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How Is Ketosis Treated

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

Dr. Thio is an Assistant Professor of Neurology at Washington University School of Medicine and an epileptologist in the Pediatric Epilepsy Center at St. Louis Children’s Hospital. Introduction The ketogenic diet is only one of several methods available for treating epilepsy. Other treatment options include antiepileptic drugs, epilepsy surgery, and the vagal nerve stimulator. If your child’s epilepsy is treated, most neurologists will try using an antiepileptic drug first. Generally, the ketogenic diet will not be the first choice, though exceptions exist. The ketogenic diet is a high fat, low carbohydrate, and low protein diet designed to increase the body’s dependence on fat rather than glucose for energy. It mimics the fasting state, and can treat disorders of the brain. The two disorders most commonly treated with the ketogenic diet are epilepsy and certain inborn errors of metabolism involving glucose utilization. This paper will briefly review the history, physiology, efficacy, mechanism of action, indications, contraindications, deficiencies, adverse effects, and some of the practical aspects of initiating and maintaining the ketogenic diet as related to epilepsy. History The ketogenic diet has its origin in the observation that fasting reduces seizures. This observation is old since Hippocrates used fasting to treat seizures, and the Bible mentions fasting as a treatment for seizures. In 1921, Wilder proposed a high fat, low carbohydrate diet as a means of mimicking fasting, which is not practical for extended periods. After phenobarbital and phenytoin became available, interest in the diet declined. However, interest has increased recently because 20-30% of epileptic children have seizures that are resistant to antiepileptic drugs. The introduction of se Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet And Parkinson's Disease

Ketogenic Diet And Parkinson's Disease

What is Parkinson’s Disease? Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is a progressive neurological condition generally indicated by nerve cell damage and cell death. It results from a deterioration of dopamine producing cells in the brain (an area known as substantia nigra). This lack of dopamine in the brain is what produces the symptoms of the disease such as tremors, rigidity and slowness of movement. Other symptoms, which can also occur in some people with Parkinson’s disease, include tiredness, confusion, depression and pain. The disease itself significantly impacts an individual’s quality of life. What Causes Parkinson’s Disease? The specific cause of PD is believed to be genetic abnormalities and/or environmental triggers such as infections (1). These causes affect mitochondrial function by increasing oxidative stress in the body, which is believed to be a key driver in the deterioration of the dopamine producing cells in the brain (2). Under normal conditions, when oxidative stress occurs in the body, there are systems that are available to help counteract the negative effects. However, when the system becomes over loaded (as in the case of PD), they are unable to deal with the pressure and so free radicals (also known as Reactive Oxygen Species; ROS) are formed which cause cell death and destruction. Is there a Cure for Parkinson’s Disease? There is currently no cure for Parkinson’s disease with only a select few drugs and treatments available to best help manage the symptoms. How Can the Ketogenic Diet Help Patients with Parkinson’s Disease? In normal adults, the brain generally relies on the metabolism of glucose for its energy. The only other substrate that it can use is that of ketone bodies produced when following the ketogenic diet. The ketogenic diet (K Continue reading >>

The Ketogenic Diet As A Treatment Paradigm For Diverse Neurological Disorders

The Ketogenic Diet As A Treatment Paradigm For Diverse Neurological Disorders

Go to: Dietary and metabolic therapies have been attempted in a wide variety of neurological diseases, including epilepsy, headache, neurotrauma, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, sleep disorders, brain cancer, autism, pain, and multiple sclerosis. The impetus for using various diets to treat – or at least ameliorate symptoms of – these disorders stems from both a lack of effectiveness of pharmacological therapies, and also the intrinsic appeal of implementing a more “natural” treatment. The enormous spectrum of pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the aforementioned diseases would suggest a degree of complexity that cannot be impacted universally by any single dietary treatment. Yet, it is conceivable that alterations in certain dietary constituents could affect the course and impact the outcome of these brain disorders. Further, it is possible that a final common neurometabolic pathway might be influenced by a variety of dietary interventions. The most notable example of a dietary treatment with proven efficacy against a neurological condition is the high-fat, low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) used in patients with medically intractable epilepsy. While the mechanisms through which the KD works remain unclear, there is now compelling evidence that its efficacy is likely related to the normalization of aberrant energy metabolism. The concept that many neurological conditions are linked pathophysiologically to energy dysregulation could well provide a common research and experimental therapeutics platform, from which the course of several neurological diseases could be favorably influenced by dietary means. Here we provide an overview of studies using the KD in a wide panoply of neurologic disorders in which neuroprotection is an essential component. K Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

There is a lot of confusion about the term ketosis among medical professionals as well as laypeople. It is important to understand when and why nutritional ketosis occurs, and why it should not be confused with the metabolic disorder we call ketoacidosis. Ketosis is a metabolic state where the liver produces small organic molecules called ketone bodies. Most cells in the body can use ketone bodies as a source of energy. When there is a limited supply of external energy sources, such as during prolonged fasting or carbohydrate restriction, ketone bodies can provide energy for most organs. In this situation, ketosis can be regarded as a reasonable, adaptive physiologic response that is essential for life, enabling us to survive periods of famine. Nutritional ketosis should not be confused with ketoacidosis, a metabolic condition where the blood becomes acidic as a result of the accumulation of ketone bodies. Ketoacidosis can have serious consequences and may need urgent medical treatment. The most common forms are diabetic ketoacidosis and alcoholic ketoacidosis. What Is Ketosis? The human body can be regarded as a biologic machine. Machines need energy to operate. Some use gasoline, others use electricity, and some use other power resources. Glucose is the primary fuel for most cells and organs in the body. To obtain energy, cells must take up glucose from the blood. Once glucose enters the cells, a series of metabolic reactions break it down into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the process. The body has an ability to store excess glucose in the form of glycogen. In this way, energy can be stored for later use. Glycogen consists of long chains of glucose molecules and is primarily found in the liver and skeletal muscle. Liver glycogen stores are used to mai Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diet

Ketogenic Diet

What is the ketogenic diet? The "classic" ketogenic diet is a special high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet that helps to control seizures in some people with epilepsy. It is prescribed by a physician and carefully monitored by a dietitian. It is usually used in children with seizures that do not respond to medications. It is stricter than the modified Atkins diet, requiring careful measurements of calories, fluids, and proteins. Foods are weighed and measured. The name ketogenic means that it produces ketones in the body. (keto = ketone; genic = producing) Ketones are formed when the body uses fat for its source of energy. Usually the body uses carbohydrates (such as sugar, bread, pasta) for its fuel. Because the ketogenic diet is very low in carbohydrates, fats become the primary fuel instead. The body can work very well on ketones (and fats). Ketones are not dangerous. They can be detected in the urine, blood, and breath. Ketones are one of the more likely mechanisms of action of the diet, with higher ketone levels often leading to improved seizure control. However, there are many other theories for why the diet will work. Who will it help? Doctors usually recommend the ketogenic diet for children whose seizures have not responded to several different seizure medicines. The classic diet is usually not recommended for adults, mostly because the restricted food choices make it hard to follow. However, the modified Atkins diet does work well. This also should be done with a good team of adult neurologists and dietitians. The ketogenic diet has been shown in many studies to be particularly helpful for some epilepsy conditions. These include infantile spasms, Rett syndrome, tuberous sclerosis complex, Dravet syndrome, Doose syndrome, and GLUT-1 deficiency. Using a formula-only Continue reading >>

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

Overview Of Ketosis In Cattle

(Acetonemia, Ketonemia) By Thomas H. Herdt, DVM, MS, DACVN, DACVIM, Professor, Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences and Diagnostic Center for Population and Animal Health, Michigan State University Ketosis is a common disease of adult cattle. It typically occurs in dairy cows in early lactation and is most consistently characterized by partial anorexia and depression. Rarely, it occurs in cattle in late gestation, at which time it resembles pregnancy toxemia of ewes (see Pregnancy Toxemia in Ewes and Does). In addition to inappetence, signs of nervous dysfunction, including pica, abnormal licking, incoordination and abnormal gait, bellowing, and aggression, are occasionally seen. The condition is worldwide in distribution but is most common where dairy cows are bred and managed for high production. Etiology and Pathogenesis: The pathogenesis of bovine ketosis is incompletely understood, but it requires the combination of intense adipose mobilization and a high glucose demand. Both of these conditions are present in early lactation, at which time negative energy balance leads to adipose mobilization, and milk synthesis creates a high glucose demand. Adipose mobilization is accompanied by high blood serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). During periods of intense gluconeogenesis, a large portion of serum NEFAs is directed to ketone body synthesis in the liver. Thus, the clinicopathologic characterization of ketosis includes high serum concentrations of NEFAs and ketone bodies and low concentrations of glucose. In contrast to many other species, cattle with hyperketonemia do not have concurrent acidemia. The serum ketone bodies are acetone, acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB). There is speculation that the pathogenesis of ketosis cases oc Continue reading >>

The Benefits Of A Ketogenic Diet And Its Role In Cancer Treatment

The Benefits Of A Ketogenic Diet And Its Role In Cancer Treatment

A ketogenic diet, which calls for minimizing carbohydrates and replacing them with healthy fats and moderate amounts of high-quality protein, can offer hope against cancer, both for prevention and treatment Your normal cells have the metabolic flexibility to adapt from using glucose to using ketone bodies. Cancer cells lack this ability so when you reduce carbs to only non-starchy vegetables, you effectively starve the cancer Cancer can be more accurately classified as a mitochondrial metabolic disease. Few people inherit genes that predispose them to cancer (most inherit genes that prevent cancer), and inherited mutations typically disrupt the function of the mitochondria The mitochondria—the main power generators in your cells—are believed to be the central point in the origins of many cancers. Your mitochondria can be damaged not only by inherited mutations, but also by a wide variety of environmental factors and toxins Fasting has remarkable health benefits and strengthens your mitochondria network systems throughout your body. As long as your mitochondria remain healthy and functional, it’s very unlikely that cancer will develop By Dr. Mercola Could a ketogenic diet eventually be a "standard of care" drug-free treatment for cancer? Personally, I believe it's absolutely crucial, for whatever type of cancer you're trying to address, and hopefully some day it will be adopted as a first line of treatment. A ketogenic diet calls for eliminating all but non-starchy vegetable carbohydrates, and replacing them with healthy fats and high-quality protein. The premise is that since cancer cells need glucose to thrive, and carbohydrates turn into glucose in your body, then lowering the glucose level in your blood though carb and protein restriction literally starves the Continue reading >>

What Is Ketosis?

What Is Ketosis?

"Ketosis" is a word you'll probably see when you're looking for information on diabetes or weight loss. Is it a good thing or a bad thing? That depends. Ketosis is a normal metabolic process, something your body does to keep working. When it doesn't have enough carbohydrates from food for your cells to burn for energy, it burns fat instead. As part of this process, it makes ketones. If you're healthy and eating a balanced diet, your body controls how much fat it burns, and you don't normally make or use ketones. But when you cut way back on your calories or carbs, your body will switch to ketosis for energy. It can also happen after exercising for a long time and during pregnancy. For people with uncontrolled diabetes, ketosis is a sign of not using enough insulin. Ketosis can become dangerous when ketones build up. High levels lead to dehydration and change the chemical balance of your blood. Ketosis is a popular weight loss strategy. Low-carb eating plans include the first part of the Atkins diet and the Paleo diet, which stress proteins for fueling your body. In addition to helping you burn fat, ketosis can make you feel less hungry. It also helps you maintain muscle. For healthy people who don't have diabetes and aren't pregnant, ketosis usually kicks in after 3 or 4 days of eating less than 50 grams of carbohydrates per day. That's about 3 slices of bread, a cup of low-fat fruit yogurt, or two small bananas. You can start ketosis by fasting, too. Doctors may put children who have epilepsy on a ketogenic diet, a special high-fat, very low-carb and protein plan, because it might help prevent seizures. Adults with epilepsy sometimes eat modified Atkins diets. Some research suggests that ketogenic diets might help lower your risk of heart disease. Other studies show sp Continue reading >>

Treatment Of Rectal Cancer With The Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet: A 24-months Follow-up

Treatment Of Rectal Cancer With The Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet: A 24-months Follow-up

Abstract Background: Ketogenic diets have repeatedly been suggested for the treatment of cancer. Yet, only a few case studies have been published that reported long term benefits associated with such diets. Case report: Here we present a case where rectal cancer was treated with an animal fat-meat based diet, which we refer to as the paleolithic ketogenic diet. Upon diet initiation, the patient discontinued three medicines he had been taking because of hypertension and hyperuricemia. The patient initially received 6 weeks of radiation therapy. Thereafter the patient used the diet as a stand-alone therapy for 22.5 months. The patient was not taking any medicines or dietary supplements while on the diet. During the first five month of the diet therapy the patient exhibited excellent adherence which was paralleled by improving laboratory parameters including decreasing tumor marker levels and decreasing tumor size. The patient was in a constant ketosis during the entire follow-up. From the seventh month on, however, his adherence level was fluctuating with periods of worse adherence paralleled with negative changes in laboratory parameters. Although MRI imaging showed that there was no increase in the size of the tumor, 22 months after diagnosis onset the patient reported an alteration in bowel habits and that the bloody stool had returned. Because of the emergence of these symptoms, 24 months after diagnosis onset, rectal surgery was performed. Conclusion: With using the paleolithic ketogenic diet the patient was able to postpone surgery for two years. During the first five months, when the patient was strictly adhering to the diet, the tumor regressed. Thereafter, with incomplete dietary adherence, disease seemed to be stable but symptoms suggested progression for the la Continue reading >>

Ketosis For Epilepsy

Ketosis For Epilepsy

In recent years, the ketogenic diet and using ketosis for losing weight, improving overall health and boosting mental clarity spiked major interest. However, many ketogenic diet followers are surprised to find out the diet was originally designed for a specific population of people: those with epilepsy. In this article, we’ll cover some of the history of ketosis for epilepsy, how it’s used for treatment, and possible reasons ketosis has been successful in this area. History of Ketosis for Epilepsy The ketogenic diet was first developed in the 1920s as a therapy diet for those with epilepsy. Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder that causes unpredictable seizures among other health problems. Epilepsy affects people of all ages, and the types of seizures vary widely per person. Fasting, which leads to ketosis in the body, has been used as a treatment for epilepsy since as far back as 500 BC [1], and the ketogenic diet was created as an alternative. Those following it could still achieve the benefits of ketosis for epilepsy without abstaining from food. Causes of Epilepsy Around 2.3 million American adults and almost half a million children have epilepsy. About 150,000 new epilepsy cases are diagnosed each year in the United States. Most epilepsy diagnoses don’t have a true identifiable cause. However, there are several additional conditions that can lead to epilepsy, including infection, head trauma, strokes, and brain tumors. What’s important when it comes to ketosis and epilepsy is the mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet helps alleviate seizures is those with this chronic disorder. Let’s take a look at some ideas about why it’s been successful in some epilepsy patients. How it Works A ketogenic diet is a high-fat, moderate-protein, and very-low-carb Continue reading >>

Diabetes, The Ketogenic Diet & Stem Cell Therapy

Diabetes, The Ketogenic Diet & Stem Cell Therapy

More and more people are getting to know the benefits of the ketogenic diet. Why? A ketogenic diet (also known as a keto diet) focuses on the benefits of a low carbohydrate, high fat nutritional program. And while this healthy, new lifestyle trend certainly does wonders with weight management, the advantages go far beyond that. A ketogenic diet has been shown to help control seizures caused by epilepsy, especially in the case of children, and appears to aid in the reversal of kidney disease related to both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Stem cell therapy for diabetes is one of the most sought after treatments at the National Stem Cell Institute. So it is no wonder that the physicians and nutritional counselors at NSI have found that the ketogenic diet is a natural partner to stem cell therapy in treating this disease. Studies are showing that a well-planned keto diet may also benefit people who suffer from traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Parkinson’s disease, among others. So, why is the ketogenic diet proving to be such a boon to health and a valuable addition to stem cell therapies? Let’s take a closer look at the basics: first for keto diet regimens and then for therapy using stem cells. Ketogenic Diet Basics Ketogenic is derived from the word “ketone.” Ketones are an energy source that the body can utilize. Ketone bodies are three water-soluble molecules that the liver produces. During a ketogenic diet, the ketone levels in the blood elevate. This is known as ketosis. The body’s cells can get energy from ketones, which are produced when fat levels in the blood are raised and blood sugar levels are lowered. Basically, the body turns fat into fuel instead of relying on carbohydrates. A ketogenic diet is designed to make this switch to fat burning happen. There Continue reading >>

Treating Epilepsy With The Ketogenic Diet

Treating Epilepsy With The Ketogenic Diet

Long before there were seizure medications for epilepsy, there were starvation diets. Fasting to control epilepsy dates all the way back to biblical times and has been used throughout history ever since. In the 1920s, children with hard-to-control epilepsy were sometimes restricted to only water for 10 or more days. This often resulted in long-term relief from seizures. Around this time, it was discovered that epilepsy could also be treated with a high-fat and low- carbohydrate diet that mimicked the effects of fasting. This diet was called a ketogenic diet, because it caused substances called ketones to form in the blood. Although doctors did not know why, these ketones seemed to block seizure activity. "Ketones form in the blood during starvation and during a ketogenic diet because the body is forced to use fat for energy in both cases," explains Paul T. Gross, MD, a neurologist at the Lahey Clinic in Burlington, Mass., who has a special interest in epilepsy. Ketogenic diets were largely forgotten after 1938, when scientists discovered the epilepsy treatment drug phenytoin, but modern research has led doctors to take another look at them for both children and adults. "In the past, ketogenic diets were a last-ditch approach to children with life-threatening epilepsy," notes Dr. Gross. "Today we still have about one-third of patients who are not well-controlled on seizure medication. Ketogenic treatment may be an option for some of these patients." The Ketogenic Diet Today A typical ketogenic diet today is high in fat, adequate in protein, and very low in carbohydrates. Calories and fluids are restricted, and the diet must be supplemented with vitamins and calcium. It also must be carefully followed by patients and closely monitored by experienced physicians and dietiti Continue reading >>

Why I Use A Ketogenic Diet In Treating Als

Why I Use A Ketogenic Diet In Treating Als

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a challenging progressive neurological disorder for which there is currently no meaningful treatment. As many as 30,000 Americans may suffer from ALS and the life expectancy from the time of diagnosis averages from two to five years. The disease causes progressive wasting of muscles and leads to difficulties in speech, swallowing, mobility and even respiration. Cognitive function is typically spared. The cause of ALS remains unknown, but what is clear is that for some unknown reason, there is a progressive failure of energy production of the motor neurons, the nerve cells that connect the brain to the muscles. It is known that a diet that converts metabolism to a ketogenic state, meaning burning fat not carbohydrates, is effective in protecting nerve cells and preserving their ability to make energy. With that in mind, ALS researchers explored the effectiveness of a ketogenic, high fat diet, in the treatment of the mouse model of ALS and demonstrated some pretty remarkable results. This remarkable report from researchers at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York was the first to show a substantial benefit in the treatment of ALS in the animal model using a ketogenic diet. As a practicing neurologist dealing with ALS on an almost daily basis I feel it is important to share this information. This is why I have incorporated a ketogenic diet in the list of recommendations I make to patients who are looking for any possible leads that may help with this condition. Continue reading >>

How Serious Is Ketosis In Children?

How Serious Is Ketosis In Children?

Specifically about ketosis, just a little info. It can be healthy for children to be on a ketogenic diet. If you have keytones in your urine that simply means your body is burning fat as fuel and you are in ketosis. Many believe this to be the healthy norm. There are degrees of ketosis. Being in a mild state of ketosis is healthy. If you want to slow it down, carbs will do the trick. As far as stomach problems, I would keep looking into that. There can be a lot of issues going on that wont be addressed by a typical doctor. Functional medicine doctors will run an extensive array of tests to see if your daughter has sensitivities and intolerances to foods, if she tests positive for certain bacteria, if she has yeast overgrowth, Sibo etc etc. If you haven’t heard of functional medicine, I highly recommend looking into it. Functional Doctors don’t treat symptoms, they treat core underlying issues. If you don’t have the money to go to such a doctor, check out elimination diets. -edit- Has anyone checked her blood sugar? Sounds like possible symptoms of diabetes or hypoglycemia. Continue reading >>

Effective Diabetes Treatment

Effective Diabetes Treatment

The most effective diabetes treatment is one which helps people with diabetes lower carbohydrate intake. Eating a large amount of sugar and starch at one time causes blood sugars to spike after the meal. That large blood sugar surge then requires a large insulin response from the pancreas (or in an injection). Too much insulin then crashes blood sugar down. The image below is from a study which looks at blood sugar reactions to high carb meals. This blood sugar "roller coaster" is rooted in a belief in the mainstream medical community and diabetes organizations that carbohydrates should make up between 45-65% of daily calories. They try to hide this with vague language, but the 2017 medical recommendations from the American Diabetes Association specifically says 15-20% of calories should come from protein, and 20-35% of calories should come from fats. That means the balance of calories (45-65%) come from carbohydrates. See page S36 of this document. On a daily calorie intake of 2000 calories, that works out to between 225 and 325 grams of carbohydrate. Advising people with diabetes to eat 45-65% of their calories from carbohydrates causes high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) which sticks to or glycates body cells and tissues and guarantees the development of long term complications such as peripheral nerve pain (neuropathy), kidney damage (nephropathy), a loss of eyesight (retinopathy) and other common diabetic complications. Worse, for those who take insulin injections, the large doses of insulin that have to be given to match high blood sugar spikes can result in low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) episodes which are incredibly dangerous, since hypoglycemia can cause a loss of consciousness or death if the brain runs out of glucose. I think one reason for this advice is a beli Continue reading >>

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