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How Is Ketosis Prevented Quizlet

Lam (lesson 5) - Ruminants

Lam (lesson 5) - Ruminants

Sort Disease in Dairy Calves 1. abortions, stillbirths and congenital defects 2. Acute Diarrhea 3. Chronic Diarrhea 4. Omphalophlebitis (Naval ill) and Arthritis (Joint ill) 5. Septicemia 6. Enzootic Pneumonia 7. Nutritional diseases 8. Parasitic gastroenteritis Describe Production or Primary Ketosis. Clinical Signs? Differential diagnosis? - due to Negative Energy Balance = low blood glucose = decreased insulin concentrations - Clinical signs: A) (Wasting form): normal TPR, grain refusal, then silage but eats hay, progressive decline in milk production, depression, loss of condition, ketones detectable in body fluids B) Nervous form: see depression, delirium but no convulsions, excessive salivation, excessive licking, head pressing, hyperesthesia. - Differential diagnoses include traumatic reticulitis, pyelonephritis, displaced abomasum Clinical signs of ovine pregnancy toxemia - Similar to nervous ketosis in cattle: 1. blindness 2. head pressing 3. constipation and drowsiness 4. recumbency in 3-4 days 5. if not treated, most animals die with signs of neurologic disease or endotoxemia within 1 to 7 days 5. difficult to differentiate from hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia Treatment of Ovine Pregnancy Toxemia 1. intravenous solution - 250 to 500 ml of 20% glucose 2. propylene glycol orally - 2 oz. BID x 5 days 3. parenteral B vitamins 4. drench every 6 hours with oral rehydration solution 5. immediate supplemental feeding of rest of flock - offer high quality concentrates and roughage 6. induce parturition using dexamethasone in ewes; and prostaglandin and dexamethasone in does 7. Cesarean section - indicated in ewes that either do not respond to medical therapy or that have not delivered fetuses within 24 hours of induction Clostridium perfringens (type D) - C. perfringen Continue reading >>

Ketosis

Ketosis

Sort what is the mechanism behind ketosis cows make energy with the acetate , butyrate and propionate excessive fat mobilisation so can get into krebs cycle to get energy ( in a normal animal ) normally fat depot is turned into free fatty acids - then into acetyl CoA then goes into glucose drived precusor OAA -and then enter the kreb cycle if there is insuffient substrate ( OAA )- propionate ( not eating enough) or ( OAA ) excess drianage into the glucose in milk ( high producing cows , not that often in jersey) then the acetly CoA will not be able to enter the kreb cycle , instead it will produce ketones primary ketosis when does it occur? primary underfeeding ketosis - when the cow is not being fed with adequate amount of feed therefore insufficient propionate precusors are available ( diet not containing not wt it needs to ) - not enough energy in the det - not enough gluconeogenic precursors ( propionate ) in diet occur:4- 6 weeks post calving ( during peak lactation ) - before they calve - low energy diet ( they cant fit in , causing metabolic problems ) - calved -- going to lactate so need a lot more energy , feed them more ( from the feeding ) dry cow : on maintenance diet secondary ketosis secondary underfeeding ketosis - then the cows vluntary intake is being inhibited by another disease - leading to insufficient intak of proprionate precursors disease include - left displaced abdomen ( top of the list ) - lamness - post-partum infection common in first calver : - check their mouth - teeth erupting --painful -> dont wanna eat NOte : if a ketosis is being suspected with no obvious reason or just one -off ketosis - then need to do throughout abdominal ping exam - to check for LDA although it is common for cows that are down with post-partum recumbency, maybe due Continue reading >>

Final Exam Prep

Final Exam Prep

Sort What causes heartburn? a. rapid swallowing b. improper breathing and chest congestion c. a weak lower esophageal sphincter allowing acid to reflux back into the esophagus d. improper contraction of the lower esophageal sphincter preventing acid from leaving the esophagus (c) Chemical digestion does not involve a. enzymes b. segmentation c. HCL d. bile (b) The chemicals involved in the chemical digestion of food include enzymes, HCL, and bile. Segmentation is a form of mechanical digestion that helps food move through the GI tract. The minimum amount of carbohydrates needed daily is a. 75 grams. b. 100 grams. c. 120 grams. d. 130 grams. e. 150 grams. (d) The DRI for carbohydrate is to consume at least 130 grams daily. This is the minimum amount needed to supply the glucose that the body, particularly the brain, must have to function effectively. The primary lipid(s) in the body is (are) a. cholesterol. b. lecithin. c. triglycerides. d. chylomicrons. (c) Triglycerides, also known as fat, are the most abundant lipids in foods and in the body. Cholesterol is another type of lipid but is not as abundant as fat. Lecithin is a phospholipid found in cell membranes and is used as an emulsifier in some foods. Chylomicrons are lipoproteins that transport fat and other lipids to the liver. Trans fats are a double threat for the heart because they a. raise the "bad" LDL cholesterol and lower the "good" HDL cholesterol in the body. b. raise the "good" HDL cholesterol and lower the "bad" LDL cholesterol in the body. c. raise the "bad" LDL cholesterol and raise the "good" HDL cholesterol in the body. d. lower the "good" HDL cholesterol and lower the "bad" LDL cholesterol in the body. (a) Chemically, the structure of protein is similar to carbohydrates and lipids in that all three Continue reading >>

Nutrition 2

Nutrition 2

Sort Explain DATE of carbohydrate (which organs of the digestive system do what) Ingestion: salivary amylase is activated Digestion: stomach is acidic, salivary is inactivated, peristalsis, pancreatic amylase (produces mono & disaccharides) in small intestine Absorption: glucose and galactose are absorbed, fructose takes longer to facilitated absorption (not energy) Transportation: portal vein to the liver, fructose and galactose--> glucose into the liver, liver can release glycogen back into the bloodstream (& stored) Excretion: promotes colon health Continue reading >>

5,029 Possible Causes For Dyspnea + Ketosis In Usa

5,029 Possible Causes For Dyspnea + Ketosis In Usa

Dyspnea Ketosis Abdominal Distension Abdominal Pain Abdominal Tenderness Acidosis Acute Coryza Acute Sinusitis Ataxia Blood in Stool Cardiac Arrhythmia Cavitary Lesion Cellulitis Chemical Pneumonitis Chest X-Ray Abnormal Cough Cranial Nerve Palsy Diplopia Disturbance of Consciousness Eye Swelling Facial Pain Facial Redness Febrile Convulsions Fever Fungal Respiratory Infection Fungus Gastric Lavage HIV Infection Hematemesis Hematochezia Hemoptysis Hyponatremia Ketotic Breath Laryngeal Edema Loss of Vision Low Fever Malaise Metabolic Acidosis Mouth Breathing Mucormycosis Nasal Congestion Nasal Discharge Nasal Obstruction Nausea Necrotizing Pneumonia Odynophagia Orbital Apex Syndrome Otitis Externa Pain Patient Appears Acutely Ill Periorbital Cellulitis Rales Retinal Artery Occlusion Saprophyte Skin Eschar Skin Lesion Skin Necrosis Stupor Subacute Clinical Course Tracheal Edema Tracheal Stenosis Ventricular Fibrillation Ventricular Tachycardia Vision Disorder Visual Impairment Vomiting X-Ray Abnormal Continue reading >>

Ketogenic Diets

Ketogenic Diets

Sort What are the three diet options for treating epilepsy? In general, what do they all have in common? How do they differ in fat content/calories? Ketogenic diet (90% kcals from fat) Modified Atkins Diet (65%) Low Glycemic Index Treatment (35%) Are all low CHO, high fat diets Describe the reason for admitting kids starting the ketogenic diet. How long is the stay? How are they fed? What labs are drawn? Patients will come in for a 3 day inpatient stay for initiating the ketogenic diet. This is to monitor blood sugars (are at high risk for hypoglycemia for a bit), to see how they are tolerating the diet (is the ratio right, etc), and to provide a huge education component for the diet. --prior to coming in, patients should eat their normal breakfast (should be admitted by 10am); they will then be weaned on to the diet with day 1 only having 1 meal with their goal ratio and then supplemented with keto egg nog in between --day 2: 2 meals with goal ratio, with keto eggnog in between --day 3: 3 meals at goal ratio Labs: will check blood glucose q 6 hours for first 48 hours -- will only treat if BG is <50 mg/dl: give 15-30mL apple juice and recheck in 1 hr What are the 3 keto formula options? What ratios do they come in? how can you adjust the ratios? --Keto Cal or Keto Vie: these are cow's milk protein -- come in 4:1 liquid and powder, 3:1 powder --Ross Carb Free : soy protein -- will require modular to create ratio... no carb at all in these! If needing to adjust ratio, it is easier to select the higher ratio and then add apple juice/modular (that way people don't have to buy a different formula when their ratio goes back up) What is the modified atkins diet? what is its ratio? What is the carb limit? What doesn't count toward this limit? What does? Do you have to weigh foo Continue reading >>

Exam 2: Ketosis

Exam 2: Ketosis

Sort Which of the choices below is a diagnostic aid for a subclinical disease in dairy cows? a) a murmur heard while auscultating the mitral valve b) A score of 3 in the California Mastitis Test in the presence of garget in milk. c) A positive Rothera test(Nitroprussic acid) for ketone bodies in urine d) Harsh lung sounds e) A ping heard over the left paralumbar fossa c) A positive Rothera test(Nitroprussic acid) for ketone bodies in urine Which of the followingg statements is true regarding urine and milk ketone body testing with nitroprusside (ketostix)? a) In urine it measures acetoacetate with a high sensitivity and low specificity b) In both urine and milk it measures acetoacetate with a high positive predictive value c) Nitroprusside cannot be used in milk because it reacts with galactose d) In comparisson to milk, the concentration of ketone bodies in urine is very small e) In urine nitroprusside can only be used when the pH is acidic a) In urine it measures acetoacetate with a high sensitivity and low specificity You treat a ketotic cow with 500 mL 50% dextrose. What would you expect to find in a blood sample within 2 hours post treatment? a) Low glucose, high NEFA's with reduced blood ketone levels and triglycerides b) High glucose and insulin with a reduction in blood ketone bodies c) Low glucose, a reduction in blood ketone bodies and insulin d) High glucose and ketone bodies but low insulin e) Minimal effect because dextrose is rapidly metabolized and excreted in urine b) High glucose and insulin with a reduction in blood ketone bodies Continue reading >>

Chapter 4 - Nutrition

Chapter 4 - Nutrition

Sort type 2 is the more common type where cells resist insulin. Cells fail to respond to insulin or the insulin amount is insufficient). This condition tends to occur as a consequence of obesity. The pancreas produces enough insulin but the cell surface receptors have lost much of their ability to recognize the insulin and don't respond. Dietary carbohydrate does not cause diabetes. Many people with this type of diabetes are obese. Obesity is clearly a factor in this type. As the incidence of obesity in the U.S. has risen in recent decades, the incidence of diabetes has followed. An obese person is 3x more likely to develop this disease than a nonobese individual Continue reading >>

Quizlet-inborn Errors

Quizlet-inborn Errors

1.  A 21 year old woman with phenylketonuria discontinued the PKU diet in early adolescence. She presents to her OBGYN for her first prenatal visit. Her husband does not have the disease. Which of the following is the best course of action? A. Since the child is heterozygous for PKU, no special action needs to be taken. B. The patient blood phenylalanine levels should be monitored and appropriate action taken if they become too high. C. The patient should try to avoid excess phenylalanine in her diet by restricting protein intake D. The patient should immediately resume the PKU diet and have her blood phenylalanine levels monitored on a regular basis. D  36 hours after birth, a term male infant presents post seizure. The infant appeared well at birth but on the second day of life developed irritability, vomiting, feed refusal, and becomes increasingly lethargic. Blood gas analysis shows a respiratory alkalosis and plasma ammonia concentrations are found to be 360 micro-m/l (normal for a full term infant is <50 micro-m/l). Which of the following is most consistent with these symptoms? A. Branched-chain alpha-ketoacid dehydrogenase complex deficiency B. Glucose 6-phosphatase deficiency C. Lipoprotein lipase deficiency D. Ornithine transcarbamoylase deficiency E. Phenylalanine hydroxylase deficiency D  Which statement regarding phenyketonuria (PKU) is FALSE? A. PKU is the most common disorder of amino acid metabolism in the United States. B. PKU symptoms result from an excess of the essential amino acid, phenylalanine. C. PKU is only caused by a mutation in the gene for phenylalanine hydroxylase. D. A phenylalanine restricted diet must be implemented soon after birth for classic PKU E. Untreated patients with classic PKU will be mentally retarded. C* 2.  Which Continue reading >>

Fam - Gilsenan Endocrine

Fam - Gilsenan Endocrine

Sort What are CS of stage 2 milk fever? sternal recumbency flaccid paralysis mm fasciculations tachycardia decreased intensity of heart sounds cold extremities mild bloat GI stasis urine retention slow PLR Continue reading >>

Nutrition Exam 2

Nutrition Exam 2

Sort Why does someone who has lactose intolerance have gastrointestinal problems, such as abdominal distension, gas, cramping, and diarrhea? A. The lactose is an irritant to the stomach. B. The lactose in the small intestine neutralizes enzyme action. C. The undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria. D. The presence of lactose in the small intestine causes the gall bladder to contract more forcefully. C. The undigested lactose in the intestine draws water and bacteria. The rise in blood glucose levels after eating stimulates the pancreas to secrete the hormone ___, causing blood glucose levels to ____. A. Glucagon, Drop B. Glucagon, Rise C. Insulin, Drop D. Insulin, Rise C. Insulin, Drop Compared to anaerobic metabolism of carbohydrate, aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates produces _______ ATP molecules for each glucose molecule. A. More B. The same amount of C. Fewer A. More When there is not sufficient carbohydrate to completely metabolize fatty acids, these molecules form: A. Amino Acids B. Carbon Dioxide C. Ketones D. Oligosaccharides C. Ketones Fatty acids cannot be used to make glucose because: A. They are metabolized only by anaerobic processes. B. They do not have enough energy in their molecular structure to generate glucose molecules. C. The reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules. D. The products of their metabolism combine too quickly to form other compounds that the body uses for energy. C. The reactions that break them down produce two-carbon molecules. Normal blood glucose level is expected to be less than ___ milligrams/100 milliliters of blood after an 8-hour fast. A. 100 B. 125 C. 140 D. 180 A. 100 The amount of carbohydrate required to meet energy needs, provide adequate glucose, and prevent ketosis is ______ gram Continue reading >>

Nclex- Alterations In Body Systems

Nclex- Alterations In Body Systems

Sort Name 8 risk factors of DM 1) parents/siblings w/dm 2) Obesity (20% of ideal body wt) 3) African, Hispanic, Native, Asian 4) >45yrs 5) prev imp fasting glucose 6) HTN 7) HDL <35 / triglyceride >250 8) hx of GDM or baby >9lbs Cyctic fibrosis (cause, tx/diet) alt in fat metabolism cause: absence of pancreatic enzymes leads to malabsoprtion of fat (and fat soluble vitamins) and wt loss (infection & lung dx lead to increase need for calories) tx: pancreatic enzyme replacement (cotazym pancrease) BEFORE or WITH meals HIGH PROTEIN HIGH CALORIE diet Diet for Chron's dx and Ulcerative Colitis? High Protein High Calorie Low Fat Low Fiber (Baked cod, biscuit w/o butter, fruit roll up) low residue high calorie diet TPN may be needed for bowel rest Continue reading >>

Ch 2 Carbohydrates

Ch 2 Carbohydrates

Splenda-Sucralose The presence of chlorine is thought to be the most dangerous component of sucralose. Chlorine is considered a carcinogen and has been used in poisonous gas, disinfectants, pesticides, and plastics. The digestion and absorption of sucralose is not clear due to a lack of long-term studies on humans. Sucralose was actually discovered while trying to create a new insecticide. Sucralose is made when sugar is treated with trityl chloride, acetic anhydride, hydrogen chlorine, thionyl chloride, and methanol in the presence of dimethylformamide, 4-methylmorpholine, toluene, methyl isobutyl ketone, acetic acid, benzyltriethlyammonium chloride, and sodium methoxide. Sweet & Low- Saccharin More than 30 human studies have been completed and found that the results found in rats did not translate to humans, making saccharin safe for human consumption. The reason for this may be that the original study gave the rats an amount that was hundreds of times higher than "normal" ingestion for humans. In 2000, the National Toxicology Program (NTP) of the National Institutes of Health concluded that saccharin should be removed from the list of potential carcinogens. The warning has now been removed from saccharin-containing products. Out of the five FDA-approved artificial sweeteners, saccharin is often chosen to be the safest A diabetic diet is now based more on keeping the total carbohydrate intake consistent with less emphasis on the source of the carbohydrate. What has this change in focus meant for diabetic diets? Sweets can be included in the diabetic diet.-Contrary to what was previously believed, regular sugar does not raise blood glucose levels more than complex carbohydrates do; a food's glycemic load is influenced by several factors, not just sugar content. The foc Continue reading >>

Nutrition Ch. 4

Nutrition Ch. 4

Sort Benefits of fiber (6) -weight management (fiber increases satiety - feel fuller longer) -reduce risk of heart disease (lower triglycerides and cholesterol) -diabetes control (stabilizes blood glucose levels) -colon cancer (fiber can bind and remove potential carcinogens) -digestive health (with adequate fluid consumption helps prevent constipation, reduce risk of developing hemorrhoids) -diverticular disease (consuming a low fiber diet increases risk of developing disease) Continue reading >>

Bovine Clinical Nutrition 4: Nutrition & Health

Bovine Clinical Nutrition 4: Nutrition & Health

Sort How is DCAD calculated? Find out % of each ion in the diet Multiply by their factors: Sodium = x 435 Potassium = x 256 Chloride = x 282 Sulphate = x 624 e.g. typical dry cow diet may contain 0.1% Na, 2.25% K, 0.66% Cl, 0.13% S DCAD = ((0.1 x 435) + (2.25 x 256)) - ((0.66 x 282) + (0.13 x 624)) = +352.4 mEq/kg DM What happens if dietary propionate does not match demand for glucose? Levels of OAA fall AcetylCoA cannot then enter the Krebs cycle Excess AcetylCoA (which cannot enter KC) is converted to β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) and acetoacetate (ketone bodies) Lack of glucose and energy from the Krebs cycle → mobilisation of body fat reserves FFAs converted into even more AcetylCoA that cannot enter KC → more ketones Ketone bodies accumulate in blood →↑ levels in milk and urine What happens if acidosis is severe? ↓ pH leads to ↓ digestion → ↓ DMI because digested material isn't leaving the rumen Eventually rumen contractions may cease altogether Leads to build up of gas which is not removed by eructation → BLOAT in severe cases this can cause death Lactic acid and its metabolites act as a strong osmotic draw in the rumen & intestine → systemic dehydration and profuse scouring Inflammation of rumen wall → passage of bacteria into hepatic portal circulation → liver abscessation List the 9 important points on control of acidosis 1. Forage:concentrate ratio - minimum of 40:60 2. Dietary NDF content - NDF measures the cell wall content of feed and thus is more accurate as a guide to the quantity of fibrous material present which requires chewing - need minimum 35% NDF for the whole ration 3. Total sugar & starch content - no more than 25% sugar and starch recommended in the total diet 4. In-parlour feeding: limit concentrate intake to 4kg (3kg if usi Continue reading >>

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