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How Is Ketoacidosis Fatal

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A Fatal Outcome Of Complicated Severe Diabetic Ketoacidosis In A 11-year-old Girl

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a complex metabolic state characterized by hyperglycemia, metabolic acidosis and ketonuria. Cerebral edema is the most common rare complication of DKA in children. The objective of the study was to emphasize the importance of careful evaluation and monitoring for signs and symptoms of cerebral edema in all children undergoing treatment for DKA. We present a case of 11-year-old girl with a history of diabetes mellitus type I (T1DM) who presented with severe DKA complicated by hypovolemic shock, cerebral edema and hematemesis. Considering the fact that complications of DKA are rare and require a high index of clinical suspicion, early recognition and treatment are crucial for avoiding permanent damage. Continue reading >>

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  1. Ana Gretu

    I was diagnosed with diabetes type 1insulino dependent on the age of 22 years. In the beginning I was very scared, now I have a little girl of 2 years and lead a life like everybody, but take into account diet , exercise . etc.
    There are 4 types of diabetes.
    ♦ Type 1 diabetes affects children and young adults, and is due to a major defect of the pancreas not producing insulin. Before the discovery of insulin (1920 s), people with type 1 diabetes lived one year. Today, insulin treatment allows a life where nothing is forbidden activities that may have a person with type 1 diabetes are the same as those without diabetes.
    ♦ The second main type of diabetes, and most frequently (5-6 times more common than type 1), is type 2 diabetes, also called adult diabetes, or diabetes obese after an older name due to very frequent association of diabetes type 2 and obesity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that obesity is one of the reasons for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, which explains the onset of the epidemic of Type 2 diabetes with obesity epidemic today. Type 2 diabetes differs from Type 1 diabetes in that it occurs most often along with a group of diseases, which also includes, alongside obesity, and hypertension, fatty liver...
    ♦ A third type of diabetes is diabetes that occurs along or due to other diseases (diabetes specific or secondary). This type of diabetes takes many forms, and treated with a disease that accompanies it.

    ♦ The last category is a special category, called gestational diabetes, a carbohydrate metabolism disorder that first appears during pregnancy, which can result in the absence of treatment, the risks, especially for children. This condition is different from the situation in which a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant.

  2. Dianne DeCook

    Yes. My son was diagnosed with Type One Diabetes which means he requires insulin injections to maintain normal blood sugars. Type One Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which causes the immune system to attack the Pancreatic Beta cells, destroying them and stopping the body’s ability to produce Insulin. You need insulin to live. Without it a T1D patient will not be able to metabolize carbohydrates (sugar) so their body will live off their protein (muscle mass) which often brings on Diabetic KetoAcidosis which, without insulin, is fatal.

  3. Pippi M. R. Groving

    Yes.
    If someone in my household has diabetes and I stated that, I would know which kind it were.
    After all most of my education is about human diseases, so I usually know the specifics of any diseases in my household.

  4. -> Continue reading
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What is DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS? What does DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS mean? DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS meaning - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS definition - DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a potentially life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. Signs and symptoms may include vomiting, abdominal pain, deep gasping breathing, increased urination, weakness, confusion, and occasionally loss of consciousness. A person's breath may develop a specific smell. Onset of symptoms is usually rapid. In some cases people may not realize they previously had diabetes. DKA happens most often in those with type 1 diabetes, but can also occur in those with other types of diabetes under certain circumstances. Triggers may include infection, not taking insulin correctly, stroke, and certain medications such as steroids. DKA results from a shortage of insulin; in response the body switches to burning fatty acids which produces acidic ketone bodies. DKA is typically diagnosed when testing finds high blood sugar, low blood pH, and ketoacids in either the blood or urine. The primary treatment of DKA is with intravenous fluids and insulin. Depending on the severity, insulin may be given intravenously or by injection under the skin. Usually potassium is also needed to prevent the development of low blood potassium. Throughout treatment blood sugar and potassium levels should be regularly checked. Antibiotics may be required in those with an underlying infection. In those with severely low blood pH, sodium bicarbonate may be given; however, its use is of unclear benefit and typically not recommended. Rates of DKA vary around the world. About 4% of people with type 1 diabetes in United Kingdom develop DKA a year, while in Malaysia the condition affects about 25% a year. DKA was first described in 1886 and, until the introduction of insulin therapy in the 1920s, it was almost universally fatal. The risk of death with adequate and timely treatment is currently around 1–4%. Up to 1% of children with DKA develop a complication known as cerebral edema. The symptoms of an episode of diabetic ketoacidosis usually evolve over a period of about 24 hours. Predominant symptoms are nausea and vomiting, pronounced thirst, excessive urine production and abdominal pain that may be severe. Those who measure their glucose levels themselves may notice hyperglycemia (high blood sugar levels). In severe DKA, breathing becomes labored and of a deep, gasping character (a state referred to as "Kussmaul respiration"). The abdomen may be tender to the point that an acute abdomen may be suspected, such as acute pancreatitis, appendicitis or gastrointestinal perforation. Coffee ground vomiting (vomiting of altered blood) occurs in a minority of people; this tends to originate from erosion of the esophagus. In severe DKA, there may be confusion, lethargy, stupor or even coma (a marked decrease in the level of consciousness). On physical examination there is usually clinical evidence of dehydration, such as a dry mouth and decreased skin turgor. If the dehydration is profound enough to cause a decrease in the circulating blood volume, tachycardia (a fast heart rate) and low blood pressure may be observed. Often, a "ketotic" odor is present, which is often described as "fruity", often compared to the smell of pear drops whose scent is a ketone. If Kussmaul respiration is present, this is reflected in an increased respiratory rate.....

What You Should Know About Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a buildup of acids in your blood. It can happen when your blood sugar is too high for too long. It could be life-threatening, but it usually takes many hours to become that serious. You can treat it and prevent it, too. It usually happens because your body doesn't have enough insulin. Your cells can't use the sugar in your blood for energy, so they use fat for fuel instead. Burning fat makes acids called ketones and, if the process goes on for a while, they could build up in your blood. That excess can change the chemical balance of your blood and throw off your entire system. People with type 1 diabetes are at risk for ketoacidosis, since their bodies don't make any insulin. Your ketones can also go up when you miss a meal, you're sick or stressed, or you have an insulin reaction. DKA can happen to people with type 2 diabetes, but it's rare. If you have type 2, especially when you're older, you're more likely to have a condition with some similar symptoms called HHNS (hyperosmolar hyperglycemic nonketotic syndrome). It can lead to severe dehydration. Test your ketones when your blood sugar is over 240 mg/dL or you have symptoms of high blood sugar, s Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Ana Gretu

    I was diagnosed with diabetes type 1insulino dependent on the age of 22 years. In the beginning I was very scared, now I have a little girl of 2 years and lead a life like everybody, but take into account diet , exercise . etc.
    There are 4 types of diabetes.
    ♦ Type 1 diabetes affects children and young adults, and is due to a major defect of the pancreas not producing insulin. Before the discovery of insulin (1920 s), people with type 1 diabetes lived one year. Today, insulin treatment allows a life where nothing is forbidden activities that may have a person with type 1 diabetes are the same as those without diabetes.
    ♦ The second main type of diabetes, and most frequently (5-6 times more common than type 1), is type 2 diabetes, also called adult diabetes, or diabetes obese after an older name due to very frequent association of diabetes type 2 and obesity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that obesity is one of the reasons for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, which explains the onset of the epidemic of Type 2 diabetes with obesity epidemic today. Type 2 diabetes differs from Type 1 diabetes in that it occurs most often along with a group of diseases, which also includes, alongside obesity, and hypertension, fatty liver...
    ♦ A third type of diabetes is diabetes that occurs along or due to other diseases (diabetes specific or secondary). This type of diabetes takes many forms, and treated with a disease that accompanies it.

    ♦ The last category is a special category, called gestational diabetes, a carbohydrate metabolism disorder that first appears during pregnancy, which can result in the absence of treatment, the risks, especially for children. This condition is different from the situation in which a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant.

  2. Dianne DeCook

    Yes. My son was diagnosed with Type One Diabetes which means he requires insulin injections to maintain normal blood sugars. Type One Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which causes the immune system to attack the Pancreatic Beta cells, destroying them and stopping the body’s ability to produce Insulin. You need insulin to live. Without it a T1D patient will not be able to metabolize carbohydrates (sugar) so their body will live off their protein (muscle mass) which often brings on Diabetic KetoAcidosis which, without insulin, is fatal.

  3. Pippi M. R. Groving

    Yes.
    If someone in my household has diabetes and I stated that, I would know which kind it were.
    After all most of my education is about human diseases, so I usually know the specifics of any diseases in my household.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more
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What is KETOACIDOSIS? What does KETOACIDOSIS mean? KETOACIDOSIS meaning - KETOACIDOSIS definition - KETOACIDOSIS explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/... license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6Uu... Ketoacidosis is a metabolic state associated with high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the breakdown of fatty acids and the deamination of amino acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acid and ß-hydroxybutyrate. Ketoacidosis is a pathological metabolic state marked by extreme and uncontrolled ketosis. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pH of the blood is substantially decreased. In extreme cases ketoacidosis can be fatal. Ketoacidosis is most common in untreated type 1 diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. Prolonged alcoholism may lead to alcoholic ketoacidosis. Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct by-product of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. Ketosis may also smell, but the odor is usually more subtle due to lower concentrations of acetone. Treatment consists most simply of correcting blood sugar and insulin levels, which will halt ketone production. If the severity of the case warrants more aggressive measures, intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion can be given to raise blood pH back to an acceptable range. However, serious caution must be exercised with IV sodium bicarbonate to avoid the risk of equally life-threatening hypernatremia. Three common causes of ketoacidosis are alcohol, starvation, and diabetes, resulting in alcoholic ketoacidosis, starvation ketoacidosis, and diabetic ketoacidosis respectively. In diabetic ketoacidosis, a high concentration of ketone bodies is usually accompanied by insulin deficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucose absorption, thereby inhibiting the production of oxaloacetate (a crucial molecule for processing Acetyl-CoA, the product of beta-oxidation of fatty acids, in the Krebs cycle) through reduced levels of pyruvate (a byproduct of glycolysis), and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid metabolism) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the kidneys and spilling into the urine (transport maximum for glucose is exceeded). Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine (Osmotic diuresis), exacerbating the acidosis. In alcoholic ketoacidosis, alcohol causes dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis by depleting oxaloacetate. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acid metabolism, and ketone body formation.

Diabetic Ketoacidosis

What Is It? Diabetic ketoacidosis is a potentially fatal complication of diabetes that occurs when you have much less insulin than your body needs. This problem causes the blood to become acidic and the body to become dangerously dehydrated. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur when diabetes is not treated adequately, or it can occur during times of serious sickness. To understand this illness, you need to understand the way your body powers itself with sugar and other fuels. Foods we eat are broken down by the body, and much of what we eat becomes glucose (a type of sugar), which enters the bloodstream. Insulin helps glucose to pass from the bloodstream into body cells, where it is used for energy. Insulin normally is made by the pancreas, but people with type 1 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes) don't produce enough insulin and must inject it daily. Your body needs a constant source of energy. When you have plenty of insulin, your body cells can get all the energy they need from glucose. If you don't have enough insulin in your blood, your liver is programmed to manufacture emergency fuels. These fuels, made from fat, are called ketones (or keto acids). In a pinch, ketones can give Continue reading >>

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Popular Questions

  1. Ana Gretu

    I was diagnosed with diabetes type 1insulino dependent on the age of 22 years. In the beginning I was very scared, now I have a little girl of 2 years and lead a life like everybody, but take into account diet , exercise . etc.
    There are 4 types of diabetes.
    ♦ Type 1 diabetes affects children and young adults, and is due to a major defect of the pancreas not producing insulin. Before the discovery of insulin (1920 s), people with type 1 diabetes lived one year. Today, insulin treatment allows a life where nothing is forbidden activities that may have a person with type 1 diabetes are the same as those without diabetes.
    ♦ The second main type of diabetes, and most frequently (5-6 times more common than type 1), is type 2 diabetes, also called adult diabetes, or diabetes obese after an older name due to very frequent association of diabetes type 2 and obesity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that obesity is one of the reasons for the occurrence of type 2 diabetes, which explains the onset of the epidemic of Type 2 diabetes with obesity epidemic today. Type 2 diabetes differs from Type 1 diabetes in that it occurs most often along with a group of diseases, which also includes, alongside obesity, and hypertension, fatty liver...
    ♦ A third type of diabetes is diabetes that occurs along or due to other diseases (diabetes specific or secondary). This type of diabetes takes many forms, and treated with a disease that accompanies it.

    ♦ The last category is a special category, called gestational diabetes, a carbohydrate metabolism disorder that first appears during pregnancy, which can result in the absence of treatment, the risks, especially for children. This condition is different from the situation in which a woman with diabetes becomes pregnant.

  2. Dianne DeCook

    Yes. My son was diagnosed with Type One Diabetes which means he requires insulin injections to maintain normal blood sugars. Type One Diabetes is an autoimmune disease which causes the immune system to attack the Pancreatic Beta cells, destroying them and stopping the body’s ability to produce Insulin. You need insulin to live. Without it a T1D patient will not be able to metabolize carbohydrates (sugar) so their body will live off their protein (muscle mass) which often brings on Diabetic KetoAcidosis which, without insulin, is fatal.

  3. Pippi M. R. Groving

    Yes.
    If someone in my household has diabetes and I stated that, I would know which kind it were.
    After all most of my education is about human diseases, so I usually know the specifics of any diseases in my household.

  4. -> Continue reading
read more

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