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How Is Glucose Converted To Fat

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Saturated fats, unsaturated fats, and trans fats Watch the next lesson: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/b... Missed the previous lesson? https://www.khanacademy.org/science/b... Biology on Khan Academy: Life is beautiful! From atoms to cells, from genes to proteins, from populations to ecosystems, biology is the study of the fascinating and intricate systems that make life possible. Dive in to learn more about the many branches of biology and why they are exciting and important. Covers topics seen in a high school or first-year college biology course. About Khan Academy: Khan Academy offers practice exercises, instructional videos, and a personalized learning dashboard that empower learners to study at their own pace in and outside of the classroom. We tackle math, science, computer programming, history, art history, economics, and more. Our math missions guide learners from kindergarten to calculus using state-of-the-art, adaptive technology that identifies strengths and learning gaps. We've also partnered with institutions like NASA, The Museum of Modern Art, The California Academy of Sciences, and MIT to offer specialized content. For free. For everyone. Forever. #YouCanLear

Do Our Bodies Convert All Food (fats, Carbs And Proteins) To Glucose, Or In Other Words, Do Our Cells Burn Anything Other Than Glucose?

Answered May 12, 2015 Author has 219 answers and 550.2k answer views Our body doesn't convert all the carbs, proteins and fat we eat to glucose! Carbohydrates: Only those carbohydrates which are digestible by our gut are used, remaining else (cellulose for that matter) remains in the gut, absorbs water and aids in proper digestion; the so called roughage. Yeah, the digested ones which may either give glucose, fructose or galactose as the final product, are all converted to glucose. Proteins: All amino acids obtained from the protein digestion are not converted to glucose, only a few of them are, remaining is converted to ketone bodies (another energy suppplier as glucose). Fats: Fats (neutral fats or triglycerides) are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol. From this, only glycerol and odd chain fatty acid (cf. even chain fatty acid) can produce glucose. So, what's with this compulsion of glucose to be present in the blood in the right quantity always? "Lest the brain will be starved, for it needs glucose from blood", you would have heard. Partly true because brain can live by utilizing ketone bodies as well. But for an optimal neurotransmitter (chemical signals aiding communi Continue reading >>

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  1. musio

    I've read a few posts on here about using a glucosemeter so I was just looking for some pointers.
    How many times should i take a reading?
    When (after meals/before?)
    From what i understand, it should read 5.6 or below for keto?
    Why haven't i read about this method on the net? As ketostix could be unreliable and this is a sure thing since you are taking your blood and can see how food effects you, I thought there would be much more on the net rather than the cobwebs i've tried to google!
    Thanks for any tips!

  2. ausbuilt

    there's plenty of information on BG levels and ketosis- do you know there are forums like this relating to diabetics- its where i learned loads; also I learned loads from books (and a few emails) from Dan Duchaine.
    OK its not that you use an BG meter to "detect" ketosis, because a BG meter by nature reads BLOOD GLUCOSE levels.
    However, you have to understand what ketosis is.
    first, for your body to burn energy, there is a process called the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle):
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid_cycle
    you will notice the following from that link:
    Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle
    Several catabolic pathways converge on the TCA cycle. Reactions that form intermediates of the TCA cycle in order to replenish them (especially during the scarcity of the intermediates) are called anaplerotic reactions.
    The citric acid cycle is the third step in carbohydrate catabolism (the breakdown of sugars). Glycolysis breaks glucose (a six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes, pyruvate moves into the mitochondria. It is converted into acetyl-CoA by decarboxylation and enters the citric acid cycle.
    2. In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by proteases into their constituent amino acids. The carbon backbone of these amino acids can become a source of energy by being converted to acetyl-CoA and entering into the citric acid cycle.
    3.In fat catabolism, triglycerides are hydrolyzed to break them into fatty acids and glycerol.
    In the liver the glycerol can be converted into glucose via dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by way of gluconeogenesis. In many tissues, especially heart tissue, fatty acids are broken down through a process known as beta oxidation, which results in acetyl-CoA, which can be used in the citric acid cycle. Beta oxidation of fatty acids with an odd number of methylene groups produces propionyl CoA, which is then converted into succinyl-CoA and fed into the citric acid cycle.[12]
    The total energy gained from the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose by glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation equals about 30 ATP molecules, in eukaryotes. The citric acid cycle is called an amphibolic pathway because it participates in both catabolism and anabolism.
    SO what this means is, your body moves from Glycolysis (burning glucose) to gluconeogenesis (burning amino acids from broken down protein- i.e muscle break down!) when blood sugar/glucose is below 5.6-5.8 mmol/L (this is called fasting glucose levels- ie. the level of blood sugar when you eat nothing! i.e when you wake up having gone 8+ hours without food..)
    however if there is not enough aminos available (usually because of AAS which retain nitrogen, -the "N' in the -NH3 amine molecule that makes an amino acid) the body moves from gluconeogenesis to ketosis (converting tri-glycerides to ketones, which in turn are used for energy in the krebs cycle.
    see also, in the order that they happen:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycolysis
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketosis
    so to get into ketosis, your BG reading MUST be at a fasted level; however this does not mean you are in ketosis immediately- usually it means you're in gluconeogenesis... and it can take 48 hours 60 hours to get into keto, unless you do cardio, or.. speed things up with met or 'slin..
    The use of BG monitor is so that when you take ZERO (or close to zero) carbs, you will move into gluconeogenesis, and then ketosis- however if you're above 5.6 on the BG, then its IMPOSSIBLE to be in ketosis..
    now how do you know you're in gluconeogenesis? easy.. you eat ZERO carbs, yet your BG readings are ABOVE 5.6 (usually around 6.0-6.2)...
    if you take AAS/T4 or T3 and met or 'slin you FORCE your body to move through/past gluconeogenesis VERY quickly... I can get a reading on keto stix in 10-12hours using AAS/T4/'slin.. as AAS retain aminos, and T4 and 'slin ALSO promote protein synthesis (anabolism) rather than burning aminos for energy.. so you have 3 actions to stop your body using aminos for energy..
    at any rate, the BG meter is useful to see that you are allowing yourself to get into keto (must be at fasted blood glucose levels),and also when eating keto meals, will tell you if protein intake is to high/fats to low- you will read above 5.6 even if taking in ZERO carbs....
    I haven't made any of this up, but don't forget diabetics are told ketosis is to BE AVOIDED and that its A BAD state for your body to be in... which is true- its the least preferred method of energy use, and its catabolic..
    as for measuring- a normal non diabetic should have close to fasted BG levels at 2-4 hours after eating. You need to measure at 15/30/60min post meal to make sure you haven't spiked above 5.6 with what you consumed.. Edited February 2, 2011 by ausbuilt

  3. Fatstuff

    ausbuilt said:

    there's plenty of information on BG levels and ketosis- do you know there are forums like this relating to diabetics- its where i learned loads; also I learned loads from books (and a few emails) from Dan Duchaine.
    OK its not that you use an BG meter to "detect" ketosis, because a BG meter by nature reads BLOOD GLUCOSE levels.
    However, you have to understand what ketosis is.
    first, for your body to burn energy, there is a process called the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle):
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Citric_acid_cycle
    you will notice the following from that link:
    Major metabolic pathways converging on the TCA cycle
    Several catabolic pathways converge on the TCA cycle. Reactions that form intermediates of the TCA cycle in order to replenish them (especially during the scarcity of the intermediates) are called anaplerotic reactions.
    The citric acid cycle is the third step in carbohydrate catabolism (the breakdown of sugars). Glycolysis breaks glucose (a six-carbon-molecule) down into pyruvate (a three-carbon molecule). In eukaryotes, pyruvate moves into the mitochondria. It is converted into acetyl-CoA by decarboxylation and enters the citric acid cycle.
    2. In protein catabolism, proteins are broken down by proteases into their constituent amino acids. The carbon backbone of these amino acids can become a source of energy by being converted to acetyl-CoA and entering into the citric acid cycle.
    3.In fat catabolism, triglycerides are hydrolyzed to break them into fatty acids and glycerol.
    In the liver the glycerol can be converted into glucose via dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate by way of gluconeogenesis. In many tissues, especially heart tissue, fatty acids are broken down through a process known as beta oxidation, which results in acetyl-CoA, which can be used in the citric acid cycle. Beta oxidation of fatty acids with an odd number of methylene groups produces propionyl CoA, which is then converted into succinyl-CoA and fed into the citric acid cycle.[12]
    The total energy gained from the complete breakdown of one molecule of glucose by glycolysis, the citric acid cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation equals about 30 ATP molecules, in eukaryotes. The citric acid cycle is called an amphibolic pathway because it participates in both catabolism and anabolism.
    SO what this means is, your body moves from Glycolysis (burning glucose) to gluconeogenesis (burning amino acids from broken down protein- i.e muscle break down!) when blood sugar/glucose is below 5.6-5.8 mmol/L (this is called fasting glucose levels- ie. the level of blood sugar when you eat nothing! i.e when you wake up having gone 8+ hours without food..)
    however if there is not enough aminos available (usually because of AAS which retain nitrogen, -the "N' in the -NH3 amine molecule that makes an amino acid) the body moves from gluconeogenesis to ketosis (converting tri-glycerides to ketones, which in turn are used for energy in the krebs cycle.
    see also, in the order that they happen:
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glycolysis
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gluconeogenesis
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketosis
    so to get into ketosis, your BG reading MUST be at a fasted level; however this does not mean you are in ketosis immediately- usually it means you're in gluconeogenesis... and it can take 48 hours 60 hours to get into keto, unless you do cardio, or.. speed things up with met or 'slin..
    The use of BG monitor is so that when you take ZERO (or close to zero) carbs, you will move into gluconeogenesis, and then ketosis- however if you're above 5.6 on the BG, then its IMPOSSIBLE to be in ketosis..
    now how do you know you're in gluconeogenesis? easy.. you eat ZERO carbs, yet your BG readings are ABOVE 5.6 (usually around 6.0-6.2)...
    if you take AAS/T4 or T3 and met or 'slin you FORCE your body to move through/past gluconeogenesis VERY quickly... I can get a reading on keto stix in 10-12hours using AAS/T4/'slin.. as AAS retain aminos, and T4 and 'slin ALSO promote protein synthesis (anabolism) rather than burning aminos for energy.. so you have 3 actions to stop your body using aminos for energy..
    at any rate, the BG meter is useful to see that you are allowing yourself to get into keto (must be at fasted blood glucose levels),and also when eating keto meals, will tell you if protein intake is to high/fats to low- you will read above 5.6 even if taking in ZERO carbs....
    I haven't made any of this up, but don't forget diabetics are told ketosis is to BE AVOIDED and that its A BAD state for your body to be in... which is true- its the least preferred method of energy use, and its catabolic..
    as for measuring- a normal non diabetic should have close to fasted BG levels at 2-4 hours after eating. You need to measure at 15/30/60min post meal to make sure you haven't spiked above 5.6 with what you consumed..
    in a nutshell?

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Video by Ulf Smith, MD, PhD, Professor of Internal Medicine, The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Center of Excellence for Cardiovascular and Metabolic Research, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gteborg University, Gteborg, Sweden Produced by the International Chair on Cardiometabolic Risk

Conversion Of Carbohydrate To Fat In Adipose Tissue: An Energy-yielding And,therefore, Self-limiting Process.

Conversion of carbohydrate to fat in adipose tissue: an energy-yielding and,therefore, self-limiting process. A theoretical analysis of the energy metabolism associated with the conversion ofglucose to fat is presented. In tissues where the pentose cycle furnishes some ofthe NADPH required for fatty acid synthesis, this conversion is an ATP-yieldingprocess. In rat adipose tissue the maximal rate of glucose conversion to fat can be quantatively predicted on the basis of the tissue's ability to use the ATPwhich is generated in excess during this conversion. The energy-generating natureof this process provides the means for a type of regulation which depends onmetabolic state and which, during fasting, contributes to the sparing ofcarbohydrate. Impairment of lipogenesis in the fasting state is attributed to adecrease in the activity of the malate cycle and to the presence of free fattyacids. However, rather than by inhibiting specific enzymes, it is by virtue oftheir quality as substrates for energy production that free fatty acids and theirCoA derivatives appear to inhibit de novo lipogenesis. The regulatory phenomenadiscussed here may explain the failure of the attempts made to ide Continue reading >>

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  1. helensaramay

    My mother in law takes a cocktail of drugs. I don't know for sure everything she takes but, as she has annual retina checks, I am pretty sure she takes metformin (as well as statins).
    Over the last 5 or 6 years, she has suffered from upset stomach (mostly diarrhoea) which has got worse to the extent she is not going out much now. I have read that metformin can cause D&V but I thought the effects lessened as the body got used to it and she has not changed her medication in the time I have known her.
    I appreciate my question is rather vague but could her digestion problems be related to her diabetes medication?

  2. MikeTurin

    I think that question should be made to her GP. There are a lot of causes of upset stomach that could be related to metformin or not. Like could be a lactose intolerance, too much mannitol eaten (so could be overuse of artificila sweeteners), could be a polyp or a thyroid problem ...

  3. helensaramay

    I should have said, her GP has said there is no way this is related to her medication which surprised me - hence, my question.

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How The Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, And Fats

How the Body Uses Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Fats The human body is remarkably adept at making do with whatever type of food is available. Our ability to survive on a variety of diets has been a vital adaptation for a species that evolved under conditions where food sources were scarce and unpredictable. Imagine if you had to depend on successfully hunting a woolly mammoth or stumbling upon a berry bush for sustenance! Today, calories are mostly cheap and plentifulperhaps too much so. Understanding what the basic macronutrients have to offer can help us make better choices when it comes to our own diets. From the moment a bite of food enters the mouth, each morsel of nutrition within starts to be broken down for use by the body. So begins the process of metabolism, the series of chemical reactions that transform food into components that can be used for the body's basic processes. Proteins, carbohydrates , and fats move along intersecting sets of metabolic pathways that are unique to each major nutrient. Fundamentallyif all three nutrients are abundant in the dietcarbohydrates and fats will be used primarily for energy while proteins provide the raw materials for making hormones Continue reading >>

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  1. SrPeixinho

    Hello, 2 days on keto only (probably not even on keto yet), but I have a strong sensation I'm starving. I can't explain very well, but I just feel it. Now I can take fine, but I want to be careful with my health before anything. Should I worry?
    I've been eating mostly ham, turkey breast, butter, fried egg and albumin. Maybe I need to expand my menu...

  2. way2funni

    I'm no expert on this but having done a few rounds of Atkins/Keto, you do get a little shaky a day or two into it as your body which is used to burning carbs by the ton, scrounges the last of them from your system and because it's 'go to' is carbs and NOT FAT as you want it to be, there is a (brief) period where the body thinks it's starving and you get just ravenous for cookies and cereal. You would kill for ice cream or a snickers.
    Then the switch clicks over and the body says 'mmmmmmmmmmmmm - FAT' and you're off the the races and burning fat and your hunger is over because if you are carrying lets say , an extra 30 pounds, thats something like 100,000 calories of fuel so everything chillaxes compared to how you feel right now .
    This is temporary.
    For me the switch throws during the overnight from day 2 to 3. I usually wake up the 3rd day with crazy energy and no hunger.
    It's an amazing feeling once you make it. Push through it.
    PS> Reading what /u/Jack_Sawyer said, and he's right on - it looks like you may need to pile on even MOAR FAT - chicken wings instead of turkey breast, bacon instead of ham, MOAR BUTTER, HEAVY CREAM in your coffee, You are supposed to be somewhere in the 60+ percent range on FAT
    Tip: Make some Bulletproof coffee. That'll kick up your Saturated fat. Use heavy cream, real grass fed butter, coconut oil and then add some good cocoa and cinnamon . Use Stevia as sweetener - there's recipes all over the place here.

  3. SrPeixinho

    Wow, it actually happened! Exactly from day 2-3. I can't believe it, I'm just waking up and I feel ridiculously energetic now. I don't even want to eat. I feel full and I haven't eaten in the last 10 hours. I will eat something anyway, because health, but what the heck.
    But still, things are a little weird, I feel a bit drugged ~ Anyone relates?
    PS: Coffee is a no to me, I feel like I'm having a heart attack. I need more fat sources, just that I don't know many other than fried meats...

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