic reaction that occurs in your body, when following the OPTIFAST® VLCD™ Program Intensive level. This means your body shifts from using primarily carbohydrates to using fats as an energy source resulting in a reduction of body fat stores. Ketones are by-products that are created when your body has to switch to fats for energy. It means your stores of glycogen or carbohydrates have been depleted. One of the consequences of ketosis is a decrease in appetite, which helps make following the OPTIFAST® VLCD™ Program Intensive level much easier. As the OPTIFAST® VLCD™ Program causes only a mild ketosis; it is a very safe approach to weight loss. Before your body transitions into ketosis, you will most likely feel hungry and you may experience some side-effects such as: Fatigue Lack of concentration Nausea & Headaches These side-effects should only last about 3 days and most symptoms usually pass by days 4-6. This is what we refer to as the 3 day challenge. Following the initial 3 day challenge you will experience an increase in energy and reduction in appetite which, in the Intensive level, will result in a consistent and successful weight loss. It is important to know that these are typical symptoms and you should try to stick to the program as prescribed or otherwise you will simply pro-long these first few days of the OPTIFAST® VLCD™ Program. Of course, if you are concerned about your symptoms or if they persist, speak to your doctor, dietitian or pharmacist as they can advise how to overcome or correct these before coming off the program. Once your body is in ketosis, any excess ketones that your body does not use for energy are excreted via your urine and breath (thus the incidence of bad breath in some cases). This therefore allows you to Continue reading >>

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