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How Ketoacidosis Cause Coma

Understanding And Preventing Diabetic Coma

Understanding And Preventing Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a serious, potentially life-threatening complication associated with diabetes. A diabetic coma causes unconsciousness that you cannot awaken from without medical care. Most cases of diabetic coma occur in people with type 1 diabetes. But people with other types of diabetes are also at risk. If you have diabetes, it’s important to learn about diabetic coma, including its causes and symptoms. Doing so will help prevent this dangerous complication and help you get the treatment you need right away. Diabetic coma can occur when blood sugar levels are out of control. It has three main causes: Hypoglycemia Hypoglycemia occurs when you don’t have enough glucose, or sugar, in your blood. Low sugar levels can happen to anyone from time to time. If you treat mild to moderate hypoglycemia immediately, it usually resolves without progressing to severe hypoglycemia. People on insulin have the highest risk, though people who take oral diabetes medications that increase insulin levels in the body may also be at risk. Untreated or unresponsive low blood sugars can lead to severe hypoglycemia. This is the most common cause of diabetic coma. You should take extra precautions if you have difficulty detecting symptoms of hypoglycemia. This diabetes phenomenon is known as hypoglycemia unawareness. DKA Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) occurs when your body lacks insulin and uses fat instead of glucose for energy. Ketone bodies accumulate in the bloodstream. DKA occurs in both forms of diabetes, but it’s more common in type 1. Ketone bodies may be detected with special blood glucose meters or with urine strips to check for DKA. The American Diabetes Association recommends checking for ketone bodies and DKA if your blood glucose is over 240 mg/dl. When left untreated, DKA can Continue reading >>

Your Intensive Care Hotline - Diabetic Coma

Your Intensive Care Hotline - Diabetic Coma

What is Diabetic Coma? Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency. Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe diabetic hypoglycemia Diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of severe hyperglycemia, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma in which extreme hyperglycemia and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious Patient about whom nothing is known except that he has diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious Patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends who identify him as diabetic. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered. An estimated 2 to 15 percent of diabetics will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. What is diabetes? Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) Hyperosmolar Hypoglycemic Non-Ketotic Coma (HHNKC) Hypoglycemic Coma What happens In Intensive Care? How long will your loved one remain in Intensive Care? Internet Links What is Diabetes? Diabetes mellitus, or simply diabetes, is a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the pancreas does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.This high blood sugar produces Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperglycemic Hyperosmolar Syndrome

In Brief Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic syndrome (HHS) are two acute complications of diabetes that can result in increased morbidity and mortality if not efficiently and effectively treated. Mortality rates are 2–5% for DKA and 15% for HHS, and mortality is usually a consequence of the underlying precipitating cause(s) rather than a result of the metabolic changes of hyperglycemia. Effective standardized treatment protocols, as well as prompt identification and treatment of the precipitating cause, are important factors affecting outcome. The two most common life-threatening complications of diabetes mellitus include diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). Although there are important differences in their pathogenesis, the basic underlying mechanism for both disorders is a reduction in the net effective concentration of circulating insulin coupled with a concomitant elevation of counterregulatory hormones (glucagon, catecholamines, cortisol, and growth hormone). These hyperglycemic emergencies continue to be important causes of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes. DKA is reported to be responsible for more than 100,000 hospital admissions per year in the United States1 and accounts for 4–9% of all hospital discharge summaries among patients with diabetes.1 The incidence of HHS is lower than DKA and accounts for <1% of all primary diabetic admissions.1 Most patients with DKA have type 1 diabetes; however, patients with type 2 diabetes are also at risk during the catabolic stress of acute illness.2 Contrary to popular belief, DKA is more common in adults than in children.1 In community-based studies, more than 40% of African-American patients with DKA were >40 years of age and more than 2 Continue reading >>

Fatal Coma In Diabetes.

Fatal Coma In Diabetes.

Abstract Analysis of causes of death in a population of 3,113 diabetics was carried out for a period of eight years and those patients dying of some form of diabetic coma identified. Of 1,274 deaths, only 22 (1.73%) were primarily due to coma; 7 hypoglycaemia, 8 ketoacidosis, 3 hyperosmolar coma and 4 lactic acidosis. Three of the ketoacidosis patients may have died from other causes. Most deaths occurred in patients with long-standing diabetes. In the hypoglycaemic group all were on insulin and several had been difficult to control for many years. Infection was an important precipitating factor for ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma. Phenformin was the cause of all cases of fatal lactic acidosis. It is reassuring that death from coma is a comparatively rare event in known treated diabetic patients. Continue reading >>

Cause Of Diabetic Coma

Cause Of Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a dangerous condition that can lead to unconsciousness and even death. Diabetic coma may affect 2% to 15% of all diabetics at least once in their lifetime and the condition that most commonly causes the coma is severe hypoglycaemia or low blood sugar. There are three main causes of coma in people with diabetes: diabetic ketoacidosis, severe hypoglycaemia and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar state. However, despite the increased prevalence of diabetes across the globe, improved diagnosis and early treatment of these causative conditions has lessened the risk of death due to diabetic coma. A glucometer, for example, can detect high or low blood sugar in an unconscious diabetic patient within seconds and this can be confirmed in the laboratory within an hour. Furthermore, due to the widespread warnings and knowledge regarding the possibility of the three conditions, most patients are brought to an emergency unit before the onset of coma. The three causes of diabetic coma Severe hypoglycaemia If an individual’s sugar level in the blood and the brain drops to below 3.5 mmol/l, they are at risk of losing consciousness and falling into a diabetic coma. This risk is greater if an excess dose of insulin or other anti-diabetic medications has been taken, if alcohol is in the person’s body while they are hypoglycemic, or if vigorous exercise has depleted the body’s supply of glycogen. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) This condition is more common among people with type 1 diabetes or those with type 2 diabetes who are taking insulin. If there is shortage of insulin, the body fails to use the glucose in the blood for energy and instead fats are broken down in the liver to form acidic compounds called ketones. These ketones build up in the body causing DKA. The condition Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

The Facts Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a condition that may occur in people who have diabetes, most often in those who have type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes. It involves the buildup of toxic substances called ketones that make the blood too acidic. High ketone levels can be readily managed, but if they aren't detected and treated in time, a person can eventually slip into a fatal coma. DKA can occur in people who are newly diagnosed with type 1 diabetes and have had ketones building up in their blood prior to the start of treatment. It can also occur in people already diagnosed with type 1 diabetes that have missed an insulin dose, have an infection, or have suffered a traumatic event or injury. Although much less common, DKA can occasionally occur in people with type 2 diabetes under extreme physiologic stress. Causes With type 1 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make the hormone insulin, which the body's cells need in order to take in glucose from the blood. In the case of type 2 diabetes, the pancreas is unable to make sufficient amounts of insulin in order to take in glucose from the blood. Glucose, a simple sugar we get from the foods we eat, is necessary for making the energy our cells need to function. People with diabetes can't get glucose into their cells, so their bodies look for alternative energy sources. Meanwhile, glucose builds up in the bloodstream, and by the time DKA occurs, blood glucose levels are often greater than 22 mmol/L (400 mg/dL) while insulin levels are very low. Since glucose isn't available for cells to use, fat from fat cells is broken down for energy instead, releasing ketones. Ketones accumulate in the blood, causing it to become more acidic. As a result, many of the enzymes that control the body's metabolic processes aren't able Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

As fat is broken down, acids called ketones build up in the blood and urine. In high levels, ketones are poisonous. This condition is known as ketoacidosis. Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is sometimes the first sign of type 1 diabetes in people who have not yet been diagnosed. It can also occur in someone who has already been diagnosed with type 1 diabetes. Infection, injury, a serious illness, missing doses of insulin shots, or surgery can lead to DKA in people with type 1 diabetes. People with type 2 diabetes can also develop DKA, but it is less common. It is usually triggered by uncontrolled blood sugar, missing doses of medicines, or a severe illness. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

Diabetic Ketoacidosis - Symptoms

A A A Diabetic Ketoacidosis Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) results from dehydration during a state of relative insulin deficiency, associated with high blood levels of sugar level and organic acids called ketones. Diabetic ketoacidosis is associated with significant disturbances of the body's chemistry, which resolve with proper therapy. Diabetic ketoacidosis usually occurs in people with type 1 (juvenile) diabetes mellitus (T1DM), but diabetic ketoacidosis can develop in any person with diabetes. Since type 1 diabetes typically starts before age 25 years, diabetic ketoacidosis is most common in this age group, but it may occur at any age. Males and females are equally affected. Diabetic ketoacidosis occurs when a person with diabetes becomes dehydrated. As the body produces a stress response, hormones (unopposed by insulin due to the insulin deficiency) begin to break down muscle, fat, and liver cells into glucose (sugar) and fatty acids for use as fuel. These hormones include glucagon, growth hormone, and adrenaline. These fatty acids are converted to ketones by a process called oxidation. The body consumes its own muscle, fat, and liver cells for fuel. In diabetic ketoacidosis, the body shifts from its normal fed metabolism (using carbohydrates for fuel) to a fasting state (using fat for fuel). The resulting increase in blood sugar occurs, because insulin is unavailable to transport sugar into cells for future use. As blood sugar levels rise, the kidneys cannot retain the extra sugar, which is dumped into the urine, thereby increasing urination and causing dehydration. Commonly, about 10% of total body fluids are lost as the patient slips into diabetic ketoacidosis. Significant loss of potassium and other salts in the excessive urination is also common. The most common Continue reading >>

First Aid For Diabetic Coma

First Aid For Diabetic Coma

IMPORTANT INFORMATION: Read This First All incidents of Diabetic Coma should be evaluated by a trained medical professional, as soon as possible! DO NOT wait! Failure to obtain evaluation as soon as possible may result in serious injury or death. Call 911 (or your local emergency number) immediately, if you undergo a Diabetic Coma. What is Diabetic Coma? Diabetic Coma is a condition caused by extremely high blood sugar levels and low insulin production The condition is a medical emergency and prompt treatment is important What are the Causes of Diabetic Coma? The cause of Diabetic Coma may include: Excessive sugar or carbohydrate intake Skipped diabetes medication/insulin shot Very low blood glucose levels What are the Signs and Symptoms of Diabetic Coma? The onset of signs and symptoms of Diabetic Coma is generally spread over a prolonged period. It may include the following: Increased thirst Increased urination frequency Dehydration Drowsiness, confusion or irritation Increased breathing rate Sweet-smelling breath Loss of consciousness How is First Aid administered for Diabetic Coma? First Aid tips for Diabetic Coma: Call 911 or your local emergency help number immediately, for emergency assistance Try to assess, if the individual has taken their diabetes medication after a meal Ensure that the affected individual is lying in a position (lying straight) that can help easy breathing DO NOT give anything by way of mouth DO NOT administer an insulin shot Administer CPR, if the individual is in respiratory distress The first responders (healthcare personnel) may administer 1 mg of glucagon, in case of hypoglycemia (or low blood sugar levels). Who should administer First Aid for Diabetic Coma? Any individual near the affected person should call 911 (or the local emergency Continue reading >>

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Coma.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis And Hyperosmolar Coma.

Abstract DKA-hyperosmolar coma is a readily diagnosed and easily treated, potentially catastrophic emergency that regularly occurs in both Type I and Type II diabetics. This review emphasized that diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma can, and very frequently do, occur concurrently, but it is the hyperosmolar state rather than the DKA that is the primary cause of coma and death in this condition. One must therefore vigorously treat the hyperosmolarity and resulting dehydration, especially when total calculated osmolarity exceeds 230 to 240 mOsm/L. The major aim of treatment is to rapidly replace the major water loss that is responsible for this clinical condition and to stimulate glucose metabolism with insulin. The diagnosis of this dangerous condition is relatively simple. The therapy, in most regards, is equally apparent. There are good data demonstrating that the prompt recognition of DKA-hyperosmolar coma and the simple institution of rapid rehydration have continued to reduce the mortality and complications of this potentially disastrous complication of diabetes mellitus. Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

Diabetic Coma Recovery: What You Need To Know

In people with diabetes, a diabetic coma occurs when severe levels of either high or low uncontrolled blood sugar are not corrected. If treated quickly, a person will make a rapid recovery from a diabetic coma. However, diabetic coma can be fatal or result in brain damage. It is important for people with diabetes to control their blood sugars and know what to do when their blood sugar levels are not within their target range. The severe symptoms of uncontrolled blood sugar that can come before a diabetic coma include vomiting, difficulty breathing, confusion, weakness, and dizziness. Recovery from diabetic coma If a diabetic coma is not treated within a couple of hours of it developing, it can cause irreversible brain damage. If no treatment is received, a diabetic coma will be fatal. In addition, having blood sugar levels that continue to be too low or too high can be bad for long-term health. This remains true even if they do not develop into diabetic coma. Recognizing the early signs of low or high blood sugar levels and regular monitoring can help people with diabetes keep their blood sugar levels within the healthy range. Doing so will also reduce the risk of associated complications and diabetic coma. What is diabetes? Diabetes is a long-term condition in which the body is unable to control the level of a sugar called glucose in the blood. Diabetes is caused by either a lack of insulin, the body's inability to use insulin correctly, or both. In people who don't have diabetes, insulin usually ensures that excess glucose is removed from the bloodstream. It does this by stimulating cells to absorb the glucose they need for energy from the blood. Insulin also causes any remaining glucose to be stored in the liver as a substance called glycogen. The production of insul Continue reading >>

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, such as dry mouth, feeling really thirsty, or peeing a lot. You can check your levels with a urine test strip. Some glucose meters measure ketones, too. Try to bring your blood sugar down, and check your ketones again in 30 minutes. Call your doctor or go to the emergency room right away if that doesn't work, if you have any of the symptoms below and your ketones aren't normal, or if you have more than one symptom. You've been throwing up for more than 2 hours. You feel queasy or your belly hurts. Your breath smells fruity. You're tired, confused, or woozy. You're having a hard time breathing. Continue reading >>

What Is The Difference Between Insulin Shock & A Diabetic Coma?

What Is The Difference Between Insulin Shock & A Diabetic Coma?

Nearly 26 million Americans had diabetes in 2010, and many were not being adequately treated, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Most people have heard about the long-term complications of poorly controlled diabetes, such as kidney failure, cardiovascular disease and blindness. People with diabetes can also develop acute complications. If your blood glucose gets too high due to inadequate treatment, or falls too low due to overly aggressive treatment, you could suddenly lose consciousness. Insulin shock, diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar syndrome are all potential causes of diabetic coma. Insulin Shock Insulin is a hormone your pancreas normally produces in response to rising glucose levels. Many people with diabetes must take insulin to prevent their blood glucose from rising too high. If you take more insulin than your body needs, you could suddenly develop hypoglycemia, or low blood glucose. People who take insulin and exercise without eating or drink too much alcohol are particularly susceptible to hypoglycemia. Insulin shock, which is a form of diabetic coma, may occur if your blood glucose falls too low to support your brain’s metabolic demands -- usually below 50 mg/dL. Seizures may occur before the onset of coma. Diabetic Ketoacidosis Just as a low blood glucose level can trigger unconsciousness, extremely high blood glucose levels can alter brain function and lead to coma. Diabetic ketoacidosis, which usually affects people with type 1 diabetes, happens when you don’t have enough insulin in your system. DKA may be the initial manifestation of newly developed diabetes, or it may result from a skipped insulin dose in a person who has already been diagnosed with diabetes. Infections and alcohol abuse can also trigge Continue reading >>

Risk Factors And Symptoms Of A Diabetic Coma

Risk Factors And Symptoms Of A Diabetic Coma

It is important for diabetics to keep track of their blood sugar levels because any discrepancies that result in dangerously high or low levels can lead to a diabetic coma. A diabetic coma is a life-threatening complication associated with the disease that causes unconsciousness. If left untreated, a diabetic coma can be fatal. Risk Factors for a Diabetic Coma Anyone who has diabetes is at risk of experiencing a diabetic coma. If you suffer from type 1 diabetes, you're at risk of a diabetic coma due to low blood sugar or diabetic ketoacidosis. If you have type 2 diabetes, you're at risk of a diabetic coma due to diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, particularly if you're middle-aged or older. Both type 1 and type 2 diabetics are at risk due to insulin delivery problems as well. It is important to know that even if you're on an insulin pump, you have to check your blood sugar frequently. Always ensure that there are no kinks in your insulin pump tubing, as this could cause all insulin delivery to stop. Even tubeless pumps can occasionally cause problems that can cause insulin delivery to stop. There are other risk factors that diabetics should be aware of as well, such as illness, trauma or surgery. When you are sick or injured, your blood sugar levels tend to rise. This sudden rise may cause diabetic ketoacidosis if you have type 1 diabetes and don't increase your insulin intake to compensate. Congestive heart failure or kidney disease can also increase your risk of diabetic hyperosmolar syndrome, which can lead to a diabetic coma. Diabetes management is absolutely key to staying healthy, and if you do not monitor your blood sugar properly or take your medications as directed, you are increasing your risk of developing long-term complications and diabetic coma. Deliberately Continue reading >>

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic Coma

Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency.[1] Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe low blood sugar in a diabetic person Diabetic ketoacidosis (usually type 1) advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of a severely increased blood sugar level, dehydration and shock, and exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma (usually type 2) in which an extremely high blood sugar level and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious patient about whom nothing is known except that they have diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends who identify them as diabetic. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered. An estimated 2 to 15 percent of diabetics will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. Types[edit] Severe hypoglycemia[edit] People with type 1 diabetes mellitus who must take insulin in full replacement doses are most vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia. It is usually mild enough to reverse by eating or drinking carbohydrates, but blood glucose occasionally can fall fast enough and low enough to produce unconsciousness before hypoglycemia can be recognized and reversed. Hypoglycemia can be severe enough to cause un Continue reading >>

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